Spontaneous formation of detergent micelles around the outer membrane protein OmpX.
ABSTRACT: The structure and flexibility of the outer membrane protein X (OmpX) in a water-detergent solution and in pure water are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations on the 100-ns timescale and compared with NMR data. The simulations allow for an unbiased determination of the structure of detergent micelles and the protein-detergent mixed micelle. The short-chain lipid dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine, as a detergent, aggregates into pure micelles of approximately 18 molecules, or alternatively, it binds to the protein surface. The detergent binds in the form of a monolayer ring around the hydrophobic beta-barrel of OmpX rather than in a micellar-like oblate; approximately 40 dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine lipids are sufficient for an effective suppression of water from the surface of the beta-barrel region. The phospholipids bind also on the extracellular, protruding beta-sheet. Here, polar interactions between charged amino acids and phosphatidylcholine headgroups act as condensation seed for detergent micelle formation. The polar protein surface remains accessible to water molecules. In total, approximately 90-100 detergent molecules associate within the protein-detergent mixed micelle, in agreement with experimental estimates. The simulation results indicate that OmpX is not a water pore and support the proposed role of the protruding beta-sheet as a "fishing rod".
Project description:Intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) between the integral outer membrane protein OmpX from Escherichia coli and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) provided a detailed description of protein-detergent interactions. The NOEs were measured in 3D (15)N- and (13)C-resolved [(1)H,(1)H]-NOESY spectra recorded with selectively methyl-protonated and otherwise uniformly (2)H,(13)C,(15)N-labeled OmpX in micelles of DHPC at natural isotope abundance. In these mixed micelles the NMR structure of OmpX consists of an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. The OmpX surface area covered with intermolecular NOEs to the DHPC hydrophobic tails forms a continuous cylinder jacket of approximately 28 A in height, which is centered about the middle of the long axis through the beta-barrel. In addition, some intermolecular NOEs with methyl groups of the DHPC polar head were identified along both boundaries of this cylinder jacket. The experimental data suggest that the hydrophobic surface areas of OmpX are covered with a monolayer of DHPC molecules, which appears to mimic quite faithfully the embedding of the beta-barrel in a double-layer lipid membrane.
Project description:Detergents are often used to investigate the structure and dynamics of membrane proteins. Whereas the structural integrity seems to be preserved in detergents for many membrane proteins, their functional activity is frequently compromised, but can be restored in a lipid environment. Herein we show with per-residue resolution that while OmpX forms a stable β-barrel in DPC detergent micelles, DHPC/DMPC bicelles, and DMPC nanodiscs, the pico- to nanosecond and micro- to millisecond motions differ substantially between the detergent and lipid environment. In particular for the β-strands, there is pronounced dynamic variability in the lipid environment, which appears to be suppressed in micelles. This unexpected complex and membrane-mimetic-dependent dynamic behavior indicates that the frequent loss of membrane protein activity in detergents might be related to reduced internal dynamics and that membrane protein activity correlates with lipid flexibility.
Project description:Structural studies of membrane proteins have highlighted the likely influence of membrane mimetic environments (i.e., lipid bilayers versus detergent micelles) on the conformation and dynamics of small ?-helical membrane proteins. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to compare the conformational dynamics of BM2 (a small ?-helical protein from the membrane of influenza B) in a model phospholipid bilayer environment with its behavior in protein-detergent complexes with either the zwitterionic detergent dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) or the nonionic detergent dodecylmaltoside (DDM). We find that DDM more closely resembles the lipid bilayer in terms of its interaction with the protein, while the short-tailed DHPC molecule forms "nonphysiological" interactions with the protein termini. We find that the intrinsic micelle properties of each detergent are conserved upon formation of the protein-detergent complex. This implies that simulations of detergent micelles may be used to help select optimal conditions for experimental studies of membrane proteins.
Project description:Lipid-protein interactions, critical for the folding, stability and function of membrane proteins, can be both of mechanical and chemical nature. Mechanical properties of lipid systems can be suitably influenced by physical factors so as to facilitate membrane protein folding. We demonstrate here that by modulating lipid dynamics transiently using heat, rapid folding of two 8-stranded transmembrane ?-barrel proteins OmpX and OmpA(1-171), in micelles and vesicles, can be achieved within seconds. Folding kinetics using this 'heat shock' method shows a dramatic ten to several hundred folds increase in refolding rate along with ~100% folding efficiency. We establish that OmpX thus folded is highly thermostable even in detergent micelles, and retains structural characteristics comparable to the protein in bilayers.
Project description:Several membrane proteins and numerous membrane-active peptides have been studied in detergent micelles by solution NMR. However, the detailed structure of these complexes remains unknown. We propose a modeling approach that treats the protein and detergent in atomistic detail and the solvent implicitly. The model is based on previous work on dodecylphosphocholine micelles, adapted for use with the CHARMM36 force field and extended to sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles. Solvation parameters were slightly adjusted to reproduce experimental data on aggregation numbers and critical micelle concentrations. To test the approach, several membrane-active peptides and three ?-barrel membrane proteins were subjected to molecular dynamics simulations in the presence of a large number of detergent molecules. Their experimentally determined secondary structure was maintained and the RMSD values were less than 2 Å. Deformations were commonly observed in the N or C termini. The atomistic view of the protein-micelle systems that this approach provides could be useful in interpreting biophysical experiments carried out in the presence of detergent.
Project description:We describe the detailed biochemical characterization of CYP74C3 (cytochrome P450 subfamily 74C3), a recombinant plant cytochrome P450 enzyme with HPL (hydroperoxide lyase) activity from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic). Steady-state kinetic parameters, substrate and product specificities, RZ (Reinheitszahl or purity index), molar absorption coefficient, haem content, and new ligands for an HPL are reported. We show on the basis of gel filtration, sedimentation velocity (sedimentation coefficient distribution) and sedimentation equilibrium (molecular mass) analyses that CYP74C3 has low enzyme activity as a detergent-free, water-soluble, monomer. The enzyme activity can be completely restored by re-activation with detergent micelles, but not detergent monomers. Corresponding changes in the spin state equilibrium, and probably co-ordination of the haem iron, are novel for cytochrome P450 enzymes and suggest that detergent micelles have a subtle effect on protein conformation, rather than substrate presentation, which is sufficient to improve substrate binding and catalytic-centre activity by an order of magnitude. The kcat/K(m) of up to 1.6x10(8) M(-1) x s(-1) is among the highest recorded, which is remarkable for an enzyme whose reaction mechanism involves the scission of a C-C bond. We carried out both kinetic and biophysical studies to demonstrate that this effect is a result of the formation of a complex between a protein monomer and a single detergent micelle. Association with a detergent micelle rather than oligomeric state represents a new mechanism of activation for membrane-associated cytochrome P450 enzymes. Highly concentrated and monodispersed samples of detergent-free CYP74C3 protein may be well suited for the purposes of crystallization and structural resolution of the first plant cytochrome P450 enzyme.
Project description:Interactions of a membrane protein with a detergent micelle represent a fundamental process with practical implications in structural and chemical biology. Quantitative assessment of the kinetics of protein-detergent complex (PDC) interactions has always been challenged by complicated behavior of both membrane proteins and solubilizing detergents in aqueous phase. Here, we show the kinetic reads of the desorption of maltoside-containing detergents from ?-barrel membrane proteins. Using steady-state fluorescence polarization (FP) anisotropy measurements, we recorded real-time, specific signatures of the PDC interactions. The results of these measurements were used to infer the model-dependent rate constants of association and dissociation of the proteomicelles. Remarkably, the kinetics of the PDC interactions depend on the overall protein charge despite the nonionic nature of the detergent monomers. In the future, this approach might be employed for high-throughput screening of kinetic fingerprints of different membrane proteins stabilized in micelles that contain mixtures of various detergents.
Project description:Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to characterize the effects of transfer from aqueous solution to a vacuum to inform our understanding of mass spectrometry of membrane-protein-detergent complexes. We compared two membrane protein architectures (an ?-helical bundle versus a ?-barrel) and two different detergent types (phosphocholines versus an alkyl sugar) with respect to protein stability and detergent packing. The ?-barrel membrane protein remained stable as a protein-detergent complex in vacuum. Zwitterionic detergents formed conformationally destabilizing interactions with an ?-helical membrane protein after detergent micelle inversion driven by dehydration in vacuum. In contrast, a nonionic alkyl sugar detergent resisted micelle inversion, maintaining the solution-phase conformation of the protein. This helps to explain the relative stability of membrane proteins in the presence of alkyl sugar detergents such as dodecyl maltoside.
Project description:The beta-barrels found in the outer membranes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms constitute an important functional class of proteins. Here we present solid-state NMR spectra of the bacterial outer membrane protein OmpX in oriented lipid bilayer membranes. We show that OmpX is folded in both glass-supported oriented lipid bilayers and in lipid bicelles that can be magnetically oriented with the membrane plane parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The presence of resolved peaks in these spectra demonstrates that OmpX undergoes rotational diffusion around an axis perpendicular to the membrane surface. A tightly hydrogen-bonded domain of OmpX resists exchange with D2O for days and is assigned to the transmembrane beta-barrel, while peaks at isotropic resonance frequencies that disappear rapidly in D2O are assigned to the extracellular and periplasmic loops. The two-dimensional 1H/15N separated local field spectra of OmpX have several resolved peaks, and agree well with the spectra calculated from the crystal structure of OmpX rotated with the barrel axis nearly parallel (5 degrees tilt) to the direction of the magnetic field. The data indicate that it will be possible to obtain site-specific resonance assignments and to determine the structure, tilt, and rotation of OmpX in membranes using the solid-state NMR methods that are currently being applied to alpha-helical membrane proteins.
Project description:The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) mediates trafficking of small molecules and ions across the eukaryotic outer mitochondrial membrane. VDAC also interacts with antiapoptotic proteins from the Bcl-2 family, and this interaction inhibits release of apoptogenic proteins from the mitochondrion. We present the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) solution structure of recombinant human VDAC-1 reconstituted in detergent micelles. It forms a 19-stranded beta barrel with the first and last strand parallel. The hydrophobic outside perimeter of the barrel is covered by detergent molecules in a beltlike fashion. In the presence of cholesterol, recombinant VDAC-1 can form voltage-gated channels in phospholipid bilayers similar to those of the native protein. NMR measurements revealed the binding sites of VDAC-1 for the Bcl-2 protein Bcl-x(L), for reduced beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and for cholesterol. Bcl-x(L) interacts with the VDAC barrel laterally at strands 17 and 18.