CUL7: A DOC domain-containing cullin selectively binds Skp1.Fbx29 to form an SCF-like complex.
ABSTRACT: Selective protein degradation targeted by members of the F-box protein family plays pivotal roles in cell biology. It is widely accepted that an F-box protein directs substrate ubiquitination within a Skp1.CUL1.F-box protein.ROC1 (SCF-ROC1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. This assembly utilizes the CUL1 molecular scaffold, allowing the F-box protein to position its bound substrate for ubiquitination by a ROC1-recruited E2-conjugating enzyme. Here, we describe an alternative mechanism for assembling an F-box protein-based E3 complex through a previously uncharacterized cullin, CUL7, identified by mass spectrometry as a ROC1-interacting protein. CUL7 is a large polypeptide containing a cullin domain, which is responsible for ROC1 binding, and a DOC domain, which is also present in the anaphase-promoting complex. Remarkably, CUL7 assembles an SCF-ROC1-like E3 ubiquitin ligase complex consisting of Skp1, CUL7, the Fbx29 F-box protein, and ROC1. In contrast to CUL1 that binds Skp1 by itself, CUL7 interacts with the Skp1.Fbx29 complex, but not with Skp1 alone. Strikingly, CUL7 selectively interacts with Skp1.Fbx29 but not with Skp1.betaTRCP2 or Skp1.Skp2. Thus, CUL7 may define a previously uncharacterized, Fbx29-mediated, and ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis pathway.
Project description:Recent genetic studies have documented a pivotal growth-regulatory role played by the Cullin 7 (CUL7) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing the Fbw8-substrate-targeting subunit, Skp1, and the ROC1 RING finger protein. In this report, we identified insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), a critical mediator of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling, as a proteolytic target of the CUL7 E3 ligase in a manner that depends on mammalian target of rapamycin and the p70 S6 kinase activities. Interestingly, while embryonic fibroblasts of Cul7-/- mice were found to accumulate IRS-1 and exhibit increased activation of IRS-1's downstream Akt and MEK/ERK pathways, these null cells grew poorly and displayed phenotypes reminiscent of those associated with oncogene-induced senescence. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a key role for the CUL7 E3 in targeting IRS-1 for degradation, a process that may contribute to the regulation of cellular senescence.
Project description:RING E3 ligases are proteins that must selectively recruit an E2-conjugating enzyme and facilitate ubiquitin transfer to a substrate. It is not clear how a RING E3 ligase differentiates a naked E2 enzyme from the E2?ubiquitin-conjugated form or how this is altered upon ubiquitin transfer. RING-box protein 1 (Rbx1/ROC1) is a key protein found in the Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that functions with the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme CDC34. The solution structure of Rbx1/ROC1 revealed a globular RING domain (residues 40-108) stabilized by three structural zinc ions (root mean square deviation 0.30 ± 0.04 ?) along with a disordered N terminus (residues 12-39). Titration data showed that Rbx1/ROC1 preferentially recruits CDC34 in its ubiquitin-conjugated form and favors this interaction by 50-fold compared with unconjugated CDC34. Furthermore, NMR and biochemical assays identified residues in helix ?2 of Rbx1/ROC1 that are essential for binding and activating CDC34?ubiquitin for ubiquitylation. Taken together, this work provides the first direct structural and biochemical evidence showing that polyubiquitylation by the RING E3 ligase Rbx1/ROC1 requires the preferential recruitment of an E2?ubiquitin complex and subsequent release of the unconjugated E2 protein upon ubiquitin transfer to a substrate or ubiquitin chain.
Project description:Covalent modification of cullins by the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 (neddylation) regulates protein ubiquitination by promoting the assembly of cullin-RING ligase E3 complexes. Like ubiquitination, neddylation results from an enzymatic cascade involving the sequential activity of a dedicated E1 (APPBP1/Uba3), E2 (Ubc12), and an ill-defined E3. We show that SCCRO (also known as DCUN1D1) binds to the components of the neddylation pathway (Cullin-ROC1, Ubc12, and CAND1) and augments but is not required for cullin neddylation in reactions using purified recombinant proteins. We also show that SCCRO recruits Ubc12 approximately NEDD8 to the CAND1-Cul1-ROC1 complex but that this is not sufficient to dissociate or overcome the inhibitory effects of CAND1 on cullin neddylation in purified protein assays. In contrast to findings in cellular systems where no binding is seen, we show that SCCRO and CAND1 can bind to the neddylated Cul1-ROC1 complex in assays using purified recombinant proteins. Although neddylated (not unneddylated) Cul1-ROC1 is released from CAND1 upon incubation with testis lysate from SCCRO+/+ mice, the addition of recombinant SCCRO is required to achieve the same results in lysate from SCCRO(-/-) mice. Combined, these results suggest that SCCRO is an important component of the neddylation E3 complex that functions to recruit charged E2 and is involved in the release of inhibitory effects of CAND1 on cullin-RING ligase E3 complex assembly and activity.
Project description:Cullin proteins are molecular scaffolds that have crucial roles in the post-translational modification of cellular proteins involving ubiquitin. The mammalian cullin protein family comprises eight members (CUL1 to CUL7 and PARC), which are characterized by a cullin homology domain. CUL1 to CUL7 assemble multi-subunit Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes, the largest family of E3 ligases with more than 200 members. Although CUL7 and PARC are present only in chordates, other members of the cullin protein family are found in Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Arabidopsis thaliana and yeast. A cullin protein tethers both a substrate-targeting unit, often through an adaptor protein, and the RING finger component in a CRL. The cullin-organized CRL thus positions a substrate close to the RING-bound E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin to the substrate. In addition, conjugation of cullins with the ubiquitin-like molecule Nedd8 modulates activation of the corresponding CRL complex, probably through conformational regulation of the interactions between cullin's carboxy-terminal tail and CRL's RING subunit. Genetic studies in several model organisms have helped to unravel a multitude of physiological functions associated with cullin proteins and their respective CRLs. CRLs target numerous substrates and thus have an impact on a range of biological processes, including cell growth, development, signal transduction, transcriptional control, genomic integrity and tumor suppression. Moreover, mutations in CUL7 and CUL4B genes have been linked to hereditary human diseases.
Project description:Cullin-Ring E3 ubiquitin ligases target substrates for ubiquitin-dependent, proteasome-mediated degradation and regulate critical cellular processes. These cullins assemble with cellular substrate receptor proteins through specific adaptor molecules. F-box- and BC-box-containing receptors use Skp1, ElonginB, and ElonginC as adaptors to recruit Cul1/Cul7 and Cul2/Cul5, respectively. At present, the determinants of Cul2 vs. Cul5 specificity for the BC-box-containing receptors are poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that primate lentiviral Vif (virion infectivity factor) proteins represent previously uncharacterized substrate receptor proteins that contain divergent BC-box motifs. These molecules selectively assemble with a Cul5-E3 ligase to suppress the antiviral activity of autologous cytidine deaminase APOBEC3G. A previously unrecognized Hx5Cx(17-18)Cx(3-5)H motif that is highly conserved among all primate lentiviral Vif proteins was found to be critical for the selective assembly and activity of Vif-Cul5-E3 ligase. Non-primate lentiviral Vif proteins, which lack this HCCH motif, displayed reduced interaction with Cul5. These data suggest that in addition to target protein specificity, substrate receptor proteins play important roles in cullin selection and functional assembly of cullin-Ring E3 ligases. The discovery of these viral substrate receptor molecules that recruit Cul5 through distinct mechanisms from cellular proteins may facilitate the identification of additional cellular factors that regulate cellular functions through Cul5-E3 ligase. Motifs in Vif that are absent from cellular proteins could also be targets for the development of innovative therapeutics.
Project description:SCF (Skp1 x CUL1 x F-box protein x ROC1) E3 ubiquitin ligase and Cdc34 E2-conjugating enzyme catalyze polyubiquitination in a precisely regulated fashion. Here, we describe biochemical evidence suggesting an autoinhibitory role played by the human CUL1 ECTD (extreme C-terminal domain; spanning the C-terminal 50 amino acids), a region that is predicted to contact the ROC1 RING finger protein by structural studies. We showed that ECTD did not contribute to CUL1's stable association with ROC1. Remarkably, deletion of ECTD, or missense mutations designed to disrupt the predicted ECTD x ROC1 interaction, markedly increased the ability of SCF(betaTrCP2) to promote IkappaB alpha polyubiquitination and polyubiquitin chain assembly by Cdc34 in vitro. Thus, disruption of ECTD yields in vitro effects that parallel SCF activation by Nedd8 conjugation to CUL1. We propose that SCF may be subject to autoinhibitory regulation, in which Nedd8 conjugation acts as a molecular switch to drive the E3 into an active state by diminishing the inhibitory ECTD x ROC1 interaction.
Project description:The ubiquitin-proteasome system for protein degradation plays a major role in regulating cell function and many signaling proteins are tightly controlled by this mechanism. Among these, Regulator of G Protein Signaling 2 (RGS2) is a target for rapid proteasomal degradation, however, the specific enzymes involved are not known. Using a genomic siRNA screening approach, we identified a novel E3 ligase complex containing cullin 4B (CUL4B), DNA damage binding protein 1 (DDB1) and F-box protein 44 (FBXO44) that mediates RGS2 protein degradation. While the more typical F-box partners CUL1 and Skp1 can bind FBXO44, that E3 ligase complex does not bind RGS2 and is not involved in RGS2 degradation. These observations define an unexpected DDB1/CUL4B-containing FBXO44 E3 ligase complex. Pharmacological targeting of this mechanism provides a novel therapeutic approach to hypertension, anxiety, and other diseases associated with RGS2 dysregulation.
Project description:PHR (PAM/Highwire/RPM-1) proteins are conserved RING E3 ubiquitin ligases that function in developmental processes, such as axon termination and synapse formation, as well as axon degeneration. At present, our understanding of how PHR proteins form ubiquitin ligase complexes remains incomplete. Although genetic studies indicate NMNAT2 is an important mediator of PHR protein function in axon degeneration, it remains unknown how PHR proteins inhibit NMNAT2. Here, we decipher the biochemical basis for how the human PHR protein PAM, also called MYCBP2, forms a noncanonical Skp/Cullin/F-box (SCF) complex that contains the F-box protein FBXO45 and SKP1 but lacks CUL1. We show FBXO45 does not simply function in substrate recognition but is important for assembly of the PAM/FBXO45/SKP1 complex. Interestingly, we demonstrate a novel role for SKP1 as an auxiliary component of the target recognition module that enhances binding of FBXO45 to NMNAT2. Finally, we provide biochemical evidence that PAM polyubiquitinates NMNAT2 and regulates NMNAT2 protein stability and degradation by the proteasome.
Project description:The SCF (Skp1-cullin-F-box proteins), also known as CRL (cullin-based RING ligase), is the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that mediate approximately 20% ubiquitinated protein substrates for 26S proteasome degradation. Through promoting timely degradation of many key regulatory proteins, SCF E3 ligase controls numerous cellular processes; its dysfunction contributes to a number of human diseases, including cancer. The RING component of SCF complex consists of 2 family members, RBX1 (RING box protein 1), also known as ROC1 (regulator of cullins), and RBX2/ROC2 (also known as SAG [sensitive to apoptosis gene]), both of which are essential for the catalytic activity of SCF. RBX1 and RBX2 are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans and play an essential role during mouse embryonic development. Moreover, RBX1 and RBX2 are both overexpressed in multiple human cancer tissues and required for the growth and survival of cancer cells. In this review, we will discuss the similarities and differences between 2 RING family members, their regulation of SCF E3 ligase activity, and their role in development, cancer cell survival, and skin carcinogenesis, along with a brief discussion of RBX-SCF E3 ligases as the cancer targets and a recently discovered small molecule inhibitor of SCF E3 ligases as a novel class of anticancer drugs.
Project description:Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligases constitute the largest and best-characterized family of the multisubunit E3 ligases with important cellular functions and numerous disease links. The specificity of an SCF E3 ligase is established by one of the 69 human F-box proteins that are recruited to Cul1 through the Skp1 adaptor. We previously reported generation of ubiquitin variants (UbVs) targeting Fbw7 and Fbw11, which inhibit ligase activity by binding at the F-box-Skp1 interface to competitively displace Cul1. In the present study, we employed an optimized engineering strategy to generate specific binding UbVs against 17 additional Skp1-F-box complexes. We validated our design strategy and uncovered the structural basis of binding specificity by crystallographic analyses of representative UbVs bound to Skp1-Fbl10 and Skp1-Fbl11. Our study highlights the power of combining phage display with structure-based design to develop UbVs targeting specific protein surfaces.