Involvement of extracellular Ca2+ influx and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase transactivation in endothelin-1-induced arachidonic acid release.
ABSTRACT: 1. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) activates two types of Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channels (designated NSCC-1 and NSCC-2) and a store-operated Ca(2+) channel (SOCC) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). These channels can be distinguished by their sensitivity to Ca(2+)-channel blockers, SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. LOE 908 is sensitive to NSCC-1 and NSCC-2, and SK&F 96365 is sensitive to NSCC-2 and SOCC. Moreover, these channels play essential roles in ET-1-induced epidermal growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinase (EGFR PTK) transactivation. The main purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the involvement of EGFR PTK transactivation in ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release in VSMCs. 2. Both SK&F 96365 and LOE 908 inhibited ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release with the IC(50) values correlated to those of ET-1-induced Ca(2+) influx. Moreover, combined treatment with these blockers abolished ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release. 3. AG1478, a specific inhibitor of EGFR PTK, inhibited ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). The IC(50) values of AG1478 for ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release and ERK1/2 correlated well with those for ET-1-induced EGFR PTK transactivation. 4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor, PD 98059, inhibited ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release. The IC(50) values of PD 98059 for ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release were similar to those for ET-1-induced ERK1/2 activity. In contrast, PD 98059 failed to inhibit ET-1-induced EGFR PTK transactivation. 5. These results indicate that (1) extracellular Ca(2+) influx through NSCCs and SOCC plays important roles for ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release, (2) EGFR PTK transactivation/ERK1/2 pathways are involved in ET-1-induced arachidonic acid release.
Project description:We have recently shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) activates two types of Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels (designated NSCC-1 and NSCC-2) and store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC). These channels can be pharmacologically discriminated using Ca2+ channel blockers such as SK&F 96365 and LOE 908. Here we characterized Ca2+ entry channels involved in ET-1-induced contractions of rat thoracic aortic rings and increases in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) of single smooth muscle cells using these blockers. LOE 908 or a blocker of voltage-operated Ca2+ channel nifedipine had no effect on the contractions and increases in [Ca2+]i induced by thapsigargin or ionomycin, whereas SK&F 96365 abolished them. The contractions and increases in [Ca2+]i induced by ET-1 depended on extracellular Ca2+ but were resistant to nifedipine. The responses to lower concentrations (< or =0.1 nM) of ET-1 were abolished by either SK&F 96365 or LOE 908. The responses to higher concentrations (> or = 1 nM) were abolished by SK&F 96365, but were partially resistant to LOE 908. SK&F 96365 inhibited the LOE 908-resistant contractions induced by higher concentrations of ET-1 with IC50 values similar to those for contractions induced by thapsigargin or ionomycin. These results show that the contractions and increases in [Ca2+]i of rat aortic smooth muscles at lower concentrations of ET-1 involve only one Ca2+ entry channel which is sensitive to SK&F 96365 and LOE 908 (NSCC-2), whereas those at higher concentrations of ET-1 involve another Ca2+ entry channel which is sensitive to SK&F 96365 but resistant to LOE 908 (SOCC) in addition to the former channel.
Project description:Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), a family of protein serine/threonine kinases regulating cell growth and differentiation, are activated by a dual-specificity kinase through phosphorylation at threonine and tyrosine. We used a recently described selective inhibitor of the p42/p44mapk-activating enzyme, PD 98059 [2-(2'-amino-3'-methoxyphenyl)-oxanaphthalen-4-one], to investigate the role of the p42/p44mapk pathway in human platelets. PD 98059 inhibited p42/p44mapk activation in thrombin-, collagen- and phorbol esterstimulated platelets, as determined from in-gel renaturation kinase assays, with an IC50 of approx. 5 microM (thrombin stimulation). It also prevented activation of MAPK kinase, which was measured in whole-cell lysates with glutathione S-transferase/p42mapk fusion protein (GST-MAPK) as substrate. Inhibition of p42/p44mapk did not affect platelet responses to thrombin or collagen such as aggregation, 5-hydroxytryptamine release and protein kinase C activation. In addition, PD 98059 did not interfere with release of arachidonic acid, a response mediated by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), or with cPLA2 phosphorylation. This suggests that platelet cPLA2 is not regulated by p42/p44mapk after stimulation with physiological agonists. In contrast, phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation of cPLA2 and potentiation of arachidonic acid release stimulated by Ca2+ ionophore A23187 were inhibited by PD 98059, indicating that p42/p44mapk phosphorylates cPLA2 after activation of protein kinase C by the non-physiological tumour promoter.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is elevated and participates in the regulation of several brain inflammatory disorders. The deleterious effects of ET-1 on endothelial cells may aggravate brain inflammation mediated through the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced COX-2 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine whether ET-1-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release were mediated through a c-Src-dependent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway in brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3 cells). METHODS: The expression of COX-2 induced by ET-1 was evaluated by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. The COX-2 regulatory signaling pathways were investigated by pretreatment with pharmacological inhibitors, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and promoter activity reporter assays. Finally, we determined the PGE2 level as a marker of functional activity of COX-2 expression. RESULTS: First, the data showed that ET-1-induced COX-2 expression was mediated through a c-Src-dependent transactivation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt cascade. Next, we demonstrated that ET-1 stimulated activation (phosphorylation) of c-Src/EGFR/Akt/MAPKs (ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2) and then activated the c-Jun/activator protein 1 (AP-1) via Gq/i protein-coupled ETB receptors. The activated c-Jun/AP-1 bound to its corresponding binding sites within COX-2 promoter, thereby turning on COX-2 gene transcription. Ultimately, upregulation of COX-2 by ET-1 promoted PGE2 biosynthesis and release in bEnd.3 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that in bEnd.3 cells, c-Src-dependent transactivation of EGFR/PI3K/Akt and MAPKs linking to c-Jun/AP-1 cascade is essential for ET-1-induced COX-2 upregulation. Understanding the mechanisms of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release regulated by ET-1/ETB system on brain microvascular endothelial cells may provide rational therapeutic interventions for brain injury and inflammatory diseases.
Project description:We have examined the effects of l-thyroxine (T4) on the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and on the STAT3-dependent induction of c-Fos expression by epidermal growth factor (EGF). T4, at a physiological concentration of 100 nM, caused tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation (i.e. activation) of STAT3 in HeLa cells in as little as 10-20 min. Activation by T4 of STAT3 was maximal at 30 min (15+/-4-fold enhancement; mean+/-S.E.M.) in 18 experiments. This effect was reproduced by T4-agarose (100 nM) and blocked by CGP 41251, genistein, PD 98059 and geldanamycin, inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase and Raf-1 respectively. Tyrosine-phosphorylated MAPK also appeared in nuclear fractions within 10 min of treatment with T4. In the nuclear fraction of T4-treated cells, MAPK immunoprecipitate also contained STAT3. The actions of T4 were similar in HeLa and CV-1 cells, which lack thyroid hormone receptor (TR), and in TR-replete skin fibroblasts (BG-9). T4 also potentiated the EGF-induced nuclear translocation of activated STAT1alpha and STAT3 and enhanced the EGF-stimulated expression of c-Fos. Hormone potentiation of EGF-induced signal transduction and c-Fos expression was inhibited by CGP 41251, geldanamycin and PD 98059. Therefore the non-genomically induced activation by T4 of STAT3, and the potentiation of EGF by T4, require activities of PKC, PTK and an intact MAPK pathway.
Project description:The activation of endothelin-A receptor (ET(A)R) by endothelin-1 (ET-1) has a critical role in ovarian tumorigenesis and progression. To define the molecular mechanism in ET-1-induced tumor invasion and metastasis, we focused on beta-arrestins as scaffold and signaling proteins of G protein-coupled receptors. Here, we demonstrate that, in ovarian cancer cells, beta-arrestin is recruited to ET(A)R to form two trimeric complexes: one through the interaction with Src leading to epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and beta-catenin Tyr phosphorylation, and the second through the physical association with axin, contributing to release and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and beta-catenin stabilization. The engagement of beta-arrestin in these two signaling complexes concurs to activate beta-catenin signaling pathways. We then demonstrate that silencing of both beta-arrestin-1 and beta-arrestin-2 inhibits ET(A)R-driven signaling, causing suppression of Src, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), AKT activation, as well as EGFR transactivation and a complete inhibition of ET-1-induced beta-catenin/TCF transcriptional activity and cell invasion. ET(A)R blockade with the specific ET(A)R antagonist ZD4054 abrogates the engagement of beta-arrestin in the interplay between ET(A)R and the beta-catenin pathway in the invasive program. Finally, ET(A)R is expressed in 85% of human ovarian cancers and is preferentially co-expressed with beta-arrestin-1 in the advanced tumors. In a xenograft model of ovarian metastasis, HEY cancer cells expressing beta-arrestin-1 mutant metastasize at a reduced rate, highlighting the importance of this molecule in promoting metastases. ZD4054 treatment significantly inhibits metastases, suggesting that specific ET(A)R antagonists, by disabling multiple signaling activated by ET(A)R/beta-arrestin, may represent new therapeutic opportunities for ovarian cancer.
Project description:Experiments were carried out in isolated canine ventricular trabeculae and acetoxymethylester of indo-1-loaded single myocytes to elucidate the role of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) in the inotropic effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced by crosstalk with norepinephrine (NE). The PTK inhibitor genistein was used as a pharmacological tool. Genistein but not daidzein inhibited the positive inotropic effect and the increase in Ca(2+) transients induced by ET-1 by crosstalk with NE at low concentrations. Genistein and daidzein antagonized the negative inotropic effect and the decrease in Ca(2+) transients induced by ET-1 by crosstalk with NE at high concentrations, but genistein did not affect the antiadrenergic effect of carbachol. Genistein but not daidzein enhanced the positive inotropic effect and the increase in Ca(2+) transients induced by NE via beta-adrenoceptors, while the enhancing effect of genistein was abolished by the protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. These findings indicate that genistein (1) induces a positive inotropic effect in association with an increase in Ca(2+) transients, (2) inhibits the positive inotropic effect of ET-1 induced by crosstalk with NE, and (3) enhances the positive inotropic effect of NE induced via beta-adrenoceptors by inhibition of PTK. In addition, genistein inhibits the negative inotropic effect of ET-1 induced by crosstalk with NE through a PTK-unrelated mechanism. PTK may play a crucial role in the receptor-mediated regulation of cardiac contractile function in canine ventricular myocardium.
Project description:The voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCC), which allow Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space, are inhibited by anti-hypertensive agents such as verapamil and nifedipine. The Ca(2+) entering from outside into the cell triggers Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores. To refill the depleted Ca(2+) stores in the SR, another type of Ca(2+) channels in the cell membrane, known as store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCC), are activated. These SOCCs are verapamil and nifedipine resistant, but are SKF 96465 (SK) and gadolinium (Gd(3+) ) sensitive. Both SK and Gd(3+) have been shown to reduce [Ca(2+) ]i in the smooth muscle, but their effects on blood pressure have not been reported. Our results demonstrated that both SK and Gd(3+) produced a dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure in rat. The combination of SK and verapamil produced an additive action in lowering the blood pressure. Furthermore, SK, but not Gd(3+) suppressed proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells in the absence or presence of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). SK decreased the elevation of [Ca(2+) ]i induced by LPA, endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II), but did not affect the norepinephrine (NE)-evoked increase in [Ca(2+) ]i . On the other hand, Gd(3+) inhibited the LPA and Ang II induced change in [Ca(2+) ]i , but had no effect on the ET-1 and NE induced increase in [Ca(2+) ]i . The combination of verapamil and SK abolished the LPA- or adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-induced [Ca(2+) ]i augmentation. These results suggest that SOCC inhibitors, like VOCC blocker, may serve as promising drugs for the treatment of hypertension.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A specialized classification for small biopsies was added to the 2015 WHO classification of lung tumors. The purpose of this study is to explore and summarize the experience of applying the newly proposed classifications and criteria to clinical practice. METHODS:We used the 2015 WHO criteria to sort out 5032 small lung biopsies from a group of Chinese patients, and demonstrated their clinicopathological features, mutational status and the relationship between these factors. RESULTS:The most common diagnosis was primary lung carcinoma (3130, 62.2%), among which adenocarcinoma (1421, 28.2%) was the most frequent histological type. The mutational assays using ARMS-PCR technology demonstrated that EGFR was positive in 56.1% cases(499/889, from adenocarcinoma and NSCC, favor adenocarcinoma), ALK in 5.7% cases(12/211, from NSCC, which comprised all the primary lung carcinomas except small cell carcinomas), and ROS1 in 0.9% cases(2/211, from NSCC). Another 898 NSCC specimens went through an immunohistochemical (IHC) examination for ALK (D5F3) and 38 of them were positive (4.2%). The overall mutation rate of ALK was 4.5% (50/1119). There was no significant difference between ARMS-PCR and immunohistochemistry in the positive rate of ALK mutation detection (P?=?0.359). EGFR mutations (P?=?0.02) and ALK mutations (P?<?0.001) both decreased with an increasing patient age. Furthermore, the amount of EGFR mutations was higher in adenocarcinoma (64.1% vs 34.1%, P?<?0.001) than in NSCC, favor adenocarcinoma. In contrast, ALK mutations were more common in NSCC, favor adenocarcinoma (4.2% vs 8.4%, P?=?0.021). CONCLUSIONS:This single-center study exhibited a large subset of small lung biopsies from a Chinese institution and demonstrated that applying the 2015 WHO classification for small lung biopsies can help predict the mutational status of primary lung carcinomas.
Project description:The rapid synthesis and release of prostacyclin (PGI2) and the exocytotic secretion of von Willebrand Factor (vWF) elicited by activation of G-protein-coupled receptors on endothelium occur via signaling mechanisms which are incompletely defined. Activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and modulation of the tyrosine-phosphorylation state of endogenous proteins have been implicated in several cellular processes including arachidonate release and exocytosis. In the present study we have examined the regulatory role of PTKs in agonist-stimulated release of PGI2 and vWF from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using two chemically and mechanistically dissimilar PTK inhibitors (genistein and ST271). Genistein, but not the less active analogue daidzein, dose-dependently attenuated PGI2 release in response to thrombin and histamine (IC50 approx. 20 microM), and to the thrombin-receptor-activating peptide. A more potent inhibition of thrombin- and histamine-induced PGI2 synthesis was observed in cells exposed to ST271. In contrast, neither genistein nor ST271 modulated agonist-drive vWF secretion. At concentrations that abolished PGI2 release, genistein blocked thrombin- or histamine-evoked tyrosine phosphorylation of a 42 kDa protein. Ca2+ ionophore-induced PGI2 generation, but not vWF secretion, was also inhibited by both genistein and ST271, suggesting that these agents modulate PGI2 synthesis by acting at, or distal to, agonist-induced changes in intracellular CA2+ ([Ca2+]i). In fura-2-loaded HUVECs genistein partially reduced the histamine-induced peak [Ca2+]i but had no effect on the thrombin response. Ca(2+)-induced PGI2 release from electrically permeabilized HUVECs was abolished in the presence of ST271 or genistein, but not diadzein. The generation of PGI2 in response to exogenous arachidonic acid was not modulated by genistein or ST271, suggesting that PTK inhibitors do not directly inhibit cyclo-oxygenase activity. Taken together, these results suggest that PTKs regulate PGI2 synthesis and release in HUVECs by modulating, directly or indirectly, a CA(2+)-sensitive step upstream of cyclo-oxygenase.
Project description:In rabbit proximal tubular cells, ANG II type 2-receptor (AT2)-induced arachidonic acid release is PLA2 coupled and dependent of G protein ?? (G??) subunits. Moreover, ANG II activates ERK1/2 and transactivates EGFR via a c-Src-dependent mechanism. Arachidonic acid has been shown to mimic this effect, at least in part, by an undetermined mechanism. In this study, we determined the effects of ANG II on fibronectin expression in cultured rabbit proximal tubule cells and elucidated the signaling pathways associated with such expression. We found that ANG II and transfection of G?? subunits directly increased fibronectin protein expression, and this increase was inhibited by overexpression of ?-adrenergic receptor kinase (?ARK)-ct or DN-Src. Moreover, ANG II-induced fibronectin protein expression was significantly abrogated by the AT2 receptor antagonist PD123319. In addition, inhibition of cystolic PLA2 diminished ANG II-induced fibronectin expression. Endogenous arachidonic acid mimicked ANG II-induced fibronectin expression. We also found that overexpression of G?? subunits induced c-Src, ERK1/2, and EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, which can be inhibited by overexpression of ?ARK-ct or DN-Src. G?? also induced c-Src SH2 domain association with the EGFR. Supporting these findings, in rabbit proximal tubular epithelium, immunoblot analysis indicated that ?? expression was significant. Interestingly, arachidonic acid- and eicosatetraenoic acid-induced responses were preserved in the presence of ?ARK-ct. This is the first report demonstrating the regulation of EGFR, ERK1/2, c-Src, and fibronectin by G?? subunits in renal epithelial cells. Moreover, this work demonstrates a role for G?? heterotrimeric proteins in ANG II, but not arachidonic acid, signaling in renal epithelial cells.