Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae in United States since 1994-1995.
ABSTRACT: The in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin against a large collection of clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 4,650) obtained over a 5-year period, 1994-1995 through 1999-2000, were assessed as part of a longitudinal multicenter U.S. surveillance study of antimicrobial resistance. Three sampling periods were used during this investigation, the winter seasons of 1994-1995, 1997-1998, and 1999-2000; and 1,523, 1,596 and 1,531 isolates were collected during these three periods, respectively. The overall rank order of activity of the four fluoroquinolones examined in this study was moxifloxacin > gatifloxacin > levofloxacin = ciprofloxacin, in which moxifloxacin (MIC at which 90% of isolates are inhibited [MIC(90)], 0.25 microg/ml; modal MIC, 0.12 microg/ml) was twofold more active than gatifloxacin (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/ml; modal MIC, 0.25 microg/ml), which in turn was fourfold more active than either levofloxacin (MIC(90), 1 microg/ml; modal MIC, 1 microg/ml) or ciprofloxacin (MIC(90), 2 microg/ml; modal MIC, 1 microg/ml). Changes in the in vitro activities of fluoroquinolones against S. pneumoniae strains in the United States over the 5-year period of the survey were assessed by comparing the MIC frequency distributions of the study drugs against the isolates obtained during the three sampling periods encompassing this investigation. These comparisons revealed no evidence of changes in the in vitro activities of the fluoroquinolones. In addition, the percentages of isolates in the three sampling periods for which MICs were above the resistance breakpoints were compared. Low percentages of resistant strains were detected, and there was no evidence of resistance rate changes over time. For example, by use of a ciprofloxacin MIC of > or = 4 microg/ml to define resistance, the proportions of isolates from the three sampling periods for which MICs were at or above this breakpoint were 1.2, 1.6, and 1.4%, respectively. A total of 164 unique isolates (n = 58 from 1994-1995, 65 from 1997-1998, and 42 from 1999-2000) were examined for evidence of mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the parC and the gyrA genes. Forty-nine isolates harbored at least one mutation in the QRDRs of one or both genes (1994-1995, n = 15; 1997-1998, n = 19; 1999-2000, n = 15). Among the 4,650 isolates of S. pneumoniae examined in the study, we estimated that 0.3% had mutations in both the parC and gyrA loci. The majority of mutations (67.3% of the mutations in 49 isolates with mutations) were amino acid substitutions in the parC locus only. Four isolates had a mutation in the gyrA locus only, and 12 isolates had mutations in both genes (8.2 and 24.5% of isolates with mutations, respectively). There was no significant difference in the number of isolates with parC and/or gyrA mutations detected during each study period. Finally, because of the magnitude of the study, we had reasonably large numbers of pneumococcal isolates with genotypically defined mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance and were thus able to determine the effects of specific resistance mutations on the activities of different fluoroquinolones. In general, isolates with mutations in parC only were resistant to ciprofloxacin but remained susceptible to levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, whereas isolates with mutations in gyrA only and isolates with mutations in both parC and gyrA were resistant to all four fluoroquinolones tested.
Project description:A total of 88 salmonella isolates (72 clinical isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was >0.06 microg/ml, 15 isolates for which the ciprofloxacin MIC was < or =0.06 microg/ml, and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 13311) were studied for the presence of genetic alterations in four quinolone resistance genes, gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, by multiplex PCR amplimer conformation analysis. The genetic alterations were confirmed by direct nucleotide sequencing. A considerable number of strains had a mutation in parC, the first to be reported in salmonellae. Seven of the isolates sensitive to 0.06 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml had a novel mutation at codon 57 of parC (Tyr57-->Ser) which was also found in 29 isolates for which ciprofloxacin MICs were >0.06 micro g/ml. Thirty-two isolates had a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe, Ser83-->Tyr, Asp87-->Asn, Asp87-->Tyr, or Asp87-->Gly), 34 had both a gyrA mutation and a parC mutation (29 isolates with a parC mutation of Tyr57-->Ser and 5 isolates with a parC mutation of Ser80-->Arg). Six isolates which were isolated recently (from 1998 to 2001) were resistant to 4 micro g of ciprofloxacin per ml. Two of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Asn) and a parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg) (MICs, 8 to 32 microg/ml), and four of these isolates had double gyrA mutations (Ser83-->Phe and Asp87-->Gly), one parC mutation (Ser80-->Arg), and one parE mutation (Ser458-->Pro) (MICs, 16 to 64 micro g/ml). All six of these isolates and those with a Ser80-->Arg parC mutation were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. One S. enterica serotype Typhi isolate harbored a single gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Phe), and an S. enterica serotype Paratyphi A isolate harbored a gyrA mutation (Ser83-->Tyr) and a parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser); both of these isolates had decreased susceptibilities to the fluoroquinolones. The MICs of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin were in general the lowest of those of the six fluoroquinolones tested. Isolates with a single gyrA mutation were less resistant to fluoroquinolones than those with an additional parC mutation (Tyr57-->Ser or Ser80-->Arg), while those with double gyrA mutations were more resistant.
Project description:Mutations associated with fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis were determined by genetic analysis of the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. This study included the P. mirabilis type strain ATCC 29906 and 29 clinical isolates with reduced susceptibility (MIC, 0.5 to 2 microg/ml) or resistance (MIC, > or =4 microg/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Susceptibility profiles for ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin were correlated with amino acid changes in the QRDRs. Decreased susceptibility and resistance were associated with double mutations involving both gyrA (S83R or -I) and parC (S80R or -I). Among these double mutants, MICs of ciprofloxacin varied from 1 to 16 microg/ml, indicating that additional factors, such as drug efflux or porin changes, also contribute to the level of resistance. For ParE, a single conservative change of V364I was detected in seven strains. An unexpected result was the association of gyrB mutations with high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in 12 of 20 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. Changes in GyrB included S464Y (six isolates), S464F (three isolates), and E466D (two isolates). A three-nucleotide insertion, resulting in an additional lysine residue between K455 and A456, was detected in gyrB of one strain. Unlike any other bacterial species analyzed to date, mutation of gyrB appears to be a frequent event in the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of P. mirabilis.
Project description:The activities of two investigational fluoroquinolones and three fluoroquinolones that are currently marketed were determined for 182 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The collection included 57 pneumococcal isolates resistant to levofloxacin (MIC >/= 8 microg/ml) recovered from patients in North America and Europe. All isolates were tested with clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution and disk diffusion susceptibility test methods. Gemifloxacin demonstrated the greatest activity on a per gram basis, followed by clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin. Scatterplots of the MICs and disk diffusion zone sizes revealed a well-defined separation of levofloxacin-resistant and -susceptible strains when the isolates were tested against clinafloxacin and gatifloxacin. DNA sequence analyses of the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE from 21 of the levofloxacin-resistant strains identified eight different patterns of amino acid changes. Mutations among the four loci had the least effect on the MICs of gemifloxacin and clinafloxacin, while the MICs of gatifloxacin and trovafloxacin increased by up to six doubling dilutions. These data indicate that the newer fluoroquinolones have greater activities than levofloxacin against pneumococci with mutations in the DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV genes. Depending upon pharmacokinetics and safety, the greater potency of these agents could provide improved clinical efficacy against levofloxacin-resistant pneumococcal strains.
Project description:Paratyphoid fever is considered an emerging systemic intracellular infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A, B, and C. We performed in vitro time-kill studies on three clinical isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella serotype Paratyphi (NARSP) with different concentrations of ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime to identify combinations of antibiotics with synergistic activity against paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, we identify the frequency of mutations to ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, and rifampin resistance and also sequenced the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes to identify the cause of resistance in NARSP. When the activity of ciprofloxacin at 0.75x MIC (0.012 to 0.38 microg/ml) with cefotaxime at the MIC (0.125 to 0.25 microg/ml) against all three NARSP isolates was investigated, synergy was observed at 24 h, and the bacterial counts were reduced by >3 log(10) CFU/ml. This synergy was elongated for up to 72 h in two out of three isolates. When ciprofloxacin at 0.75x MIC (0.012 to 0.38 microg/ml) was combined with cefotaxime at 2x MIC (0.25 to 0.50 microg/ml), synergy was prolonged for up to 72 h in all three isolates. Both Salmonella serotype Paratyphi A isolates carried single mutations in codon 83 of the gyrA gene and codon 84 of the parC gene that were responsible for their reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, while no mutations were found in the gyrB or parE gene. The ciprofloxacin-plus-cefotaxime regimen was very effective in reducing the bacterial counts at 24 h for all three isolates, and this combination therapy may be helpful in reducing the chance of the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants in patients with severe paratyphoid fever.
Project description:The present study was undertaken to characterize the mutation in gyrA (DNA gyrase) and parC (topoisomerase IV) genes responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli isolates associated with the bovine mastitis.A total of 92 milk samples from bovine mastitis cases were sampled in and around Puducherry (Southern India). Among these samples, 30 isolates were bacteriologically characterized as E. coli. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fluoroquinolones of these 30 E. coli isolates were evaluated by resazurin microtiter assay. Then, the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) (gyrA and parC genes) of these E. coli isolates was genetically analyzed for determining the chromosomal mutation causing fluoroquinolone resistance.E. coli isolates showed a resistance rate of 63.33%, 23.33% and 30.03% to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively. Mutations were found at 83(rd) and 87(th) amino acid position of gyrA gene, and at 80(th) and 108(th) amino acid position of parC gene in our study isolates. Among these five isolates, one had a single mutation at 83 amino acid position of gyrA with reduced susceptibility (0.5 µg/ml) to ciprofloxacin. Then, in remaining four isolates, three isolates showed triple mutation (at gyrA: S83⟶L and D87⟶N; at parC: S80⟶I) and the fifth isolate showed an additional mutation at codon 108 of parC (A108⟶T) with the increased ciprofloxacin MIC of 16-128 µg/ml. The most common mutation noticed were at S83⟶L and D87⟶N of gyrA and S80⟶I of ParC.The study confirms the presence of mutation/s responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in QRDR of gyrA and parC genes of E. coli isolates of animal origin, and there is increased rate of fluoroquinolone resistance with high-level of MIC. The mutations observed in this study were similar to that of human isolates.
Project description:Background:Little is known about the evolutionary process and emergence time of resistance mutations to fluoroquinolone in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Methods:We analyzed S. Typhi isolates collected from returned travelers between 2001 and 2016. Based on ciprofloxacin susceptibility, isolates were categorized as highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ? 4 ?g/mL [CIPHR]), resistant (MIC = 1-2 ?g/mL [CIPR]), intermediate susceptible (MIC = 0.12-0.5 ?g/mL [CIPI]), and susceptible (MIC ? 0.06 ?g/mL [CIPS]). Results:A total of 107 isolates (33 CIPHR, 14 CIPR, 30 CIPI, and 30 CIPS) were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing; 2461 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. CIPS had no mutations in the gyrA or parC genes, while each CIPI had 1 of 3 single mutations in gyrA (encoding Ser83Phe [63.3%], Ser83Tyr [33.3%], or Asp87Asn [3.3%]). CIPHR had the same 3 mutations: 2 SNPs in gyrA (encoding Ser83Phe and Asp87Asn) and a third in parC (encoding Ser80Ile). CIPHR shared a common ancestor with CIPR and CIPI isolates harboring a single mutation in gyrA encoding Ser83Phe, suggesting that CIPHR emerged 16 to 23 years ago. Conclusions:Three SNPs-2 in gyrA and 1 in parC-are present in S. Typhi strains highly resistant to fluoroquinolone, which were found to have evolved in 1993-2000, approximately 10 years after the beginning of the ciprofloxacin era. Highly resistant strains with survival advantages arose from strains harboring a single mutation in gyrA encoding Ser83Phe. Judicious use of fluoroquinolones is warranted to prevent acceleration of such resistance mechanisms in the future.
Project description:Since its discovery, qnrA has been found in most common Enterobacteriaceae. Ciprofloxacin MICs conferred by different qnrA-positive plasmids could range from 0.1 microg/ml to 2 microg/ml in Escherichia coli J53. The reasons for different ciprofloxacin MICs conferred by qnrA have not been fully clarified. Five hundred forty-one consecutive gram-negative clinical strains that were resistant or intermediate to ciprofloxacin and that were isolated in Shanghai in 2005 were screened for qnrA by PCR. For qnrA-positive isolates, the transferability of quinolone resistance was determined by conjugation and mutations within the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA and parC. aac(6')-Ib-cr was detected and qnrA RNA expression was determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR for transconjugants with different ciprofloxacin MICs. The qnrA gene was detected in 7 of the 541 clinical isolates. Quinolone resistance was transferred in four strains by conjugation. Mutations in the QRDR of gyrA and parC were detected in five qnrA-positive clinical strains with higher ciprofloxacin MICs. Of four qnrA-bearing plasmids in E. coli J53, pHS4 and pHS5 conferred ciprofloxacin MICs of 0.094 to 0.125 microg/ml; pHS3, which harbored the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene as well, conferred a ciprofloxacin MIC of 0.25 microg/ml, and pHS6, which had both the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene and a high expression level of qnrA, had a ciprofloxacin MIC of 1.0 microg/ml. The prevalence of qnrA appeared to be higher in Enterobacter cloacae than in other Enterobacteriaceae. The coexistence of qnrA and aac(6')-Ib-cr in a single plasmid and increased qnrA expression can account for the different levels of ciprofloxacin resistance seen in transconjugants.
Project description:Nine quinolone resistant (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] was > 32 microg/mL for nalidixic acid, > 1 microg/mL for ciprofloxacin) isolates of Escherichia coli have been found in wild birds with septicemia. All of the isolates were aerobactin positive. The mechanisms of resistance were characterised by sequencing the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes. Sequence analysis of the gyrA gene in all isolates identified only 1 nucleotide substitution at codon Serine-83 for Leucine-83. Sequence analysis of the gyrB, parC, and parE QRDR genes revealed no mutations in any of the isolates. This study was conducted to determine the importance of these genes in the susceptibility of E. coli strains isolated from wild birds to quinolones.
Project description:To substantiate a common genetic background of ciprofloxacin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, 32 ciprofloxacin-resistant (Cip(r)) and 31 ciprofloxacin-susceptible (Cip(s)) isolates from outbreaks, clinical infections, surveillances, and animals from 10 different countries were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing. Additionally, susceptibilities to ampicillin and vancomycin and the presence of esp were determined and the quinolone resistance-determining regions of parC, gyrA, parB, and gyrE were sequenced. High-level Cip(r) (MIC > or = 64 microg/ml) due to point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region was unique to a distinct hospital-adapted genetic complex in E. faecium, previously designated CC17. Low-level Cip(r) (MIC = 4 microg/ml) in non-CC17 strains is not attributable to point mutations in any subunit of the topoisomerase genes, and the mechanism of resistance remains unclear. Acquisition of mutations in parC and gyrA, leading to high-level Cip(r), is, in addition to ampicillin resistance and the presence of a putative pathogenicity island, another cumulative step in hospital adaptation of CC17.
Project description:Thirty-four ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC > or = 2 microg/ml) and 12 ciprofloxacin-susceptible clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were divided into four groups based upon susceptibility to norfloxacin and the effect of reserpine (20 microg/ml). The quinolone-resistance-determining regions of parC, parE, gyrA, and gyrB of all ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates were sequenced, and the activities of eight other fluoroquinolones, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline in the presence and absence of reserpine were determined. Despite a marked effect of reserpine upon the activity of norfloxacin, there were only a few isolates for which the activity of another fluoroquinolone was enhanced by reserpine. For most isolates the MICs of acriflavine and ethidium bromide were lowered in the presence of reserpine despite the lack of effect of this efflux pump inhibitor on fluoroquinolone activity. The strains that were most resistant to the fluoroquinolones were predominantly those with mutations in three genes. Expression of the gene encoding the efflux pump PmrA was examined by Northern blotting (quantified by quantitative competitive reverse transcriptase PCR) and compared with that of S. pneumoniae R6 and R6N. Within each group there were isolates that had high-, medium-, and low-level expression of this gene; however, increased expression was not exclusively associated with those isolates with a phenotype suggestive of an efflux mutant. These data suggest that there is another reserpine-sensitive efflux pump in S. pneumoniae that extrudes ethidium bromide and acriflavine but not fluoroquinolones.