Density Functional Study of Mo-Carbonyl-Catalyzed Alkynol Cycloisomerization: Comparison with W-Catalyzed Reaction.
ABSTRACT: Mo-catalyzed endo-cycloisomerizations of alkynes tethered to alcohols have been studied using density functional theory, and comparisons were made with the W-catalyzed reaction. The cycloisomerization is initiated with the formation of metal alkyne pi complex and is followed by the rate-determining step, which transforms the pi complex to a vinylidene carbene complex, considered to be critical for endo-mode cyclization. Several different alkynols have been selected to investigate five- and six-membered ring endo-cycloisomerizations in the presence of Mo(CO)(5) catalyst. The energy barriers calculated for five- and six-membered ring cycloisomerizations are within a range of 25-30 kcal/mol for most cases studied, showing no significant energy difference between the two metals. The stabilization effect of THF and Et(3)N solvents and the substitution reaction of THF by alkynol substrates in the reaction process with Mo and W complexes are studied as well. The principal difference between Mo- and W-catalyzed cycloisomerization processes appears to be the initial formation of a pi complex, which is more stabilizing for formation of the W-alkyne vs Mo-alkyne complexes.
Project description:Pd- and Ru-catalyzed cycloisomerizations of 1,6-enynes are compared and contrasted. Such considerations led to the enantioselective synthesis of a cyathin terpenoid, (+)-allocyathin B(2) (1). The synthesis features a Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) to install the initial quaternary center, a Ru-catalyzed diastereoselective cycloisomerization to construct the six-membered ring, and a diastereoselective hydroxylative Knoevenagel reaction to introduce the final hydroxyl group. We demonstrate for the first time a mechanism-based stereochemical divergence in Pd- and Ru-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions as well as in creation of alkene geometry with alkynes bearing a carboalkoxy group. Mechanistic rationalization is proposed for these observations.
Project description:Sequential cycloisomerizations of diynyl o-benzaldehyde substrates to access novel polycyclic cyclopropanes are reported. The reaction sequence involves initial Cu(I)-mediated cycloisomerization/nucleophilic addition to an isochromene followed by diastereoselective Pt(II)-catalyzed enyne cycloisomerization.
Project description:Laulimalide is a structurally unique 20-membered marine macrolide displaying microtubule stabilizing activity similar to that of paclitaxel and the epothilones. The use of atom-economical transformations such as a Rh-catalyzed cycloisomerization to form the endocyclic dihydropyran, a dinuclear Zn-catalyzed asymmetric glycolate aldol reaction to prepare the syn 1,2-diol, and an intramolecular Ru-catalyzed alkene-alkyne coupling to build the macrocycle enabled us to synthesize laulimalide via an efficient and convergent pathway. The designed synthetic route also allowed us to prepare an analogue of the natural product that possesses significant cytotoxic activity.
Project description:A new and unexpected Rh(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,6-enynes is reported. Several different alkyne substitution patterns were evaluated under the reaction conditions, including a deuterated derivative that provides some insight into the reaction mechanism.
Project description:Stereogenic-at-Mo monoalkoxide and monoaryloxide complexes promote enyne ring-closing metathesis (RCM) reactions, affording the corresponding endo products with high selectivity (typically >98:<2 endo:exo). All catalysts can be prepared and used in situ. Five-, six-, and seven-membered rings are obtained through reactions with enyne substrates that bear all-carbon tethers as well as those that contain heteroatom substituents. The newly developed catalytic protocols complement the related exo-selective Ru-catalyzed processes. In cases where Ru-based complexes deliver exo and endo products nondiscriminately, such as when tetrasubstituted cyclic alkenes are generated, Mo-catalyzed reactions afford the endo product exclusively. The efficiency of synthesis of N- and O-containing endo diene heterocycles can be improved significantly through structural modification of Mo catalysts. The modularity of Mo-based monopyrrolides is thus exploited in the identification of the most effective catalyst variants. Through alteration of O-based monodentate ligands, catalysts have been identified that promote enyne RCM with improved efficiency. The structural attributes of three Mo complexes are elucidated through X-ray crystallography. The first examples of catalytic enantioselective enyne RCM reactions are reported (up to 98:2 enantiomer ratio and >98% endo).
Project description:Cycloisomerizations of 1,n-enynes catalyzed by gold(I) proceed via electrophilic species with a highly distorted cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like structure, which can react with different nucleophiles to form a wide variety of products by attack at the cyclopropane or the carbene carbons. Particularly important are reactions in which the gold(I) carbene reacts with alkenes to form cyclopropanes either intra- or intermolecularly. In the absence of nucleophiles, 1,n-enynes lead to a variety of cycloisomerized products including those resulting from skeletal rearrangements. Reactions proceeding through cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like intermediates are ideally suited for the bioinspired synthesis of terpenoid natural products by the selective activation of the alkyne in highly functionalized enynes or polyenynes.
Project description:An interesting silver(I)-catalyzed, one-pot intramolecular cyclization of epoxide-propargylic esters is described. A variety of 1,4-oxazine derivatives were obtained through a novel domino sequence, including three-membered ring-opening, 3,3-sigmatropic rearrangement, 6-exo-cycloisomerization and subsequent intramolecular elimination in moderate yields under mild conditions.
Project description:Complementary methods for the transition-metal-catalyzed enyne cycloisomerizations of cyclic olefins have been developed. By using distinct ruthenium and palladium catalysts, decalins and 7,6-bicycles can be obtained with dichotomous stereochemical outcomes. The change in mechanism that accompanies the change in metal affords trans-fused 1,4-dienes with ruthenium and their cis-fused diastereomers under palladium catalysis. In the reactions under ruthenium catalysis, a coordinating group is required and acts to direct the metal to the same side of the carbocycle, resulting in the observed trans diastereoselectivity. Subtle changes in the carbocyclic substrate led to the discovery of a heretofore-unobserved mechanistic pathway, providing bicyclic cycloisomerization products under palladium catalysis and tricyclic products under ruthenium catalysis in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA). The differential effect of DMA supports a mechanism in which the coordination requirements of the two paths differ, allowing for the reaction to be shuttled through the metallacycle pathway (generating tricyclic products) when DMA is used as a solvent.
Project description:Herein, a ruthenium-catalyzed cycloisomerization that transforms 1,6-haloenynes into 5-membered carbo- and heterocycles that bear exocyclic, stereodefined, tetrasubstituted vinyl halides is reported. The reaction is insensitive to air and water, tolerates a variety of functional groups, and proceeds with good to excellent stereoselectivity and yield.
Project description:Transition-metal-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,n-allenynes represents a powerful synthetic tool to rapidly assemble complex polycyclic skeletons from simple linear substrates. Nevertheless, there are no reports of the asymmetric version of these reactions. Moreover, most of these reactions proceed through a 6-endo-dig cyclization pathway, which preferentially delivers the distal product (via 5/5 rhodacyclic intermediate) rather than the proximal one (via 6/5 rhodacyclic intermediate). Herein, we report an enantioselective rhodium(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 1,6-allenynes to provide the proximal product 5/6-fused bicycle[4.3.0]nonadienes in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. Remarkably, this chemistry works perfectly for 1,6-allenynes having a cyclic substituent within the allene component, thereby affording synthetically formidable tricyclic products with excellent enantioselectivities. Moreover, extensive DFT calculations suggest an uncommon pathway involving 5-exo-dig cycloisomerization, ring-expansion, rate-determining alkene isomerization involving Csp3-H activation, C-C activation of the cyclobutene moiety and finally reductive elimination. Deuterium labeling experiments support the rate-determining step involving the C-H bond activation in this transformation.