A new NMR solution structure of the SL1 HIV-1Lai loop-loop dimer.
ABSTRACT: Dimerization of genomic RNA is directly related with the event of encapsidation and maturation of the virion. The initiating sequence of the dimerization is a short autocomplementary region in the hairpin loop SL1. We describe here a new solution structure of the RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS) of HIV-1(Lai). NMR pulsed field-gradient spin-echo techniques and multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy indicate that this structure is formed by two hairpins linked by six Watson-Crick GC base pairs. Hinges between the stems and the loops are stabilized by intra and intermolecular interactions involving the A8, A9 and A16 adenines. The coaxial alignment of the three A-type helices present in the structure is supported by previous crystallography analysis but the A8 and A9 adenines are found in a bulged in position. These data suggest the existence of an equilibrium between bulged in and bulged out conformations in solution.
Project description:The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5' end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-loop 1 (SL1) is believed to be most important and an essential key to dimerization, since the sequence and predicted secondary structure of SL1 are highly stable and conserved among various virus subtypes. In particular, a six-base palindromic sequence is always present at the hairpin loop of SL1 and the formation of kissing-loop structure at this position between the two strands of genomic RNA is suggested to trigger dimerization. Although the higher-order structure model of SL1 is well accepted and perhaps even undoubted lately, there could be stillroom for consideration to depict the functional SL1 structure while in vivo (in virion or cell).In this study, we performed several analyses to identify the nucleotides and/or basepairing within SL1 which are necessary for HIV-1 genome dimerization, encapsidation, recombination and infectivity. We unexpectedly found that some nucleotides that are believed to contribute the formation of the stem do not impact dimerization or infectivity. On the other hand, we found that one G-C basepair involved in stem formation may serve as an alternative dimer interactive site. We also report on our further investigation of the roles of the palindromic sequences on viral replication. Collectively, we aim to assemble a more-comprehensive functional map of SL1 on the HIV-1 viral life cycle.We discovered several possibilities for a novel structure of SL1 in HIV-1 DLS. The newly proposed structure model suggested that the hairpin loop of SL1 appeared larger, and genome dimerization process might consist of more complicated mechanism than previously understood. Further investigations would be still required to fully understand the genome packaging and dimerization of HIV.
Project description:Explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for three RNA kissing-loop complexes. The theoretical structure of two base pairs (2 bp) complex of H3 stem-loop of Moloney murine leukemia virus agrees with the NMR structure with modest violations of few NMR restraints comparable to violations present in the NMR structure. In contrast to the NMR structure, however, MD shows relaxed intermolecular G-C base pairs. The core region of the kissing complex forms a cation-binding pocket with highly negative electrostatic potential. The pocket shows nanosecond-scale breathing motions coupled with oscillations of the whole molecule. Additional simulations were carried out for 6 bp kissing complexes of the DIS HIV-1 subtypes A and B. The simulated structures agree well with the X-ray data. The subtype B forms a novel four-base stack of bulged-out adenines. Both 6 bp kissing complexes have extended cation-binding pockets in their central parts. While the pocket of subtype A interacts with two hexacoordinated Mg2+ ions and one sodium ion, pocket of subtype B is filled with a string of three delocalized Na+ ions with residency times of individual cations 1-2 ns. The 6 bp complexes show breathing motions of the cation-binding pockets and loop major grooves.
Project description:As a retrovirus, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) packages two copies of the RNA genome as a dimer in the infectious virion. Dimerization is initiated at the dimer initiation site (DIS) which encompasses stem-loop 1 (SL1) in the 5'-UTR of the genome. Study of genomic dimerization has been facilitated by the discovery that short RNA fragments containing SL1 can dimerize spontaneously without any protein factors. On the basis of the palindromic nature of SL1, a kissing loop model has been proposed. First, a metastable kissing dimer is formed via standard Watson-Crick base pairs and then converted into a more stable extended dimer by the viral nucleocapsid protein (NCp7). This dimer maturation in vitro is believed to mimic initial steps in the RNA maturation in vivo, which is correlated with viral infectivity. We previously discovered a small molecule activator, Lys-Ala-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (KA-AMC), which facilitates dimer maturation in vitro, and determined aspects of its structure-activity relationship. In this report, we present measurements of the binding affinity of the activators and characterization of their interactions with the SL1 RNA. Guanidinium groups and increasing positive charge on the side chain enhance affinity and activity, but features in the aromatic ring at least partially decouple affinity from activity. Although KA-AMC can bind to multiple structural motifs, the NMR study showed KA-AMC preferentially binds to unique structural motifs, such as the palindromic loop and the G-rich internal loop in the SL1 RNA. NCp7 binds to SL1 only 1 order of magnitude more tightly than the best small molecule ligand tested. This study provides guidelines for the design of superior small molecules that bind to the SL1 RNA that have the potential of being developed as an antiviral by interfering with SL1-NCp7 interaction at the packaging and/or maturation stages.
Project description:Reactive oxygen species generated by activated neutrophils can cause oxidative stress and tissue damage. S100A8 (A8) and S100A9 (A9), abundant in neutrophil cytoplasm, are exquisitely sensitive to oxidation, which may alter their functions. Murine A8 is a neutrophil chemoattractant, but it suppresses leukocyte transmigration in the microcirculation when S-nitrosylated. Glutathione (GSH) modulates intracellular redox, and S-glutathionylation can protect susceptible proteins from oxidative damage and regulate function. We characterized S-glutathionylation of A9; GSSG and GSNO generated S-glutathionylated A8 (A8-SSG) and A9 (A9-SSG) in vitro, whereas only A9-SSG was detected in cytosol of neutrophils activated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) but not with fMLP or opsonized zymosan. S-Glutathionylation exposed more hydrophobic regions in Zn(2+)-bound A9 but did not alter Zn(2+) binding affinity. A9-SSG had reduced capacity to form heterocomplexes with A8, but the arachidonic acid binding capacities of A8/A9 and A8/A9-SSG were similar. A9 and A8/A9 bind endothelial cells; S-glutathionylation reduced binding. We found little effect of A9 or A9-SSG on neutrophil CD11b/CD18 expression or neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells. However, A9, A9-SSG and A8/A9 promoted neutrophil adhesion to fibronectin but, in the presence of A8, A9-mediated adhesion was abrogated by glutathionylation. S-Glutathionylation of A9 may protect its oxidation to higher oligomers and reduce neutrophil binding to the extracellular matrix. This may regulate the magnitude of neutrophil migration in the extravasculature, and together with the functional changes we reported for S-nitrosylated A8, particular oxidative modifications of these proteins may limit tissue damage in acute inflammation.
Project description:Specific binding of HIV-1 viral protein NCp7 to a unique 35-base RNA stem-loop SL1 is critical for formation and packaging of the genomic RNA dimer found within HIV-1 virions. NCp7 binding stimulates refolding of SL1 from a metastable kissing dimer (KD) into thermodynamically stable linear dimer (LD). Using UV melting, gel electrophoresis and heteronuclear NMR, we investigated effects of various site-specific mutations within the full-length SL1 on temperature- or NCp7-induced refolding in vitro. Refolding involved intramolecular melting of SL1 stems but not dissociation of the intermolecular KD interface. Refolding required only two NCp7 molecules per KD but was limited by the amount of NCp7 present, implying that the protein does not catalytically promote refolding. Efficient refolding depended strictly on the presence and, to a lesser degree, on sequence of a highly conserved G-rich internal loop that normally limits thermal stability of the SL1 stem. Adding two base pairs to the lower stem created a hyperstable SL1 mutant that failed to refold, even when bound by NCp7 at high stoichiometries. NMR analysis of these kinetically trapped mutant RNA-protein complexes indicated that NCp7 initiates refolding by dissociating base pairs in the upper stem of SL1. This study illuminates structural transitions critical for HIV-1 assembly and replication.
Project description:Calprotectin, the major neutrophil protein, is a critical alarmin that modulates inflammation and plays a role in host immunity by strongly binding trace metals essential for bacterial growth. It has two cysteine residues favourably positioned to act as a redox switch. Whether their oxidation occurs in vivo and affects the function of calprotectin has received little attention. Here we show that in saliva from healthy adults, and in lavage fluid from the lungs of patients with respiratory diseases, a substantial proportion of calprotectin was cross-linked via disulfide bonds between the cysteine residues on its S100A8 and S100A9 subunits. Stimulated human neutrophils released calprotectin and subsequently cross-linked it by myeloperoxidase-dependent production of hypochlorous acid. The myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants hypochlorous acid, taurine chloramine, hypobromous acid, and hypothiocyanous acid, all at 10??M, cross-linked calprotectin (5??M) via reversible disulfide bonds. Hypochlorous acid generated A9-A9 and A8-A9 cross links. Hydrogen peroxide (10??M) did not cross-link the protein. Purified neutrophil calprotectin existed as a non-covalent heterodimer of A8/A9 which was converted to a heterotetramer - (A8/A9)2 - with excess calcium ions. Low level oxidation of calprotectin with hypochlorous acid produced substantial proportions of high order oligomers, whether oxidation occurred before or after addition of calcium ions. At high levels of oxidation the heterodimer could not form tetramers with calcium ions, but prior addition of calcium ions afforded some protection for the heterotetramer. Oxidation and formation of the A8-A9 disulfide cross link enhanced calprotectin's susceptibility to proteolysis by neutrophil proteases. We propose that reversible disulfide cross-linking of calprotectin occurs during inflammation and affects its structure and function. Its increased susceptibility to proteolysis will ultimately result in a loss of function.
Project description:In mammalian RNA polymerase I transcription, SL1, an assembly of TBP and associated factors (TAFs), is essential for preinitiation complex formation at ribosomal RNA gene promoters in vitro. We provide evidence for a novel component of SL1, TAF(I)41 (MGC5306), which functions in Pol I transcription. TAF(I)41 resides at the rDNA promoter in the nucleolus and co-purifies and co-immunoprecipitates with SL1. TAF(I)41 immunodepletion from nuclear extracts dramatically reduces Pol I transcription; addition of SL1 restores the ability of these extracts to support Pol I transcription. In cells, siRNA-mediated decreased expression of TAF(I)41 leads to loss of SL1 from the rDNA promoter in vivo, with concomitant loss of Pol I from the rDNA and reduced synthesis of the pre-rRNA. Extracts from these cells support reduced levels of Pol I transcription; addition of SL1 to the extracts raises the level of Pol I transcription. These data suggest that TAF(I)41 is integral to transcriptionally active SL1 and imply a role for SL1, including the TAF(I)41 subunit, in Pol I recruitment and, therefore, preinitiation complex formation in vivo.
Project description:RNA dimerization is an essential step in the retroviral life cycle. Dimerization and encapsidation signals, closely linked in HIV-2, are located in the leader RNA region. The SL1 motif and nucleocapsid protein are considered important for both processes. In this study, we show the structure of the HIV-2 leader RNA (+1-560) captured as a loose dimer. Potential structural rearrangements within the leader RNA were studied. In the loose dimer form, the HIV-2 leader RNA strand exists in vitro as a single global fold. Two kissing loop interfaces within the loose dimer were identified: SL1/SL1 and TAR/TAR. Evidence for these findings is provided by RNA probing using SHAPE, chemical reagents, enzymes, non-denaturing PAGE mobility assays, antisense oligonucleotides hybridization and analysis of an RNA mutant. Both TAR and SL1 as isolated domains are bound by recombinant NCp8 protein with high affinity, contrary to the hairpins downstream of SL1. Foot-printing of the SL1/NCp8 complex indicates that the major binding site maps to the SL1 upper stem. Taken together, these data suggest a model in which TAR hairpin III, the segment of SL1 proximal to the loop and the PAL palindromic sequence play specific roles in the initiation of dimerization.
Project description:PTEN is a tumor suppressor whose function is frequently lost in human cancer. It possesses a lipid phosphatase activity that represses the activation of PI3 kinase/Akt signaling, leading to decreased cell growth, proliferation, and survival. The potential for PTEN to regulate transcription of the large rRNAs by RNA polymerase I (RNA Pol I) was investigated. As increased synthesis of rRNAs is a hallmark of neoplastic transformation, the ability of PTEN to control the transcription of rRNAs might be crucial for its tumor suppressor function. The expression of PTEN in PTEN-deficient cells represses RNA Pol I transcription, while decreasing PTEN expression enhances transcription. PTEN-mediated repression requires its lipid phosphatase activity and is independent of the p53 status of the cell. This event can be uncoupled from PTEN's ability to regulate the cell cycle. RNA Pol I is regulated through PI3 kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin/S6 kinase, and the expression of constitutively activated S6 kinase is able to abrogate transcription repression by PTEN. No change in the expression of the RNA Pol I transcription components, upstream binding factor or SL1, was observed upon PTEN expression. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that PTEN differentially reduces the occupancy of the SL1 subunits on the rRNA gene promoter. Furthermore, PTEN induces dissociation of the SL1 subunits. Together, these results demonstrate that PTEN represses RNA Pol I transcription through a novel mechanism that involves disruption of the SL1 complex.
Project description:Knowledge of the role of components of the RNA polymerase I transcription machinery is paramount to understanding regulation of rDNA expression. We describe key findings for the roles of essential transcription factor SL1 and activator upstream binding factor (UBF). We demonstrate that human SL1 can direct accurate Pol I transcription in the absence of UBF and can interact with the rDNA promoter independently and stably, consistent with studies of rodent SL1 but contrary to previous reports of human SL1. UBF itself does not bind stably to rDNA but rapidly associates and dissociates. We show that SL1 significantly reduces the rate of dissociation of UBF from the rDNA promoter. Our findings challenge the idea that UBF activates transcription through recruitment of SL1 at the rDNA promoter and suggest that the rate of pre-initiation complex (PIC) formation is primarily determined by the rate of association of SL1, rather than UBF, with the promoter. Therefore, we propose that SL1 directs PIC formation, functioning in core promoter binding, RNA polymerase I recruitment, and UBF stabilization and that SL1-promoter complex formation is a necessary prerequisite to the assembly of functional and stable PICs that include the UBF activator in mammalian cells.