Antibodies selected from combinatorial libraries block a tumor antigen that plays a key role in immunomodulation.
ABSTRACT: We searched for cell-surface-associated proteins overexpressed on B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) to use as therapeutic antibody targets. Antibodies binding the immunosuppressive molecule CD200 were identified by cell panning of an antibody phage display library derived from rabbits immunized with primary CLL cells. B cells from 87 CLL patients exhibited 1.6- to 5.4-fold cell-surface up-regulation of CD200 relative to normal B cells. An effect of increased CD200 expression by CLL cells on the immune system was evaluated in mixed lymphocyte reactions. Addition of primary CLL but not normal B cells to macrophages and T cells downregulated the Th1 response, as seen by a 50-95% reduction in secreted IL-2 and IFN-gamma. Antibodies to CD200 prevented downregulation of the Th1 response in most B cell CLL samples evaluated, indicating abrogation of the CD200/CD200R interaction can be sufficient to restore the Th1 response. A disease-progression-associated shift of the immune response from Th1 to Th2 has been observed in numerous cancers. Because this cytokine shift is also believed to promote the induction of regulatory T cells, reverting the immune response to Th1 through direct targeting of the cancer cells may provide therapeutic benefits in CLL by encouraging a cytotoxic T cell response.
Project description:The protozoan parasite Leishmania has evolved several strategies to undermine host defense mechanisms by inducing Th2-type adaptive immunity and suppressing effector functions of Th1 phenotype. In our earlier studies, using centrin gene-deleted Leishmania (LdCen-/-) parasites as an immunogen, we have shown induction of an effective Th1-type immunity and robust memory responses that mediate protection against virulent challenge. However, role of inhibitory signals in Leishmania vaccine induced immunity in general, and LdCen-/- in particular has not been studied. Herein, we report that immunization with LdCen-/- parasites produces more functional Th1-type CD4+ T cells via downregulation of CD200-CD200R immune inhibitory axis compared to wild-type infection. We found that expression of CD200 and CD200R was significantly reduced in LdCen-/- infection compared to wild-type infection. Diminished CD200-CD200R signaling in LdCen-/- infection enabled proliferation of CD4+ T cells and resulted in the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppression of anti-inflammatory response. The effects of diminished CD200-CD200R signaling by LdCen-/- were most evident in the suppression of IL-10-producing CD4+ T cells that helped enhance more Th1 cytokine producing and multi-functional T cells compared to wild-type infection. In vivo blocking of CD200 expression with anti-CD200 treatment in wild-type infected mice limited Th2 response as indicated by reduction of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells and reduced parasite burden. On the other hand, treatment with anti-CD200 improved the LdCen-/- vaccine-induced multifunctional response and reduction in splenic parasite load upon challenge. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the role of CD200-CD200R signals in the protection induced by LdCen-/- parasites.
Project description:Certain parasites have evolved to evade the immune response and establish chronic infections that may persist for many years. T cell responses in these conditions become muted despite ongoing infection. Upregulation of surface receptors with inhibitory properties provides an immune cell-intrinsic mechanism that, under conditions of chronic infection, regulates immune responses and limits cellular activation and associated pathology. The negative regulator, CD200 receptor, and its ligand, CD200, have been shown to regulate macrophage activation and reduce pathology following infection. We show that CD4 T cells also increase expression of inhibitory CD200 receptors (CD200R) in response to chronic infection. CD200R was upregulated on murine effector T cells in response to infection with bacterial, Salmonella enterica, or helminth, Schistosoma mansoni, pathogens that respectively drive predominant Th1- or Th2-responses. In vitro chronic and prolonged stimuli were required for the sustained upregulation of CD200R, and its expression coincided with loss of multifunctional potential in T effector cells during infection. Importantly, we show an association between IL-4 production and CD200R expression on T effector cells from humans infected with Schistosoma haematobium that correlated effectively with egg burden and, thus infection intensity. Our results indicate a role of CD200R:CD200 in T cell responses to helminths which has diagnostic and prognostic relevance as a marker of infection for chronic schistosomiasis in mouse and man.
Project description:CD200 and its receptor, CD200R, constitutes an endogenous inhibitory signaling, and is being increasingly recognized in studies of various central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Emerging data have demonstrated that neuronal CD200 binds to CD200R to modulate immune responses to pathogenic stimuli. However, on which component of the immune response that CD200-CD200R signaling acts is not well understood. In this review, we focused on cellular expression of the signaling, the effects on immune cell activation, and the function in pathological procedures of neurodegenerative diseases, in both clinical and experimental disease models. Essential functions of CD200-CD200R interaction and the treatment relevance have been elaborated. Immune responses to diseases under the control of CD200-CD200R axis were also discussed in the review.
Project description:We have previously reported the existence of a soluble form of CD200 (sCD200) in human plasma, and found sCD200 to be elevated in the plasma of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) patients. CLL cells release CD200 at a constitutive level, which could be attenuated partially by ADAM28 silencing. In this study, we further explored mechanisms of CD200 shedding beyond that of ADAM28, and performed biochemical analysis of sCD200 using materials derived from purified CLL cells and Hek293 cells stably transfected with CD200, and antibodies generated specifically against either the extracellular or cytoplasmic regions of CD200. CD200 shedding was enhanced by PMA stimulation, and the loss of cell surface CD200 could be monitored as a reduction in CD200 cell surface expression by flow cytometry, in parallel with an increase in the detection of sCD200 in the supernatant. Western blot analyses and functional studies using CD200R1 expressing Hek293 cells showed that the shed CD200 detected in CLL and Hek293-hCD200 supernatants lacked the cytoplasmic domain of CD200 but retained the functional extracellular domain required for binding to, and phosphorylation of, CD200R. These data confirms that a functionally active CD200 extracellular moiety can be cleaved from the surface of CD200 expressing cells following ectodomain shedding.
Project description:CD200R is an inhibitory receptor expressed on myeloid cells and some lymphoid cells, and plays important roles in negatively regulating immune responses. CD200 is the only known ligand of CD200R and broadly distributed in a variety of cell types. Here we identified novel CD200 homologues, designated iSEC1 and iSEC2, that are expressed exclusively by secretory cell lineages in the gastrointestinal epithelium while authentic CD200 is expressed by none of epithelial cells including secretory cells. Both iSEC1 and iSEC2 could bind to CD200R but not other members of the CD200R family. Notably, CD200R expression was confined to intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) among cells in the gastrointestinal epithelium. Binding of iSEC1 to CD200R on IELs resulted in the suppression of cytokine production and cytolytic activity by activated IELs. Thus, iSEC1 is a previously unappreciated CD200R ligand with restricted expression in gastrointestinal secretory cells and may negatively regulate mucosal immune responses.
Project description:Exposure to stressors primes the neuroinflammatory and microglial proinflammatory response to subsequent immune challenges, suggesting that stress might attenuate immunoregulatory mechanisms in the CNS microenvironment. CD200:CD200R is a key immunoregulatory signaling dyad that constrains microglial activation, and disruption of CD200:CD200R signaling primes microglia to subsequent immune challenges. Therefore, the present study examined the mediating role of CD200:CD200R signaling in stress-induced microglial priming. Here, we found that exposure to an acute stressor reduced CD200R expression across sub-regions of the hippocampus, amygdala as well as in isolated hippocampal microglia. A transcriptional suppressor of CD200R, CAAT/Enhancer Binding Proteinβ, was induced by stress and inversely associated with CD200R expression. To examine whether disrupted CD200:CD200R signaling plays a mediating role in stress-induced microglial priming, a soluble fragment of CD200 (mCD200Fc) was administered intra-cisterna magna prior to stressor exposure and stress-induced microglia priming assessed ex vivo 24 h later. Treatment with mCD200Fc blocked the stress-induced priming of the microglial pro-inflammatory response. Further, treatment with mCD200R1Fc recapitulated the effects of stress on microglial priming. We previously found that stress increases the alarmin high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in hippocampus, and that HMGB1 mediates stress-induced priming of microglia. Thus, we examined whether stress-induced increases in hippocampal HMGB1 are a consequence of disrupted CD200:CD200R signaling. Indeed, treatment with mCD200Fc prior to stress exposure blocked the stress-induced increase in hippocampal HMGB1. The present study suggests that stress exposure disrupts immunoregulatory mechanisms in the brain, which typically constrain the immune response of CNS innate immune cells. This attenuation of immunoregulatory mechanisms may thus permit a primed activation state of microglia to manifest.
Project description:CD200 is a widely distributed membrane protein that gives inhibitory signals through its receptor (CD200R) on myeloid cells. CD200 has been acquired by herpesviruses where it has been shown to interact with host CD200R and downmodulate the immune system. It has been hypothesized that poxviruses have acquired CD200; but the potential orthologues show less similarity to their hosts. Myxoma virus M141 protein is a potential CD200 orthologue with a potent immune modulatory function in rabbits. Here, we characterized the rabbit CD200, CD200R and tested the CD200-like sequences for binding CD200R. No binding could be detected using soluble recombinant proteins, full length protein expressed on cells or myxoma virus infected cells. Finally, using knockdown models, we showed that the inhibitory effect of M141 on RAW 264.7 cells upon myxoma virus infection is not due to CD200R. We conclude that the rabbit poxvirus CD200-like proteins cause immunomodulation without utilizing CD200R.
Project description:CD200 (OX-2) is a cell surface glycoprotein that imparts immune privileges by suppressing alloimmune and autoimmune responses through its receptor, CD200R, expressed primarily on myeloid cells. The ability of CD200 to suppress myeloid cell activation is critical for maintaining normal tissue homeostasis but may also enhance the survival of migratory neoplastic cells. We show that CD200 expression is largely absent in well-differentiated primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin, but is highly induced in SCC metastases to the lymph node and other solid tissues. CD200 does not influence the proliferative or invasive capacity of SCC cells or their ability to reconstitute primary skin tumors. However, loss of CD200 impairs the ability of SCC cells to metastasize and seed secondary tumors, indicating that the survival of CD200(+) SCC cells may depend on their ability to interact with CD200R(+) immune cells. The predominant population of CD200R(+) stromal cells was CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which release elevated levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor when in the presence of SCC cells in a CD200-dependent manner. Collectively, our findings implicate CD200 as a hallmark of SCC metastasis and suggest that the ability of CD200(+) SCC keratinocytes to directly engage and modulate CD200R(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells is essential to metastatic survival.
Project description:CD200 receptor (CD200R) negatively regulates peripheral and mucosal innate immune responses. Viruses, including herpesviruses, have acquired functional CD200 orthologs, implying that viral exploitation of this pathway is evolutionary advantageous. However, the role that CD200R signaling plays during herpesvirus infection in vivo requires clarification. Utilizing the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) model, we demonstrate that CD200R facilitates virus persistence within mucosal tissue. Specifically, MCMV infection of CD200R-deficient mice (CD200R(-/-)) elicited heightened mucosal virus-specific CD4 T cell responses that restricted virus persistence in the salivary glands. CD200R did not directly inhibit lymphocyte effector function. Instead, CD200R(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced APC accumulation that in the mucosa was a consequence of elevated cellular proliferation. Although MCMV does not encode an obvious CD200 homolog, productive replication in macrophages induced expression of cellular CD200. CD200 from hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells contributed independently to suppression of antiviral control in vivo. These results highlight the CD200-CD200R pathway as an important regulator of antiviral immunity during cytomegalovirus infection that is exploited by MCMV to establish chronicity within mucosal tissue.
Project description:BACKGROUND:CD200, a cell-surface immunoglobulin-like molecule expressed by immune and stromal cells, dampens the pro-inflammatory activity of tissue-resident innate cells via its receptor, CD200R. This interaction appears critical for peripheral immune tolerance, particularly in the airways where excessive inflammation is undesirable. Vitamin D contributes to pulmonary health and promotes regulatory immune pathways, therefore its influence on CD200 and CD200R was investigated. METHODS:CD200 and CD200R expression were assessed by qPCR and immunoreactivity of human lymphoid, myeloid and epithelial cells following 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1?,25VitD3) exposure in vitro and in peripheral T cells following 1?,25VitD3 oral ingestion in vivo. The effect of 1?25VitD3 was also assessed in human airway-resident cells. RESULTS:1?25VitD3 potently upregulated CD200 on peripheral human CD4+ T cells in vitro, and in vivo there was a trend towards upregulation in healthy, but not asthmatic individuals. CD200R expression was not modulated in any cells studied. CD200 induction was observed to a lesser extent in CD8+ T cells and not in B cells or airway epithelium. T cells isolated from the human airway also responded strongly to 1?25VitD3 to upregulate CD200. CONCLUSIONS:The capacity of 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to induce CD200 expression by peripheral and respiratory tract T cells identifies an additional pathway via which vitamin D can restrain inflammation in the airways to maintain respiratory health.