Comparison of the microbicidal and muramidase activities of mouse lysozyme M and P.
ABSTRACT: Lysozyme is one of the most abundant antimicrobial proteins in the airspaces of the lung. Mice express two lysozyme genes, lysozyme M and P, but only the M enzyme is detected in abundance in lung tissues. Disruption of the lysozyme M locus significantly increased bacterial burden and mortality following intratracheal infection with a Gram-negative bacterium. Unexpectedly, significant lysozyme enzyme activity (muramidase activity) was detected in the airspaces of uninfected lysozyme M-/- mice, amounting to 25% of the activity in wild-type mice. Muramidase activity in lysozyme M-/- mice was associated with increased lysozyme P mRNA and protein in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid respectively. The muramidase activity of recombinant lysozyme P was less than that of recombinant M lysozyme. Recombinant P lysozyme was also less effective in killing selected Gram-negative bacteria, requiring higher concentrations than lysozyme M to achieve the same level of killing. The lower antimicrobial activity of P lysozyme, coupled with incomplete compensation by P lysozyme in lysozyme M-/- mice, probably accounts for the increased susceptibility of null mice to infection. Recombinant lysozyme M and P were equally effective in killing selected Gram-positive organisms. This outcome suggests that disruption of both M and P loci would significantly increase susceptibility to airway infections, particularly those associated with colonization by Gram-positive organisms.
Project description:It has been shown recently that modification of peptidoglycan by O-acetylation renders pathogenic staphylococci resistant to the muramidase activity of lysozyme. Here, we show that a Staphylococcus aureus double mutant defective in O-acetyltransferase A (OatA), and the glycopeptide resistance-associated two-component system, GraRS, is much more sensitive to lysozyme than S. aureus with the oatA mutation alone. The graRS single mutant was resistant to the muramidase activity of lysozyme, but was sensitive to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) such as the human lysozyme-derived peptide 107R-A-W-V-A-W-R-N-R115 (LP9), polymyxin B, or gallidermin. A comparative transcriptome analysis of wild type and the graRS mutant revealed that GraRS controls 248 genes. It up-regulates global regulators (rot, sarS, or mgrA), various colonization factors, and exotoxin-encoding genes, as well as the ica and dlt operons. A pronounced decrease in the expression of the latter two operons explains why the graRS mutant is also biofilm-negative. The decrease of the dlt transcript in the graRS mutant correlates with a 46.7% decrease in the content of esterified d-alanyl groups in teichoic acids. The oatA/dltA double mutant showed the highest sensitivity to lysozyme; this mutant completely lacks teichoic acid-bound d-alanine esters, which are responsible for the increased susceptibility to CAMPs and peptidoglycan O-acetylation. Our results demonstrate that resistance to lysozyme can be dissected into genes mediating resistance to its muramidase activity (oatA) and genes mediating resistance to CAMPs (graRS and dlt). The two lysozyme activities act synergistically, as the oatA/dltA or oatA/graRS double mutants are much more susceptible to lysozyme than each of the single mutants.
Project description:Tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages frequently harbor structural proteins displaying peptidoglycan hydrolytic activities. The tape measure protein from Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage vB_SauS-phiIPLA35 has a lysozyme-like and a peptidase_M23 domain. This report shows that the lysozyme-like domain (TG1) has muramidase activity and exhibits in vitro lytic activity against live S. aureus cells, an activity that could eventually find use in the treatment of infections.
Project description:The exudate of fully germinated spores of Clostridium perfringens S40 in 0.15 M KCI-50 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0) was found to contain another spore-lytic enzyme in addition to the germination-specific amidase previously characterized (S. Miyata, R. Moriyama, N. Miyahara, and S. Makino, Microbiology 141:2643-2650, 1995). The lytic enzyme was purified to homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography and shown to be a muramidase which requires divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, or Mn2+) for its activity. The enzyme was inactivated by sulfhydryl reagents, and sodium thioglycolate reversed the inactivation by Hg2+. The muramidase hydrolyzed isolated spore cortical fragments from a variety of wild-type organisms but had minimal activity on decoated spores and isolated cell walls. However, the enzyme was not capable of digesting isolated cortical fragments from spores of Bacillus subtilis ADD1, which lacks muramic acid delta-lactam in its cortical peptidoglycan. This indicates that the enzyme recognizes the delta-lactam residue peculiar to spore peptidoglycan, suggesting an involvement of the enzyme in spore germination. Immunochemical studies indicated that the muramidase in its mature form is localized on the exterior of the cortex layer in the dormant spore. A gene encoding the muramidase, sleM, was cloned into Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene encoded a protein of 321 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 36,358. The deduced amino acid sequence of the sleM gene indicated that the enzyme is produced in a mature form. It was suggested that the muramidase belongs to a separate group within the lysozyme family typified by the fungus Chalaropsis lysozyme. A possible mechanism for cortex degradation in C. perfringens S40 spores is discussed.
Project description:Muramidase-2 of Enterococcus hirae is a 74-kDa peptidoglycan hydrolase that plays a role in cell wall growth and division. To study its regulation, we isolated a mutant defective in muramidase-2 release under certain growth conditions. This mutant had cell walls which apparently lacked 74-kDa muramidase-2 but which accumulated two proteolytic fragments of 32 and 43 kDa, which exhibited muramidase-2 activity in the membrane fraction. By complementation cloning, we identified a 2.6-kb fragment of the E. hirae chromosome containing a gene cluster coding for proteins of 58 to 137 amino acids. One of these genes (arpU), which encoded a 15.9-kDa protein, was shown to complement the defect of the A9 mutant in trans. We propose that this gene may be involved in the regulation of muramidase-2 export.
Project description:The warfare among microbial species as well as between pathogens and hosts is fierce, complicated, and continuous. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the muramidase effector Tse3 (Type VI secretion exported 3) can be injected into the periplasm of neighboring bacterial competitors by a Type VI secretion apparatus, eventually leading to cell lysis and death. However, P. aeruginosa protects itself from lysis by expressing immune protein Tsi3 (Type six secretion immunity 3). Here, we report the crystal structure of the Tse3-Tsi3 complex at 1.8 Å resolution, revealing that Tse3 possesses one open accessible, goose-type lysozyme-like domain with peptidoglycan hydrolysis activity. Calcium ions bind specifically in the Tse3 active site and are identified to be crucial for its bacteriolytic activity. In combination with biochemical studies, the structural basis of self-protection mechanism of Tsi3 is also elucidated, thus providing an understanding and new insights into the effectors of Type VI secretion system.
Project description:Lysozyme is an antimicrobial innate immune molecule degrading peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall. Lysozyme shows the ubiquitous expression in wide varieties of species and tissues including the tubotympanum of mammals. We aim to investigate the effects of lysozyme depletion on pneumococcal clearance from the middle ear cavity.Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize lysozyme in the Eustachian tube. Lysozyme expression was compared between the wild type and the lysozyme M-/- mice using real time quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Muramidase activity and bactericidal activity of lysozyme was measured using a lysoplate radial diffusion assay and a liquid broth assay, respectively. To determine if depletion of lysozyme M increases a susceptibility to pneumococal otitis media, 50 CFU of S. pneumoniae 6B were transtympanically inoculated to the middle ear and viable bacteria were counted at day 3 and 7 with clinical grading of middle ear inflammation.Immunolabeling revealed that localization of lysozyme M and lysozyme P is specific to some/particular cell types of the Eustachian tube. Lysozyme P of lysozyme M-/- mice was mainly expressed in the submucosal gland but not in the tubal epithelium. Although lysozyme M-/- mice showed compensatory up-regulation of lysozyme P, lysozyme M depletion resulted in a decrease in both muramidase and antimicrobial activities. Deficiency in lysozyme M led to an increased susceptibility to middle ear infection with S. pneumoniae 6B and resulted in severe middle ear inflammation, compared to wild type mice.The results suggest that lysozyme M plays an important role in protecting the middle ear from invading pathogens, particularly in the early phase. We suggest a possibility of the exogenous lysozyme as an adjuvant therapeutic agent for otitis media, but further studies are necessary.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lysozyme g is an antibacterial enzyme that was first found in the eggs of some birds, but recently has been found in additional species, including non-vertebrates. Some previously characterized lysozyme g sequences are suggested to have altered secretion potential and enzymatic activity, however the distribution of these altered sequences is unknown. Duplicated copies of the lysozyme g gene exist in some species; however, the origins of the duplicates and their roles in altered function are unclear. RESULTS:We identified 234 lysozyme g sequences from 118 vertebrate species, including 181 sequences that are full or near full length representing all vertebrate classes except cartilaginous fish. Phylogenetic analysis shows that most lysozyme g gene duplicates are recent or lineage specific events, however three amplification events are more ancient, those in an early amniote, an early mammal, and an early teleost. The older gene duplications are associated with changes in function, including changes in secretion potential and muramidase antibacterial enzymatic activity. CONCLUSIONS:Lysozyme g is an essential muramidase enzyme that is widespread in vertebrates. Duplication of the lysozyme g gene, and the retention of non-secreted isozymes that have lost enzymatic activity indicate that lysozyme g has an activity other than the muramidase activity associated with being an antibacterial enzyme.
Project description:The bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) infects mucosal sites rich in antimicrobial proteins, including the bacterial cell wall-degrading enzyme lysozyme. Certain Gram-negative bacteria produce protein inhibitors that bind to and inhibit lysozyme. Here, we identify Ng_1063 as a new inhibitor of lysozyme in Gc, and we define its functions in light of a second, recently identified lysozyme inhibitor, Ng_1981. In silico analyses indicated that Ng_1063 bears sequence and structural homology to MliC-type inhibitors of lysozyme. Recombinant Ng_1063 inhibited lysozyme-mediated killing of a susceptible mutant of Gc and the lysozyme-sensitive bacterium Micrococcus luteus. This inhibitory activity was dependent on serine 83 and lysine 103 of Ng_1063, which are predicted to interact with lysozyme's active site residues. Lysozyme co-immunoprecipitated with Ng_1063 and Ng_1981 from intact Gc. Ng_1063 and Ng_1981 protein levels were also increased in Gc exposed to lysozyme. Gc lacking both ng1063 and ng1981 was significantly more sensitive to killing by lysozyme than wild-type or single mutant bacteria. When exposed to human tears or saliva, in which lysozyme is abundant, survival of ?1981?1063 Gc was significantly reduced compared to wild-type, and survival was restored upon addition of recombinant Ng_1981. ?1981?1063 mutant Gc survival was additionally reduced in the presence of human neutrophils, which produce lysozyme. We found that while Ng_1063 was exposed on the surface of Gc, Ng_1981 was both in an intracellular pool and extracellularly released from the bacteria, suggesting that Gc employs these two proteins at multiple spatial barriers to fully neutralize lysozyme activity. Together, these findings identify Ng_1063 and Ng_1981 as critical components for Gc defense against lysozyme. These proteins may be attractive targets for antimicrobial therapy aimed to render Gc susceptible to host defenses and/or for vaccine development, both of which are urgently needed against drug-resistant gonorrhea.
Project description:The nocardioform actinomycete Rhodococcus erythropolis has a characteristic cell wall structure. The cell wall is composed of arabinogalactan and mycolic acid and is highly resistant to the cell wall-lytic activity of lysozyme (muramidase). In order to improve the isolation of recombinant proteins from R. erythropolis host cells (N. Nakashima and T. Tamura, Biotechnol. Bioeng. 86:136-148, 2004), we isolated two mutants, L-65 and L-88, which are susceptible to lysozyme treatment. The lysozyme sensitivity of the mutants was complemented by expression of Corynebacterium glutamicum ltsA, which codes for an enzyme with glutamine amidotransferase activity that results from coupling of two reactions (a glutaminase activity and a synthetase activity). The lysozyme sensitivity of the mutants was also complemented by ltsA homologues from Bacillus subtilis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but the homologues from Streptomyces coelicolor and Escherichia coli did not complement the sensitivity. This result suggests that only certain LtsA homologues can confer lysozyme resistance. Wild-type recombinant LtsA from R. erythropolis showed glutaminase activity, but the LtsA enzymes from the L-88 and L-65 mutants displayed drastically reduced activity. Interestingly, an ltsA disruptant mutant, which expressed the mutated LtsA, changed from lysozyme sensitive to lysozyme resistant when NH(4)Cl was added into the culture media. The glutaminase activity of the LtsA mutants inactivated by site-directed mutagenesis was also restored by addition of NH(4)Cl, indicating that NH(3) can be used as an amide donor molecule. Taken together, these results suggest that LtsA is critically involved in mediating lysozyme resistance in R. erythropolis cells.
Project description:A protein, designated as Sgl, showing a muramidase lytic activity to the cell wall of the Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus lysodeikticus was isolated for the first time from plasma of Escherichia coli-immunized fifth instar Schistocerca gregaria. The isolated Sgl was detected as a single protein band, on both native- and SDS-PAGE, has a molecular weight of ?15.7?kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of ca 9.3 and its antiserum has specifically recognized its isolated form. Fifty-nine percentage of Sgl lytic activity was recovered in the isolated fractions and yielded ca 126-fold increase in specific activity than that of the crude. The partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the Sgl has 55 and 40% maximum identity with Bombyx mori and Gallus gallus c-type lysozymes, respectively. The antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacteria were comparatively stronger than that of the hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL). The detected Sgl poration to the inner membrane that reach a maximum ability after 3?h was suggested to operate as a nonenzymatic mechanism for Gram-negative bacterial cell lysis, as tested in a permease-deficient E. coli, ML-35 strain. Sgl showed a maximal muramidase activity at pH 6.2, 30-50°C, and 0.05?M Ca(2+) or Mg(2+); and has a Km of 0.5??g/ml and a Vmax of 0.518 with M. lysodeikticus as a substrate. The Sgl displayed a chitinase activity against chitin with a Km of 0.93?mg/ml and a Vmax of 1.63.