Simultaneous detection of pathogens in clinical samples from patients with community-acquired pneumonia by real-time PCR with pathogen-specific molecular beacon probes.
ABSTRACT: In this study, real-time PCR with pathogen-specific molecular beacons (MB) and primers was evaluated for prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causative agents, detecting six main CAP agents, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Streptococcus pyogenes, simultaneously. The PCR assay was evaluated for fresh clinical specimens from infants and children (n = 389) and from adults (n = 40). The MB probes and primers are both pathogen specific, namely, the lytA gene for S. pneumoniae, the mip gene for L. pneumophila, and 16S rRNA genes for the remaining four organisms. DNA extraction of clinical specimens was performed with a commercially available EXTRAGEN II kit, and amplification was performed with Stratagene Mx3000P. The limit of detection for these pathogens ranged from 2 copies to 18 copies. The whole process from DNA extraction to the analysis was finished in less than 2 h. The obtained sensitivity and specificity of this real-time PCR study relative to those of conventional cultures were as follows: 96.2% and 93.2% for S. pneumoniae, 95.8% and 95.4% for H. influenzae, 100% and 100% for S. pyogenes, and 100% and 95.4% for M. pneumoniae, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for M. pneumoniae relative to those of a serologic assay were 90.2% and 97.9%, respectively. In six clinical samples of C. pneumoniae, the real-time PCR gave positive predictable values, and in those cases, elevation of the titer value was also observed. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a real-time PCR assay with pathogen-specific MB is useful in identifying CAP causative agents rapidly and in examining the clinical course of empirical chemotherapy in a timely manner, supporting conventional culture methods.
Project description:Parapneumonic empyema (PPE) is an increasingly common complication of bacterial pneumonia. Epidemiologic study is complicated by the low frequency of positive cultures. We sought to describe the epidemiology of PPE in children using molecular analysis of pleural fluid.We performed molecular testing for bacterial pathogens using archived pleural fluid from children hospitalized in 2009 with PPE. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant), Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae as well as PCR-based serotyping of S. pneumoniae was performed. Demographic, laboratory, and microbiologic data were abstracted.Pleural fluid specimens from 63 children were available for PCR. By culture, a pathogen was isolated from blood and/or pleural fluid in 22 (35%) patients, with S. pneumoniae in 15 (24%), S. pyogenes in 3 (5%), and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in 4 (6%). By PCR, a pathogen was detected in 53 (84%), including S. pneumoniae in 45 (71%). Compared with culture, PCR testing significantly increased detection of any pathogen (35% vs. 84%; P < 0.001) and of S. pneumoniae (24% vs. 71%; P < 0.001). Serotype 7F was the most common pneumococcal serotype detected. Comparison of culture-negative to culture-positive disease showed differences in both the pathogen profile and clinical outcomes.Molecular analysis of pleural fluid more than doubled the detection of pathogens causing PPE. S. pneumoniae was the most common cause of both culture-positive and culture-negative PPE, although serotype distribution and outcomes differed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Empirical antibiotic coverage for atypical pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has long been debated, mainly because of a lack of epidemiological data. We aimed to assess both testing for atypical pathogens and their prevalence in hospitalized patients with CAP worldwide, especially in relation with disease severity. METHODS:A secondary analysis of the GLIMP database, an international, multicentre, point-prevalence study of adult patients admitted for CAP in 222 hospitals across 6 continents in 2015, was performed. The study evaluated frequency of testing for atypical pathogens, including L. pneumophila, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, and their prevalence. Risk factors for testing and prevalence for atypical pathogens were assessed through univariate analysis. RESULTS:Among 3702 CAP patients 1250 (33.8%) underwent at least one test for atypical pathogens. Testing varies greatly among countries and its frequency was higher in Europe than elsewhere (46.0% vs. 12.7%, respectively, p?<?0.0001). Detection of L. pneumophila urinary antigen was the most common test performed worldwide (32.0%). Patients with severe CAP were less likely to be tested for both atypical pathogens considered together (30.5% vs. 35.0%, p?=?0.009) and specifically for legionellosis (28.3% vs. 33.5%, p?=?0.003) than the rest of the population. Similarly, L. pneumophila testing was lower in ICU patients. At least one atypical pathogen was isolated in 62 patients (4.7%), including M. pneumoniae (26/251 patients, 10.3%), L. pneumophila (30/1186 patients, 2.5%), and C. pneumoniae (8/228 patients, 3.5%). Patients with CAP due to atypical pathogens were significantly younger, showed less cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic comorbidities in comparison to adult patients hospitalized due to non-atypical pathogen CAP. CONCLUSIONS:Testing for atypical pathogens in patients admitted for CAP in poorly standardized in real life and does not mirror atypical prevalence in different settings. Further evidence on the impact of atypical pathogens, expecially in the low-income countries, is needed to guidelines implementation.
Project description:Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and atypical pathogens, including fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The microbiological results of a phase 3 clinical trial in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) comparing delafloxacin (300?mg intravenously [i.v.] with the option to switch to 450?mg orally every 12 h) to moxifloxacin (400?mg i.v. with the option to switch to 400?mg orally once a day [QD]) were determined. Patients from 4 continents, predominately Europe but also South America and Asia, were enrolled. The microbiological intent-to-treat (MITT) population included 520 patients, and 60.5% of these patients had a bacterial pathogen identified. Multiple diagnostic methods were employed, including culture, serology, PCR, and urinary antigen tests. Based on baseline MIC90 values, delafloxacin exhibited at least 16-fold greater activity than moxifloxacin for Gram-positive and fastidious Gram-negative pathogens. Delafloxacin retained activity against resistant phenotypes found in Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-, macrolide-, and multiple-drug resistant), Haemophilus species (?-lactamase producing and macrolide nonsusceptible), and S. aureus (MRSA and fluoroquinolone-nonsusceptible methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]). The microbiological success rates were 92.7% for S. pneumoniae (87.5% for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae [PRSP]), 92.6% for S. aureus (100% for MRSA), 100% for Escherichia coli, 82.4% for Klebsiella pneumoniae, 100% for Klebsiella oxytoca, 100% for Moraxella catarrhalis, 91.7% for Haemophilus influenzae, 88.6% for Haemophilus parainfluenzae, 96.7% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 93.1% for Legionella pneumophila, and 100% for Chlamydia pneumoniae There was little correlation between MICs and outcomes, with a high proportion of favorable outcomes observed across all delafloxacin baseline MIC values. Delafloxacin may be considered a treatment option as monotherapy for CAP in adults, where broad-spectrum coverage including MRSA activity is desirable.
Project description:When antimicrobials are used empirically, pathogen MICs equal to clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cutoff values must be considered. This is to ensure that the most resistant pathogen subpopulation is appropriately targeted to prevent emergence of resistance. Accordingly, we determined the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of moxifloxacin at 400 mg/day in 18 patients treated empirically for community-acquired pneumonia. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model to assess the potential efficacy of moxifloxacin and to simulate the maximal MICs for which recommended pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) estimates are obtained. Moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were determined the day after therapy initiation using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Peak drug concentrations (Cmax) and area under the free drug concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (fAUC0-24) values predicted for each patient were evaluated against epidemiological cutoff MIC values for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella pneumophila. PK-PD targets adopted were a Cmax/MIC of ?12.2 for all pathogens, an fAUC0-24/MIC of >34 for S. pneumoniae, and an fAUC0-24/MIC of >75 for H. influenzae and L. pneumophila. Individual predicted estimates for Cmax/MIC and fAUC0-24/MIC as well as simulated maximal MICs resulting in target attainment for oral and intravenous administration of the drug were suitable for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae but not for L. pneumophila. These results indicate that caution must be taken when moxifloxacin is used as monotherapy to treat community-acquired pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila. In conclusion, this report reveals key information relevant to the empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia while highlighting the robust and flexible nature of this population pharmacokinetic model to predict therapeutic success. (Clinical Trials Registration no. NCT01983839.).
Project description:The frequent lack of a microbiological diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) impairs pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy. This study assessed the use of comprehensive multibacterial, multiviral molecular testing, including quantification, in adults hospitalized with CAP.Clinical and laboratory data were collected for 323 adults with radiologically-confirmed CAP admitted to 2 UK tertiary care hospitals. Sputum (96%) or endotracheal aspirate (4%) specimens were cultured as per routine practice and also tested with fast multiplex real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) assays for 26 respiratory bacteria and viruses. Bacterial loads were also calculated for 8 bacterial pathogens. Appropriate pathogen-directed therapy was retrospectively assessed using national guidelines adapted for local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.Comprehensive molecular testing of single lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens achieved pathogen detection in 87% of CAP patients compared with 39% with culture-based methods. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the main agents detected, along with a wide variety of typical and atypical pathogens. Viruses were present in 30% of cases; 82% of these were codetections with bacteria. Most (85%) patients had received antimicrobials in the 72 hours before admission. Of these, 78% had a bacterial pathogen detected by PCR but only 32% were culture-positive (P < .0001). Molecular testing had the potential to enable de-escalation in number and/or spectrum of antimicrobials in 77% of patients.Comprehensive molecular testing significantly improves pathogen detection in CAP, particularly in antimicrobial-exposed patients, and requires only a single LRT specimen. It also has the potential to enable early de-escalation from broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobials to pathogen-directed therapy.
Project description:We developed a diagnostic array of oligonucleotide probes targeting species-specific variable regions of the genes encoding topoisomerases GyrB and ParE of respiratory bacterial pathogens. Suitable broad-range primer sequences were designed based on alignment of gyrB/parE sequences from nine different bacterial species. These species included Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Haemophilus influenzae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Specific probe sequences were selected by comparative analysis against the European Bioinformatics Database, as well as gyrB/parE sequences generated for this study. To verify specificity, at least six initial oligonucleotide probe sequences per bacterial species were tested by hybridization on a solid glass support using culture collection strains as templates. Finally, three oligonucleotide probes per bacterial species were utilized to examine 65 middle ear fluid and 29 throat swab samples. The sensitivities of the developed assay compared to classic culture from middle ear fluid samples for H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and S. pneumoniae were 96 (93 for culture), 73 (93 for culture), and 100% (78% for culture), respectively. No cross-reactivity with bacterial species belonging to the normal oral flora was observed when the 29 throat swab samples were studied. The sensitivity of the assay to detect S. pyogenes from these samples was 93% (80% for culture). These results provide a proof of concept for the diagnostic use of microarray technology based on broad-range topoisomerase gene amplification, followed by hybridization and specific detection of bacterial species.
Project description:Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae are important causes of meningitis and other infections, and rapid, sensitive, and specific laboratory assays are critical for effective public health interventions. Singleplex real-time PCR assays have been developed to detect N. meningitidis ctrA, H. influenzae hpd, and S. pneumoniae lytA and serogroup-specific genes in the cap locus for N. meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, W135, X, and Y. However, the assay sensitivity for serogroups B, W135, and Y is low. We aimed to improve assay sensitivity and develop multiplex assays to reduce time and cost. New singleplex real-time PCR assays for serogroup B synD, W135 synG, and Y synF showed 100% specificity for detecting N. meningitidis species, with high sensitivity (serogroup B synD, 99% [75/76]; W135 synG, 97% [38/39]; and Y synF, 100% [66/66]). The lower limits of detection (LLD) were 9, 43, and 10 copies/reaction for serogroup B synD, W135 synG, and Y synF assays, respectively, a significant improvement compared to results for the previous singleplex assays. We developed three multiplex real-time PCR assays for detection of (i) N. meningitidis ctrA, H. influenzae hpd, and S. pneumoniae lytA (NHS assay); (ii) N. meningitidis serogroups A, W135, and X (AWX assay); and (iii) N. meningitidis serogroups B, C, and Y (BCY assay). Each multiplex assay was 100% specific for detecting its target organisms or serogroups, and the LLD was similar to that for the singleplex assay. Pairwise comparison of real-time PCR between multiplex and singleplex assays showed that cycle threshold values of the multiplex assay were similar to those for the singleplex assay. There were no substantial differences in sensitivity and specificity between these multiplex and singleplex real-time PCR assays.
Project description:The Epidemiology of otitis media with spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane and associated nasopharyngeal carriage of bacterial otopathogens was analysed in a county in Catalonia (Spain) with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) not included in the immunization programme at study time. A prospective, multicentre study was performed in 10 primary care centres and 2 hospitals (June 2011-June 2014), including all otherwise healthy children ?2 months ?8 years with otitis media presenting spontaneous tympanic perforation within 48h. Up to 521 otitis episodes in 487 children were included, showing by culture/PCR in middle ear fluid (MEF): Haemophilus influenzae [24.2%], both Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae [24.0%], S. pneumoniae [15.9%], Streptococcus pyogenes [13.6%], and Staphylococcus aureus [6.7%]. Culture-negative/PCR-positive otitis accounted for 31.3% (S. pneumoniae), 30.2% (H. influenzae) and 89.6% (mixed S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae infections). Overall, incidence decreased over the 3-year study period, with significant decreases in otitis by S. pneumoniae and by H. influenzae, but no decreases for mixed S. pneumoniae/H. influenzae infections. Concordance between species in nasopharynx and MEF was found in 58.3% of cases, with maximal rates for S. pyogenes (71.8%), and with identical pneumococcal serotype in 40.5% of cases. Most patients (66.6%) had past episodes. PCV13 serotypes were significantly more frequent in first episodes, in otitis by S. pneumoniae as single agent, and among MEF than nasopharyngeal isolates. All non-PCV13 serotypes separately accounted for <5% in MEF. Up to 73.9% children had received ?1 dose of PCV, with lower carriage of PCV13 serotypes than among non-vaccinated children. Pooling pneumococcal isolates from MEF and nasopharynx, 30% were multidrug resistant, primarily belonging to serotypes 19A [29.8%], 24A [14.3%], 19F [8.3%] and 15A [6.0%]. Our results suggest that increasing PCV13 vaccination would further reduce transmission of PCV13 serotypes with special benefits for youngest children (with none or uncompleted vaccine schedules), preventing first otitis episodes and subsequent recurrences.
Project description:A large number of viral and bacterial organisms are responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) which contributes to substantial burden on health management. A new resequencing microarray (RPM-IVDC1) associated with targeted multiplex PCR was recently developed and validated for multiple respiratory viruses detection and discrimination. In this study, we evaluated the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for simultaneous identification of multiple viral and bacterial organisms. The nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) of 110 consecutive CAP patients, aged from 1 month to 96 years old, were collected from five distinct general hospitals in Beijing during 1-year period. The samples were subjected to the RPM-IVDC1 established protocol as compared to a real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), which was used as standard. The results of virus detection were consistent with those previously described. A total of 37 of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 14 of Haemophilus influenzae, 10 of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, two of Klebsiella pneumoniae and one of Moraxella catarrhalis were detected by RPM-IVDC1. The sensitivities and specificities were compared with those of qRT-PCR for S. pneumoniae (100, 100%, respectively), H. influenzae (92.3, 97.9%, respectively), M. pneumoniae (69.2, 99.0%, respectively), K. pneumoniae (100, 100%, respectively), and M. catarrhalis (100, 100%, respectively). Additional 22 of Streptococcus spp., 24 of Haemophilus spp. and 16 of Neisseria spp. were identified. In addition, methicillin-resistant and carbapenemases allele were also found in nine of Staphylococcus spp. and one of K. pneumoniae, respectively. These results demonstrated the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for simultaneous detection of broad-spectrum respiratory pathogens in complex backgrounds and the advantage of accessing to the actual sequences, showing great potential use of epidemic outbreak investigation. The detection results should be carefully interpreted when introducing this technique in the clinical diagnostics.
Project description:Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the outcome of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). In this study, we developed an assay combining multiplex PCR and Luminex technology (MPLT) for the detection of nine important respiratory bacterial pathogens, which frequently cause LRTIs. These were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Through the hybridization reaction between two new synthesized multiplex PCR products and MagPlex-TAG Microspheres, we demonstrate that the detection limits for these nine pathogens were as low as 10²-10³ CFU/mL. Furthermore, 86 clinical bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens were used to evaluate this method. Compared with the results of nine simplex real-time PCR reactions targeting these nine pathogens, this MPLT assay demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy for Streptococcus pneumoniae (sensitivity, 87.5% and specificity, 100%). Furthermore, sensitivity and specificity for the other eight pathogens all attained 100% diagnostic accuracy. In addition, the consistency between MPLT and the nine real-time PCR reactions exceeded 98.8%. In conclusion, MPLT is a high-throughput, labor-saving and reliable method with high sensitivity and specificity for identifying nine respiratory pathogens responsible for LRTIs. Indeed, this assay may be a promising supplement to conventional methods used to diagnose LRTIs.