PDSM, a motif for phosphorylation-dependent SUMO modification.
ABSTRACT: SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) modification regulates many cellular processes, including transcription. Although sumoylation often occurs on specific lysines within the consensus tetrapeptide PsiKxE, other modifications, such as phosphorylation, may regulate the sumoylation of a substrate. We have discovered PDSM (phosphorylation-dependent sumoylation motif), composed of a SUMO consensus site and an adjacent proline-directed phosphorylation site (PsiKxExxSP). The highly conserved motif regulates phosphorylation-dependent sumoylation of multiple substrates, such as heat-shock factors (HSFs), GATA-1, and myocyte enhancer factor 2. In fact, the majority of the PDSM-containing proteins are transcriptional regulators. Within the HSF family, PDSM is conserved between two functionally distinct members, HSF1 and HSF4b, whose transactivation capacities are repressed through the phosphorylation-dependent sumoylation. As the first recurrent sumoylation determinant beyond the consensus tetrapeptide, the PDSM provides a valuable tool in predicting new SUMO substrates.
Project description:Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is conjugated to its substrates via an enzymatic cascade consisting of three enzymes, E1, E2, and E3. The active site of the E2 enzyme, Ubc9, recognizes the substrate through binding to a consensus tetrapeptide PsiKXE. However, recent proteomics studies suggested that a considerable part of sumoylation occurs on non-consensus sites. Current unbiased sumoylation site identification techniques typically require high stoichiometry in vitro sumoylation, mass spectrometry, and complex data analysis. To facilitate in vivo analysis, we have designed a mass spectrometric method based on an engineered human SUMO-1 construct that creates a signature tag on SUMO substrates. This construct enables affinity purification by covalent binding to cysteine residues in LysC/trypsin-cleaved peptides and site identification by diglycyl lysine tagging of sumoylation sites. As a proof of concept, site-specific and substrate-unbiased in vivo sumoylation analysis of HeLa cells was performed. We identified 14 sumoylation sites, including well known sites, such as Lys(524) of RanGAP1, and novel non-consensus sites. Only 3 of the 14 sites matched consensus sites, supporting the emerging view that non-consensus sumoylation is a common event in live cells. Six of the non-consensus sites had a nearby SUMO interaction motif (SIM), which emphasizes the role of SIM in non-consensus sumoylation. Nevertheless, the lack of nearby SIM residues among the remaining non-consensus sites indicates that there are also other specificity determinants of non-consensus sumoylation. The method we have developed proved to be a useful tool for sumoylation studies and will facilitate identification of novel SUMO substrates containing both consensus and non-consensus sites.
Project description:Protein modification by SUMO conjugation is an important regulatory event. Sumoylation usually takes place on a lysine residue embedded in the core consensus motif psiKxE. However, this motif confers limited specificity on the sumoylation process. Here, we have probed the roles of clusters of acidic residues located downstream from the core SUMO modification sites in proteins such as the transcription factor Elk-1. We demonstrate that these are functionally important in SUMO-dependent transcriptional repression of Elk-1 transcriptional activity. Mechanistically, the acidic residues are important in enhancing the efficiency of Elk-1 sumoylation by Ubc9. Similar mechanisms operate in other transcription factors and phosphorylation sites can functionally substitute for acidic residues. Thus, an extended sumoylation motif, termed the NDSM (negatively charged amino acid-dependent sumoylation motif), helps define functional SUMO targets. We demonstrate that this extended motif can be used to correctly predict novel targets for SUMO modification.
Project description:Phosphorylation and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugation contribute to the spatial and temporal regulation of substrates containing phosphorylation-dependent SUMO consensus motifs (PDSMs). Myocyte-enhancement factor 2 (MEF2) is a transcription factor and PDSM substrate whose modification by SUMO drives postsynaptic dendritic differentiation. NMR analysis revealed that the human SUMO E2 interacted with model substrates for phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated MEF2 in similar extended conformations. Mutational and biochemical analysis identified a basic E2 surface that enhanced SUMO conjugation to phosphorylated PDSM substrates MEF2 and heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), but not to nonphosphorylated MEF2 or HSF1, nor the non-PDSM substrate p53. Mutant ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC9 isoforms defective in promoting SUMO conjugation to phosphorylated MEF2 in vitro and in vivo also impair postsynaptic differentiation in organotypic cerebellar slices. These data support an E2-dependent mechanism that underlies phosphorylation-dependent SUMO conjugation in pathways that range from the heat-shock response to nuclear hormone signaling to brain development.
Project description:Posttranslational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a major regulator of transcription. We previously showed that progesterone receptors (PR) have a single consensus psiKXE SUMO-conjugation motif centered at Lys-388 in the N-terminal domain of PR-B and a homologous site of PR-A. SUMOylation of the PR is hormone-dependent and has a suppressive effect on transcription of an exogenous promoter. Here we show that repression of PR activity by SUMOylation at Lys-388 is uncoupled from phosphorylation, involves synergy between tandem progesterone response elements, and is associated with lowered ligand sensitivity and slowed ligand-dependent down-regulation. However, paradoxically, cellular overexpression of SUMO-1 increases PR transcriptional activity even if Lys-388 is mutated, suggesting that the receptors are activated indirectly by other SUMOylated proteins. One of these is the coactivator SRC-1, whose binding to PR and enhancement of agonist-dependent N-/C-terminal interactions is augmented by the presence of SUMO-1. Increased transcription due to SRC-1 is independent of PR SUMOylation based on assays with the Lys-388 mutants and the pure antiprogestin ZK98299, which blocks N-/C-terminal interactions. In summary, SUMOylation tightly regulates the transcriptional activity of PR by repressing the receptors directly while activating them indirectly through augmented SRC-1 coactivation.
Project description:The INhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins are encoded as multiple isoforms in five ING genes (ING1 -5) and act as type II tumor suppressors. They are growth inhibitory when overexpressed and are frequently mislocalized or downregulated in several forms of cancer. ING1 and ING2 are stoichiometric members of histone deacetylase complexes, whereas ING3-5 are stoichiometric components of different histone acetyltransferase complexes. The INGs target these complexes to histone marks, thus acting as epigenetic regulators. ING proteins affect angiogenesis, apoptosis, DNA repair, metastasis and senescence, but how the proteins themselves are regulated is not yet clear. Here, we find a small ubiquitin-like modification (SUMOylation) of the ING1b protein and identify lysine 193 (K193) as the preferred ING1b SUMO acceptor site. We also show that PIAS4 is the E3 SUMO ligase responsible for ING1b SUMOylation on K193. Sequence alignment reveals that the SUMO consensus site on ING1b contains a phosphorylation-dependent SUMOylation motif (PDSM) and our data indicate that the SUMOylation on K193 is enhanced by the S199D phosphomimic mutant. Using an ING1b protein mutated at the major SUMOylation site (ING1b E195A), we further demonstrate that ING1b SUMOylation regulates the binding of ING1b to the ISG15 and DGCR8 promoters, consequently regulating ISG15 and DGCR8 transcription. These results suggest a role for ING1b SUMOylation in the regulation of gene transcription.
Project description:Covalent modification of proteins by the small ubiquitin-related modifier SUMO regulates diverse biological functions. Sumoylation usually requires a consensus tetrapeptide, through which the binding of the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 to the target protein is directed. However, additional specificity determinants are in many cases required. To gain insights into SUMO substrate selection, we have utilized the differential sumoylation of highly similar loop structures within the DNA-binding domains of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) and HSF2. Site-specific mutagenesis in combination with molecular modeling revealed that the sumoylation specificity is determined by several amino acids near the consensus site, which are likely to present the SUMO consensus motif to Ubc9. Importantly, we also demonstrate that sumoylation of the HSF2 loop impedes HSF2 DNA-binding activity, without affecting its oligomerization. Hence, SUMO modification of the HSF2 loop contributes to HSF-specific regulation of DNA binding and broadens the concept of sumoylation in the negative regulation of gene expression.
Project description:While numerous small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) conjugated substrates have been identified, very little is known about the cellular signalling mechanisms that differentially regulate substrate sumoylation. Here, we show that acetylation of SUMO E2 conjugase Ubc9 selectively downregulates the sumoylation of substrates with negatively charged amino acid-dependent sumoylation motif (NDSM) consisting of clustered acidic residues located downstream from the core ?-K-X-E/D consensus motif, such as CBP and Elk-1, but not substrates with core ?-K-X-E/D motif alone or SUMO-interacting motif. Ubc9 is acetylated at residue K65 and K65 acetylation attenuates Ubc9 binding to NDSM substrates, causing a reduction in NDSM substrate sumoylation. Furthermore, Ubc9 K65 acetylation can be downregulated by hypoxia via SIRT1, and is correlated with hypoxia-elicited modulation of sumoylation and target gene expression of CBP and Elk-1 and cell survival. Our data suggest that Ubc9 acetylation/deacetylation serves as a dynamic switch for NDSM substrate sumoylation and we report a previously undescribed SIRT1/Ubc9 regulatory axis in the modulation of protein sumoylation and the hypoxia response.
Project description:SUMO conjugation has emerged as a dynamic process in regulating protein function. Here we identify estrogen receptor ? (ER?) to be a new target of SUMO-1. ER? SUMO-1 modification occurs on a unique nonconsensus sumoylation motif which becomes fully competent upon phosphorylation of its contained serine residue, which provides the essential negative charge for sumoylation. This process is further regulated by phosphorylation of additional adjacent serine residues by glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), which maximizes ER? sumoylation in response to hormone. SUMO-1 attachment prevents ER? degradation by competing with ubiquitin at the same acceptor site and dictates ER? transcriptional inhibition by altering estrogen-responsive target promoter occupancy and gene expression in breast cancer cells. These findings uncovered a novel phosphorylated sumoylation motif (pSuM), which consists of the sequence ?KXS (where ? represents a large hydrophobic residue) and which is connected to a GSK3-activated extension that functions as a SUMO enhancer. This extended pSuM offers a valuable signature to predict SUMO substrates under protein kinase regulation.
Project description:This study examined whether small ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (SUMO-1) regulates apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK 1). ASK 1 interacted with SUMO-1 in vitro as well as in BOSC 23 cells. Endogenous ASK 1-SUMO-1 interaction was disrupted following H(2)O(2) signal. SUMO-1 overexpression suppressed the self-oligomerization, kinase activity and apoptotic potential of ASK 1, whereas SUMO-1 depletion potentiated such activities. SUMO-1(Delta C 6), a sumoylation-incompetent mutant lacking carboxy-terminal six amino acids, suppressed AS 1 activation, implying that the suppressive effect of SUMO-1 on ASK 1 is independent of sumoylation. ASK 1(3M), an ASK 1 mutant in which all three lysines in the psiKXE motif were substituted with alanines, still retained the kinase activity and activated the Jun amino-terminal kinase pathway. However, SUMO-1 failed to interact with ASK 1(3M) and to suppress ASK 1(3M) activation, indicating that the three lysines are important for regulation by SUMO-1. This study shows that SUMO-1 exerts a negative regulatory effect on ASK 1 activation through physical interaction and not through covalent modification.
Project description:SUMOylation governs numerous cellular processes and is essential to most eukaryotic life. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of this process, an extremely limited number of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein ligases (E3s) have been identified. Here we show that at least some members of the functionally diverse tripartite motif (TRIM) superfamily are SUMO E3s. These TRIM proteins bind both the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 and substrates and strongly enhance transfer of SUMOs from Ubc9 to these substrates. Among the substrates of TRIM SUMO E3s are the tumor suppressor p53 and its principal antagonist Mdm2. The E3 activity depends on the TRIM motif, suggesting it to be the first widespread SUMO E3 motif. Given the large number of TRIM proteins, our results may greatly expand the identified SUMO E3s. Furthermore, TRIM E3 activity may be an important contributor to SUMOylation specificity and the versatile functions of TRIM proteins.