Species-specific identification of campylobacters by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Species-specific identification of campylobacters is problematic, primarily due to the absence of suitable biochemical assays and the existence of atypical strains. 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA)-based identification of bacteria offers a possible alternative when phenotypic tests fail. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of 16S rDNA sequencing for the species-specific identification of campylobacters. Sequence analyses were performed by using almost 94% of the complete 16S rRNA genes of 135 phenotypically characterized Campylobacter strains, including all known taxa of this genus. It was shown that 16S rDNA analysis enables specific identification of most Campylobacter species. The exception was a lack of discrimination among the taxa Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli and atypical C. lari strains, which shared identical or nearly identical 16S rDNA sequences. Subsequently, it was investigated whether partial 16S rDNA sequences are sufficient to determine species identity. Sequence alignments led to the identification of four 16S rDNA regions with high degrees of interspecies variation but with highly conserved sequence patterns within the respective species. A simple protocol based on the analysis of these sequence patterns was developed, which enabled the unambiguous identification of the majority of Campylobacter species. We recommend 16S rDNA sequence analysis as an effective, rapid procedure for the specific identification of campylobacters.
Project description:The mammalian gastric and oral mucosa may be colonized by mixed Helicobacter and Campylobacter species, respectively, in individual animals. To better characterize the presence and distribution of Helicobacter and Campylobacter among marine mammals, we used PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis to examine gastric and oral samples from ten dolphins (Tursiops gephyreus), one killer whale (Orcinus orca), one false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), and three wild La Plata river dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei). Helicobacter spp. DNA was widely distributed in gastric and oral samples from both captive and wild cetaceans. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated two Helicobacter sequence clusters, one closely related to H. cetorum, a species isolated from dolphins and whales in North America. The second related cluster was to sequences obtained from dolphins in Australia and to gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters, and may represent a novel taxonomic group. Dental plaque sequences from four dolphins formed a third cluster within the Campylobacter genus that likely represents a novel species isolated from marine mammals. Identification of identical Helicobacter spp. DNA sequences from dental plaque, saliva and gastric fluids from the same hosts, suggests that the oral cavity may be involved in transmission. These results demonstrate that Helicobacter and Campylobacter species are commonly distributed in marine mammals, and identify taxonomic clusters that may represent novel species.
Project description:Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) systems have been reported previously for multiple food- and food animal-associated Campylobacter species (e.g., C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. fetus) to both differentiate strains and identify clonal lineages. These MLST methods focused primarily on campylobacters of human clinical (e.g., C. jejuni) or veterinary (e.g., C. fetus) relevance. However, other, emerging, Campylobacter species have been isolated increasingly from environmental, food animal, or human clinical samples. We describe herein four MLST methods for five emerging Campylobacter species: C. hyointestinalis, C. lanienae, C. sputorum, C. concisus, and C. curvus. The concisus/curvus method uses the loci aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, ilvD, and pgm, whereas the other methods use the seven loci defined for C. jejuni (i.e., aspA, atpA, glnA, gltA, glyA, pgm, and tkt). Multiple food animal and human clinical C. hyointestinalis (n?=?48), C. lanienae (n?=?34), and C. sputorum (n?=?24) isolates were typed, along with 86 human clinical C. concisus and C. curvus isolates. A large number of sequence types were identified using all four MLST methods. Additionally, these methods speciated unequivocally isolates that had been typed ambiguously using other molecular-based speciation methods, such as 16S rDNA sequencing. Finally, the design of degenerate primer pairs for some methods permitted the typing of related species; for example, the C. hyointestinalis primer pairs could be used to type C. fetus strains. Therefore, these novel Campylobacter MLST methods will prove useful in differentiating strains of multiple, emerging Campylobacter species.
Project description:A sensitive PCR assay that detects the thermophilic campylobacters C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, and C. upsaliensis is reported. Furthermore, by digestion of the PCR products with two restriction enzymes, species differentiation was demonstrated. Thus, the present method has the potential to be used for both detection and identification of thermophilic Campylobacter species.
Project description:Prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are used to study the aetiology and prevention of gallstones because of the similarities of prairie dog and human bile gallstone composition. Epidemiological and experimental studies have suggested a connection between infection with Helicobacter species and cholesterol cholelithiasis, cholecystis and gallbladder cancer. Ten of the 34 prairie dogs in this study had positive Helicobacter species identified by PCR using Helicobacter genus-specific primers. Ten of 34 prairie dogs had positive Campylobacter species identified in the intestine by PCR with Campylobacter genus-specific primers. Six Helicobacter sp. isolates and three Campylobacter sp. isolates were identified taxonomically by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The prairie dog helicobacters fell into three clusters adjacent to Helicobacter marmotae. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, three strains in two adjacent clusters were included in the species H. marmotae. Three strains were only 97.1?% similar to the sequence of H. marmotae and can be considered a novel species with the provisional designation Helicobacter sp. Prairie Dog 3. The prairie dog campylobacters formed a single novel cluster and represent a novel Campylobacter sp. with the provisional designation Campylobacter sp. Prairie Dog. They branched with Campylobacter cuniculorum at 96.3?% similarity and had the greatest sequence similarity to Campylobacter helveticus at 97.1?% similarity. Whether H. marmotae or the novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp. identified in prairie dogs play a role in cholesterol gallstones or hepatobiliary disease requires further studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Identification and characterization of intervening sequences (IVSs) within 23S rRNA genes from Campylobacter organisms including atypical campylobacters were carried out using two PCR primer pairs, designed to generate helix 25 and 45 regions. RESULTS: Only C. sputorum biovar sputorum LMG7975 and fecalis LMG8531, LMG8534 and LMG6728 of a total of 204 Campylobacter isolates (n = 56 C. jejuni; n = 11 C. coli; n = 33 C. fetus; n = 43 C. upsaliensis; n = 30 C. hyointestinalis; n = 4 C. sputorum biovar sputorum; n = 5 C. sputorum biovar fecalis; n = 5 C. sputorum biovar paraureolyticus; n = 10 C. concisus; n = 7 C. curvus) were shown to carry IVSs in helix 25 region. C. sputorum biovar fecalis LMG8531 and LMG8534, interestingly, carried two different kinds of the 23S rRNA genes with and without the IVS, respectively. Consequently, in a total of 265 isolates of 269, including 65 C. lari isolates examined previously, the absence of IVSs was identified in the helix 25 region. In the helix 45 region, all the C. hyointestinalis, C. sputorum and C. concisus isolates were shown not to carry any IVSs. However, the 30 of 56 C. jejuni isolates (54%), 5 of 11 C. coli (45%), 25 of 33 C. fetus (76%), 30 of 43 C. upsaliensis (70%) and 6 of 7 C. curvus (90%) were shown to carry IVSs. In C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis isolates, two different kinds of the 23S rRNA genes were also identified to occur with and without IVSs in the helix 45 region, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Secondary structure models were also constructed with all the IVSs identified in the present study. In the purified RNA fractions from the isolates which carried the 16S or 23S rRNA genes with the IVSs, no 16S or 23S rRNA was evident, respectively.
Project description:We examined the prevalence, quantity, and diversity of Campylobacter species in the excreta of 159 California gull (Larus californicus) samples using culture-, PCR-, and quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based detection assays. Campylobacter prevalence and abundance were relatively high in the gull excreta examined; however, C. jejuni and C. lari were detected in fewer than 2% of the isolates and DNA extracts from the fecal samples that tested positive. Moreover, molecular and sequencing data indicated that most L. californicus campylobacters were novel (<97% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to known Campylobacter species) and not closely related to species commonly associated with human illness. Campylobacter estimates were positively related with those of fecal indicators, including a gull fecal marker based on the Catellicoccus marimammalium 16S rRNA gene.
Project description:This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log?? CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers.
Project description:Consumption of foods containing chicken liver has been associated with Campylobacter enteritis. Campylobacters can contaminate the surface of livers post-mortem but can also arise through systemic infection of colonising bacteria in live birds. The use of bacteriophage to reduce levels of Campylobacter entering the food chain is a promising intervention approach but most phages have been isolated from chicken excreta. This study examined the incidence and contamination levels of Campylobacter and their bacteriophage in UK retail chicken liver. Using enrichment procedures, 87% of 109 chicken livers were surface contaminated with Campylobacter and 83% contaminated within internal tissues. Direct plating on selective agar allowed enumeration of viable bacteria from 43% of liver samples with counts ranging from 1.8->3.8log10CFU/cm2 for surface samples, and 3.0->3.8log10CFU/g for internal tissue samples. Three C. jejuni isolates recovered from internal liver tissues were assessed for their ability to colonise the intestines and extra-intestinal organs of broiler chickens following oral infection. All isolates efficiently colonised the chicken intestines but were variable in their abilities to colonise extra-intestinal organs. One isolate, CLB104, could be recovered by enrichment from the livers and kidneys of three of seven chickens. Campylobacter isolates remained viable within fresh livers stored at 4°C over 72h and frozen livers stored at -20°C over 7days in atmospheric oxygen, and therefore constitute a risk to human health. Only three Campylobacter-specific bacteriophages were isolated, and these exhibited a limited host range against the Camplylobacter chicken liver isolates. All were identified as group III virulent bacteriophage based on their genome size of 140kb. The application of broad host range group II virulent phages (8log10PFU/g) to liver homogenates containing C. jejuni strains of diverse origin at 4°C resulted in modest but significant reductions in the viable counts ranging from 0.2 to 0.7log10CFU/g.
Project description:There are only two reports in the literature demonstrating the presence of Campylobacter spp. in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland, and the other describes the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and an unknown Campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. In this study, 72 presumptive C. lari and unknown Campylobacter species strains were characterized using standard phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA PCR, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phenotypic characterization of these isolates showed them to be variable in their ability to grow either at 42 degrees C or on agar containing 1% glycine and in their sensitivity to nalidixic acid and cephalothin. Based on both 16S rRNA PCR and MLST, all but 1 of the 72 isolates were C. insulaenigrae, with one isolate being similar to but distinct from both Campylobacter upsaliensis and Campylobacter helveticus. Phylogenetic analysis identified two C. insulaenigrae clades: the primary clade, containing exclusively California strains, and a secondary clade, containing some California strains and all of the original Scottish strains. This study demonstrates the inability of phenotypic characterization to correctly identify all Campylobacter species and emphasizes the importance of molecular characterization via 16S rRNA sequence analysis or MLST for the identification of Campylobacter isolates from marine mammals.
Project description:The phylogeny of 12 Campylobacter species and reference strains of Arcobacter butzleri and Helicobacter pylori was studied based on partial 593-bp groEL gene sequences. The topology of the phylogenetic neighbor-joining tree based on the groEL gene was similar to that of the tree based on the 16S rRNA gene. However, groEL was found to provide a better resolution for Campylobacter species, with lower interspecies sequence similarities (range, 65 to 94%) compared with those for the 16S rRNA gene (range, 90 to 99%) and high intraspecies sequence similarities (range, 95 to 100%; average, 99%). A new universal reverse primer that amplifies a 517-bp fragment of the groEL gene was developed and used for PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of 68 strains representing 11 Campylobacter species as well as reference strains of A. butzlerii and H. pylori. Digestion with the AluI enzyme discriminated all Campylobacter species included in the study but showed more intraspecies diversity than digestion with the ApoI enzyme. A hippurate-negative variant of Campylobacter jejuni with a high level of groEL sequence similarity to both C. jejuni (96%) and C. coli (94%) gave a unique AluI profile and an ApoI profile identical to those of other C. jejuni strains. In conclusion, groEL gene sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis are recommended as valuable tools for the identification of Campylobacter species.