Synergistic activity of the ninth and tenth FIII domains of human fibronectin depends upon structural stability.
ABSTRACT: The ninth and tenth FIII domains (FIII9-10) of human fibronectin act in synergy to promote cell adhesion via the interaction with integrin receptors. Here we describe the functional and structural properties of a set of recombinant FIII9-10 mutants containing various alanine substitutions within the key synergistic site, DRVPHSRN in FIII9, either alone or in combination with another substitution (Leu(1408) to Pro), on the opposite face of FIII9, that increases stability and the functional capacity of FIII9-10. We show that the introduction of mutations into the synergistic sequence of FIII9-10 has a negative effect on the adhesion of baby hamster kidney fibroblasts and results in reduced ability of these ligands to recognize integrin alpha(5)beta(1). Conformational stability of the FIII9 domain in the synergy site mutants is likewise reduced in comparison with native FIII9. The Leu(1408) to Pro substitution in mutant FIII9-10 proteins carrying substitutions in the synergy site results in a substantial recovery of the adhesive activity of the mutants and affinity to alpha(5)beta(1). In keeping with the enhancement of functional activity, the Leu(1408) to Pro substitution in the FIII9-10 synergy site mutants also causes a significant increase in conformational stability of FIII9. These observations imply a strong positive correlation between the biological activity and conformational stability of the assessed FIII9-10 mutants and suggest that a Leu(1408) to Pro substitution restores the biological activity of the mutants via their ability to restore their conformational stability. We conclude that domain stability may be a major determinant of the synergistic potential of FIII9. Our data underscore the value of using more than one approach in such structure-function studies and the requirement for validating the global structural integrity of protein ligands in which sequences that disrupt function have been perturbed.
Project description:The ninth and tenth type III domains (FIII9-10) in the central cell binding domain of human fibronectin contain integrin receptor binding sites, including RGD in FIII10 and a synergy site, PHSRN, in FIII9. The specific amino acids that contribute to cell binding have been identified by the use of wild-type and mutant fragments of human fibronectin containing the FIII9-10 domain pair. At high concentrations FIII9-10 mimics, to a large extent, the biological activity of the full-length fibronectin molecule. However, FIII9 is conformationally unstable, even in the context of the FIII9-10 pair. Here we report the construction of a series of hybrid mouse-human FIII9-10 pairs that confer varying degrees of conformational stability to FIII9. The conformational stability of the human FIII9 module was increased 2-3-fold by substitution of Leu1408 with Pro. We demonstrate that the biological activity of this mutant is enhanced. The resulting FIII9-10 mutant has good solution properties and will provide a template into which further mutations can be incorporated in order to probe the structure-function relationship of the cell binding module of fibronectin.
Project description:In this study we investigated the possible involvement of several amino acids (not located in the ligand-binding centre) in fatty acid binding and conformational stability of heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP). We prepared recombinant human H-FABP proteins with mutations in the hydrophobic patch (Phe(4), Trp(8) and Phe(64)), portal region (Phe(16)), hinge region (Leu(66), Gly(67)), second portal region (Glu(72)) and at the protein surface (Lys(21)) respectively. Oleic acid-binding affinity and conformational stability of human H-FABP are significantly decreased or completely lost by mutation of Trp(8) or Phe(16). NMR spectra confirmed that these residues are important for the stability of the protein fold. Substitution of Phe(4) or Phe(64) resulted in less stability, but oleic acid-binding affinity was not affected. Mutation of Lys(21) had no effect on either structural integrity or fatty acid-binding affinity. Replacement of Leu(66) or Gly(67) did not affect fatty acid binding, but protein stability was reduced. Finally, mutation of Glu(72) to Ser caused no change of affinity, but NMR spectra and urea-denaturation curves showed the extremely poor stability of this mutant. In conclusion, no relationship was observed between fatty acid-binding affinity and conformational stability.
Project description:Mycoplasma hominis mutants were selected stepwise for resistance to ofloxacin and sparfloxacin, and their gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE quinolone resistance-determining regions were characterized. For ofloxacin, four rounds of selection yielded six first-, six second-, five third-, and two fourth-step mutants. The first-step mutants harbored a single Asp426-->Asn substitution in ParE. GyrA changes (Ser83-->Leu or Trp) were found only from the third round of selection. With sparfloxacin, three rounds of selection generated 4 first-, 7 second-, and 10 third-step mutants. In contrast to ofloxacin resistance, GyrA mutations (Ser83-->Leu or Ser84-->Trp) were detected in the first-step mutants prior to ParC changes (Glu84-->Lys), which appeared only after the second round of selection. Further analysis of eight multistep-selected mutants of M. hominis that were previously described (2) revealed that they carried mutations in ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParE (Asp426-->Asn), GyrA (Ser83-->Leu) and ParC (Ser80-->Ile), or ParC (Ser80-->Ile) alone, depending on the fluoroquinolone used for selection, i.e., ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, or pefloxacin, respectively. These data indicate that in M. hominis DNA gyrase is the primary target of sparfloxacin whereas topoisomerase IV is the primary target of pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin.
Project description:In order to obtain a metabolically more stable analgesic peptide derivative, O-beta-glycosylated serine (Ser(Glc)) was introduced into TY027 (Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-Phe-Met-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-3',5'-Bzl(CF(3))(2)) which was a previously reported bifunctional compound with delta/micro opioid agonist and neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist activities and with a half-life of 4.8 h in rat plasma. Incorporation of Ser(Glc) into various positions of TY027 gave analogues with variable bioactivities. Analogue 6 (Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-Phe-Nle-Pro-Leu-Ser(Glc)-Trp-NH-3',5'-Bzl(CF(3))(2)) was found to have effective bifunctional activities with a well-defined conformation with two beta-turns based on the NMR conformational analysis in the presence of DPC micelles. In addition, 6 showed significant improvement in its metabolic stability (70 + or - 9% of 6 was intact after 24 h incubation in rat plasma). This improved metabolic stability, along with its effective and delta selective bifunctional activities, suggests that 6 could be an interesting research tool and possibly a promising candidate as a novel analgesic drug.
Project description:Conformational thermostabilisation of G protein-coupled receptors is a successful approach for their structure determination. We have recently determined the structure of a thermostabilised neurotensin receptor NTS1 in complex with its peptide agonist and here we describe the strategy for the identification and combination of the 6 thermostabilising mutations essential for crystallisation. First, thermostability assays were performed on a panel of 340 detergent-solubilised Ala/Leu NTS1 mutants and the best 16 thermostabilising mutations were identified. These mutations were combined pair-wise in nearly all combinations (119 out of a possible 120 combinations) and each mutant was expressed and its thermostability was experimentally determined. A theoretical stability score was calculated from the sum of the stabilities measured for each double mutant and applied to develop 24 triple mutants, which in turn led to the construction of 14 quadruple mutants. Use of the thermostability data for the double mutants to predict further mutant combinations resulted in a greater percentage of the triple and quadruple mutants showing improved thermostability than if only the thermostability data for the single mutations was considered. The best quadruple mutant (NTS1-Nag36k) was further improved by including an additional 2 mutations (resulting in NTS1-GW5) that were identified from a complete Ala/Leu scan of Nag36k by testing the thermostability of the mutants in situ in whole bacteria. NTS1-GW5 had excellent stability in short chain detergents and could be readily purified as a homogenous sample that ultimately allowed crystallisation and structure determination.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We studied the development and fitness cost of 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside resistance of Mycobacterium abscessus.<h4>Methods</h4>Spontaneous 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside-resistant mutants were selected and the frequency of their appearance was determined. The 3' part of the rrs gene was sequenced to characterize mutations. Additionally, we determined the MICs of aminoglycoside drugs for the different mutants obtained. The dominance/recessivity traits of the different mutations were examined and we explored the potential cost conferred by the mutations selected in vitro on the fitness of these isolates compared with the wild-type strain.<h4>Results</h4>The in vitro mutation rate for 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside resistance was ?10(-7) mutations/cell division. In addition to the known rrs A?G substitution at position 1408 (Escherichia coli numbering), which confers kanamycin resistance (Kan(R)), three new substitutions in rrs were identified in M. abscessus Kan(R) mutants, i.e. T?A at 1406, C?T at 1409 and G?T at 1491. Heterodiploids carrying genomic mutations T?A at 1406 and A?G at 1408 with the wild-type rrs gene carried by the pNBV1 vector showed a resistant phenotype. In contrast, heterodiploids carrying genomic mutations C?T at 1409 and G?T at 1491 with the wild-type rrs gene carried by the pNBV1 vector had a susceptible phenotype. No burden on fitness was observed for the different mutations.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Mutations in the rrs gene that confer high-level 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside resistance on M. abscessus differ in their dominance/recessivity traits and have no biological cost under our experimental conditions.
Project description:The proteasome is a key intracellular protease that regulates processes, such as signal transduction and protein quality control, through the selective degradation of specific proteins. Signals that target a protein for degradation, collectively known as degrons, have been defined for many proteins involved in cell signaling. However, the molecular signals involved in recognition and degradation of proteins damaged by oxidation have not been completely defined. The current study used biochemical and spectroscopic measurements to define the properties in calmodulin that initiate degradation by the 20S proteasome. Our experimental approach involved the generation of multiple calmodulin mutants with specific Met replaced by Leu. This strategy of site-directed mutagenesis permitted site-selective oxidation of Met to Met sulfoxide. We found that the oxidation-induced loss of secondary structure, as measured by circular dichroism, correlated with the rate of degradation for wild-type and mutants containing Leu substitutions in the C-terminus. However, no degradation was observed for mutants with Met to Leu substitution in the N-terminus, suggesting that oxidation-induced structural unfolding in the N-terminal region is essential for degradation by the 20S proteasome. Experiments comparing the thermodynamic stability of CaM mutants helped to further localize the critical site of oxidation-induced focal disruption between residues 51 and 72 in the N-terminal region. This work brings new biochemical and structural clarity to the concept of the degron, the portion of a protein that determines its susceptibility to degradation by the proteasome.
Project description:Multifunctional ligands with agonist bioactivities at ?/? opioid receptors (MOR/DOR) and antagonist bioactivity at the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been designed and synthesized. These peptide-based ligands are anticipated to produce better biological profiles (e.g., higher analgesic effect with significantly less adverse side effects) compared to those of existing drugs and to deliver better synergistic effects than coadministration of a mixture of multiple drugs. A systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) study has been conducted to find multifunctional ligands with desired activities at three receptors. It has been found that introduction of Dmt (2,6-dimethyl-tyrosine) at the first position and NMePhe at the fourth position (ligand 3: H-Dmt-d-Ala-Gly-NMePhe-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) displays binding as well as functional selectivity for MOR over DOR while maintaining efficacy, potency, and antagonist activity at the NK1R. Dmt at the first position with Phe(4-F) at the fourth position (ligand 5: H-Dmt-d-Ala-Gly-Phe(4-F)-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) exhibits balanced binding affinities at MOR and DOR though it has higher agonist activity at DOR over MOR. This study has led to the discovery of several novel ligands including 3 and 5 with excellent in vitro biological activity profiles. Metabolic stability studies in rat plasma with ligands 3, 5, and 7 (H-Tyr-d-Ala-Gly-Phe(4-F)-Pro-Leu-Trp-NH-Bn(3',5'-(CF3)2)) showed that their stability depends on modifications at the first and fourth positions (3: T1/2 > 24 h; 5: T1/2 ? 6 h; 7: T1/2 > 2 h). Preliminary in vivo studies with these two ligands have shown promising antinociceptive activity.
Project description:Recent mutagenesis studies using the hydrophobic segment of A? suggest that aromatic ?-stacking interactions may not be critical for fibril formation. We have tested this conjecture by probing the effect of Leu, Ile, and Ala mutation of the aromatic Phe residues at positions 19 and 20, on the double-layer hexametric chains of A? fragment A?????? using explicit solvent all-atom molecular dynamics. As these simulations rely on the accuracy of the utilized force fields, we first evaluated the dynamic and stability dependence on various force fields of small amyloid aggregates. These initial investigations led us to choose AMBER99SB-ILDN as force field in multiple long molecular dynamics simulations of 100 ns that probe the stability of the wild-type and mutants oligomers. Single-point and double-point mutants confirm that size and hydrophobicity are key for the aggregation and stability of the hydrophobic core region (A??????). This suggests as a venue for designing A? aggregation inhibitors the substitution of residues (especially, Phe 19 and 20) in the hydrophobic region (A??????) with natural and non-natural amino acids of similar size and hydrophobicity.
Project description:Insulin fibrillation provides a model for a broad class of amyloidogenic diseases. Conformational distortion of the native monomer leads to aggregation-coupled misfolding. Whereas beta-cells are protected from proteotoxicity by hexamer assembly, fibrillation limits the storage and use of insulin at elevated temperatures. Here, we have investigated conformational distortions of an engineered insulin monomer in relation to the structure of an insulin fibril. Anomalous (13)C NMR chemical shifts and rapid (15)N-detected (1)H-(2)H amide-proton exchange were observed in one of the three classical alpha-helices (residues A1-A8) of the hormone, suggesting a conformational equilibrium between locally folded and unfolded A-chain segments. Whereas hexamer assembly resolves these anomalies in accordance with its protective role, solid-state (13)C NMR studies suggest that the A-chain segment participates in a fibril-specific beta-sheet. Accordingly, we investigated whether helicogenic substitutions in the A1-A8 segment might delay fibrillation. Simultaneous substitution of three beta-branched residues (Ile(A2) --> Leu, Val(A3) --> Leu, and Thr(A8) --> His) yielded an analog with reduced thermodynamic stability but marked resistance to fibrillation. Whereas amide-proton exchange in the A1-A8 segment remained rapid, (13)Calpha chemical shifts exhibited a more helical pattern. This analog is essentially without activity, however, as Ile(A2) and Val(A3) define conserved receptor contacts. To obtain active analogs, substitutions were restricted to A8. These analogs exhibit high receptor-binding affinity; representative potency in a rodent model of diabetes mellitus was similar to wild-type insulin. Although (13)Calpha chemical shifts remain anomalous, significant protection from fibrillation is retained. Together, our studies define an "Achilles' heel" in a globular protein whose repair may enhance the stability of pharmaceutical formulations and broaden their therapeutic deployment in the developing world.