A conserved tyrosine in the neck of a fungal kinesin regulates the catalytic motor core.
ABSTRACT: The neck domain of fungal conventional kinesins displays characteristic properties which are reflected in a specific sequence pattern. The exchange of the strictly conserved Tyr 362, not present in animals, into Lys, Cys or Phe leads to a failure to dimerize. The destabilizing effect is confirmed by a lower coiled-coil propensity of mutant peptides. Whereas the Phe substitution has only a structural effect, the Lys and Cys replacements lead to dramatic kinetic changes. The steady state ATPase is 4- to 7-fold accelerated, which may be due to a faster microtubule-stimulated ADP release rate. These data suggest that an inhibitory effect of the fungal neck domain on the motor core is mediated by direct interaction of the aromatic ring of Tyr 362 with the head, whereas the OH group is essential for dimerization. This is the first demonstration of a direct influence of the kinesin neck region in regulation of the catalytic activity.
Project description:The holostean fishes are the extant representatives of the primitive ray-finned fishes from which the present-day teleosts may have evolved. The primary structure of insulin from a holostean fish, the bowfin (Amia calva), was established as: A-chain: Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-Leu-Lys-Pro-Cys-Thr-Ile-Tyr-Glu-Met-Glu- Lys-Tyr-Cys-Asn B-chain: Ala-Ala-Ser-Gln-His-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala-Leu-Phe-Leu- Val-Cys-Gly-Glu-Ser-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Asn-Pro-Asn-Lys-Ser This amino acid sequence contains several substitutions (methionine at A16, phenylalanine at B16 and serine at B22) at sites that have been strongly conserved in other vertebrate species and that may be expected to influence biological activity. Consistent with this prediction, bowfin insulin was approx. 14-fold less potent than pig insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-Tyr-A14](human insulin) to transfected mouse NIH 3T3 cells expressing the human insulin receptor.
Project description:Insulin was isolated from an extract of the pancreas of a urodele, the three-toed amphiuma (Amphiuma tridactylum), and its primary structure established as Ala-Arg-Gly-Ile-Val-Glu-Gln-Cys-Cys-His10-Asn-Thr-Cys- Ser-Leu-Asn-Gln-Leu-Glu-Asn20-Tyr-Cys-Asn for the A-chain and Ile-Thr-Asn-Gln-Tyr-Leu-Cys-Gly-Ser-His10-Leu-Val-Glu-Ala- Leu-Tyr-Leu-Val-Cys-Gly20-Asp-Arg-Gly-Phe-Phe-Tyr-Ser-Pro-Lys for the B-chain. The N-terminus of the A-chain is extended by two amino acids (Ala-Arg) relative to all other known insulins suggesting an anomalous pathway of post-translational processing in the region of the C-peptide/A-chain junction of proinsulin. In common with chicken and Xenopus insulins, which contain a HisA8, amphiuma insulin was more potent (approx. 5-fold) than porcine insulin in inhibiting the binding of [125I-TyrA14]insulin to the soluble human insulin receptor from transfected 293EBNA cells (an adenovirus-transformed human kidney cell line). This result is consistent with previous data showing that insulin analogues extended at GlyA1 by uncharged groups have reduced binding affinity whereas high affinity is preserved in analogues extended by basic amino acid residues.
Project description:1. Previous reports from this laboratory have shown that both Lys-33 and Lys-116 are parts of an antigenic site in native lysozyme. Similar studies of tyrosine derivatives indicated that one or both of Tyr-20 and Tyr-23 are located in or very close to an antigenic site in lysozyme. The site, which was located around the disulphide bridge 30-115, was recently shown unequivocally to include the residues Tyr-20, Arg-21, Lys-116, Asn-113, Arg-114, Phe-34 and Lys-33. This was confirmed by the ;surface-simulation' synthetic approach that we have recently developed, in which the foregoing eight surface residues were directly linked via peptide bonds, with intervening spacers where appropriate, into a single peptide. The peptide does not exist in native lysozyme, but simulates a surface region of it. 2. In the present work several surface-simulation peptides were synthesized representing various parts of the region, to determine the minimum structural feature that retains full antigenic reactivity and to investigate if the spatially constructed antigenic site has a preferred direction. 3. The peptide Lys-Asn-Arg-Gly-Phe-Lys exhibited a remarkable inhibitory activity towards the immune reaction of lysozyme and accounted entirely for the maximum expected reactivity of the site in the native protein (i.e. about one-third of the total lysozyme reactivity). An immunoadsorbent of the peptide bound about one-third of the total antibody to lysozyme. 4. The residues Tyr-20 and Arg-21 are not part of the site. The previously reported immunochemical effect observed on nitration of Tyr-20 was due to a deleterious ionic effect exerted by the modified tyrosine residue on the adjacent Lys-96, which is in an entirely different antigenic site of lysozyme. Thus the modification of Tyr-20 impairs the reactivity of an adjacent antigenic site, even though the residue itself is not part of a site. The conformational and immunochemical implications of this finding are discussed. 5. The antigenic site therefore comprises the five spatially adjacent residues Lys-116, Asn-113, Arg-114, Phe-34, Lys-33. The antigenic site exhibited a preferred direction (Lys-116 to Lys-33), since the reverse surface-simulation synthetic sequence was immunochemically inefficient. The site describes a line which circumscribes part [2.1nm in C((alpha))-C((alpha)) distance from Lys-116 to Lys-33] of the surface of the molecule.
Project description:An anti-epilepsy peptide (AEP) was isolated and purified from venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch. The purification procedure included CM-Sephadex C-50 chromatography, gel filtration on Sephadex G-50 and DEAE-Sephadex A-50 chromatography. Its homogeneity was demonstrated by pH 4.3 polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, focusing electrophoresis and SDS/polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis. The Mr of this peptide, calculated from measurements in SDS/15%-polyacrylamide-disc-gel and SDS/20%-polyacrylamide-disc-gel electrophoresis, is 8300. The isoelectric point is 8.52 by pH 8-9.5-range isoelectric focusing. No haemorrhagic or toxic activities were found. No toxicity was found even after the dose reached 28 mg/kg. The pharmacological tests showed that the AEP had no effect on heart rate, blood pressure or electrocardiogram, but strongly inhibited epilepsy induced by coriaria lactone and cephaloridine. The fluorescence spectrum showed that the peptide has a strong emission peak at 337 nm. Amino acid analysis suggested that the AEP is composed of 66 residues from 18 amino acids and has an Mr of 8290. The sequence of the first 50 N-terminal residues is as follows: Asp-Gly-Tyr-Ile-Arg-Gly-Ser-Asp-Asn-Cys-Lys-Val-Ser-Cys-Leu-Leu-Gly-Asn- Glu-Gly - Cys-Asn-Lys-Glu-Cys-Arg-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Ala-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Tyr-Cys-Trp-Thr-Val- Lys-Leu - Ala-Gln-Asp-Cys-Glu-Gly-Leu-Pro-Asp-Thr-.
Project description:We have previously shown that an antigenic site in native lysozyme resides around the disulphide bridge 30-115 and incorporates Lys-33 and Lys-116 and one or both of Tyr-20 and Tyr-23. These residues fall in an imaginary line circumscribing part of the surface of the molecule and passing through the spatially adjacent residues Tyr-20, Arg-21, Tyr-23, Lys-116, Asn-113, Arg-114, Phe-34 and Lys-33. The identity of the site was confirmed by demonstrating that the synthetic peptide Tyr-Arg-Tyr-Gly-Lys-Asn-Arg-Gly-Phe-Lys (which does not exist in lysozyme but simulates a surface region of it), and an analogue in which glycine replaced Tyr-23, possessed remarkable immuno-chemical reactivity that accounted entirely for the expected reactivity of the site in native lysozyme. Tyr-23 is not part of the site, and its contribution was satisfied by a glycine spacer. The novel approach presents a powerful technique for the delineation of antigenic (and other binding) sites in native proteins and confirms that these need not always comprise residues in direct peptide linkage.
Project description:Head-to-tail cyclized analogues of the ? opioid receptor (MOR) agonist tetrapeptides DALDA (H-Tyr-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2 and [Dmt1]DALDA (H-Dmt-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-NH2; Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine) and their enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) were synthesized and pharmacologically characterized in vitro. Three pairs of enantiomeric cyclic peptides with both mirror-image isomers having equipotent MOR binding affinities but different binding affinities at the ? and ? opioid receptors were identified. The cyclic peptide enantiomers c[-D-Arg-Phe-Lys-Tyr-] (1) and c[-Arg-D-Phe-D-Lys-D-Tyr-] (2) showed nearly identical MOR binding affinity (1 - 2 nM) and equipotent MOR antagonist activity. The results of a MOR docking study indicated a very similar binding mode of the two enantiomers with nearly complete spatial overlap of the peptide ring structures and side chain interactions with the same MOR residues. Compounds 1 and 2 represent the first pair of enantiomeric G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands having multiple chiral centers, with both optical antipodes showing equal, low nanomolar receptor binding affinity.
Project description:H-DPhe (2)-c[Cys (3)-Phe (7)-DTrp (8)-Lys (9)-Thr (10)-Cys (14)]-Thr (15)-NH2 (1) (a somatostatin agonist, SRIF numbering) and H-Cpa (2)-c[DCys (3)-Tyr (7)-DTrp (8)-Lys (9)-Thr (10)-Cys (14)]-Nal (15)-NH2 (4) (a somatostatin antagonist) are based on the structure of octreotide that binds to three somatostatin receptor subtypes (sst 2/3/5) with significant binding affinity. Analogues of 1 and 4 were synthesized with norcysteine (Ncy), homocysteine (Hcy), or D-homocysteine (DHcy) at positions 3 and/or 14. Introducing Ncy at positions 3 and 14 constrained the backbone flexibility, resulting in loss of binding affinity at all sst s. The introduction of Hcy at positions 3 and 14 improved selectivity for sst 2 as a result of significant loss of binding affinity at the other sst s. Substitution by DHcy at position 3 in the antagonist scaffold (5), on the other hand, resulted in a significant loss of binding affinity at sst 2 and sst 3 as compared to the different affinities of the parent compound (4). The 3D NMR structures of the analogues in dimethylsulfoxide are consistent with the observed binding affinities.
Project description:As part of our continuing studies on the structure-activity relationships of cyclic pentapeptides based on the structure of endomorphin-2 (EM-2), we report here the synthesis and biological activities of a new series of analogues of a general sequence Tyr/Dmt-c[d-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]NH2 (where Dmt = 2',6'-dimethyltyrosine), incorporating fluorinated amino acids: 4-fluorophenylalanine (4-F-Phe), 2,4-difluorophenylalanine (2,4-F-Phe), or 4-trifluoromethylphenylalanine (4-CF3-Phe) instead of the Phe residue in position 3 or 4. Depending on the fluorinated amino acid residue and its position in the sequence, analogues were mixed, high affinity MOP/KOP receptor agonists, MOP/DOP/KOP agonists, or selective KOP agonists. The in vitro potencies and efficacies of all novel analogues were assessed in calcium mobilization assay. The most potent analogues, Dmt-c[d-Lys-Phe-4-F-Phe-Asp]NH2 and Dmt-c[d-Lys-Phe-2,4-F-Phe-Asp]NH2, were tested in vivo in the mouse hot-plate test. They produced strong antinociceptive effect not only after intracerebroventricular but also after intraperitoneal injection, indicating that they were able to cross the blood-brain barrier.
Project description:Penicillopepsin catalyses transpeptidation reactions involving the transfer of the N-terminal amino acids of suitable substrates via covalent acyl intermediates to acceptor peptides, usually the substrate. The major products obtained when Phe-Tyr-Thr-Pro-Lys-Ala and Met-Leu-Gly were used as substrates were Phe-Phe and Met-Met respectively. With Met-Leu-Gly the tetrapeptide Met-Met-Leu-Gly was observed as probable intermediate. Co-incubation of Leu-Tyr-Leu and Phe-Tyr-Thr-Pro-Lys-Ala led to the formation of Leu-Phe and Phe-Leu as well as Leu-Leu and Phe-Phe. No reaction was observed with tripeptides in which the first or second amino acid is glycine. It appears that two amino aicds with large hydrophobic residues are needed for the transpeptidation reaction. Nucleophilic compounds other than peptides, such as hydroxylamine, aliphatic alcohols and dinitrophenylhydrazine, were not acceptors for the acyl group. Leucine, phenylalanine and leucine methyl ester also had no effect on the reaction. The transpeptidation reaction proceeded readily at pH 3.6 and 4.7. At pH 6.0 the reaction was slow and at pH 1.9 little or no transpeptidation was observed. Porcine pepsin catalyses similar transpeptidation reactions. Sequence studies show that porcine pepsin and penicillopepsin are homologous. The present study also suggests that they have a very similar mechanism. Evidence available at this time indicates that the mechanism of these enzymes is complex and may be modulated by secondary substrate-enzyme interactions. A hypothesis is presented which proposes that pepsin-catalysed reactions proceed via different covalent intermediates (amino-intermediates or acylintermediates) depending on the nature of the substrate. The possibility that some reactions do not involve covalent intermediates is also discussed.
Project description:Morphine, which acts through opioid receptors, is one of the most efficient analgesics for the alleviation of severe pain. However, its usefulness is limited by serious side effects, including analgesic tolerance, constipation, and dependence liability. The growing awareness that multifunctional ligands which simultaneously activate two or more targets may produce a more desirable drug profile than selectively targeted compounds has created an opportunity for a new approach to developing more effective medications. Here, in order to better understand the role of the neurokinin system in opioid-induced antinociception, we report the synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and pharmacological characterization of a series of hybrids combining opioid pharmacophores with either substance P (SP) fragments or neurokinin receptor (NK1) antagonist fragments. On the bases of the in vitro biological activities of the hybrids, two analogs, opioid agonist/NK1 antagonist Tyr-[d-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]-Asn-d-Trp-Phe-d-Trp-Leu-Nle-NH2 (2) and opioid agonist/NK1 agonist Tyr-[d-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2 (4), were selected for in vivo tests. In the writhing test, both hybrids showed significant an antinociceptive effect in mice, while neither of them triggered the development of tolerance, nor did they produce constipation. No statistically significant differences in in vivo activity profiles were observed between opioid/NK1 agonist and opioid/NK1 antagonist hybrids.