Phosphotyrosine interactome of the ErbB-receptor kinase family.
ABSTRACT: Interactions between short modified peptide motifs and modular protein domains are central events in cell signal-transduction. We determined interaction partners to all cytosolic tyrosine residues of the four members of the ErbB-receptor family in an unbiased fashion by quantitative proteomics using pull-down experiments with pairs of phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated synthetic peptides. Each receptor had characteristic preferences for interacting proteins and most interaction partners had multiple binding sites on each receptor. EGFR and ErbB4 had several docking sites for Grb2, while ErbB3 was characterized by six binding sites for PI3K. We identified STAT5 as a direct binding partner to EGFR and ErbB4 and discovered new recognition motifs for Shc and STAT5. The overall pattern of interaction partners of EGFR and ErbB4 suggests similar roles during signaling through their respective ligands. Phosphorylation kinetics of several tyrosine resides was measured by mass spectrometry and correlated with interaction partner preference. Our results demonstrate that system-wide mapping of peptide-protein interactions sites is possible, and suggest shared and unique roles of ErbB-receptor family members in downstream signaling.
Project description:The first three members of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases activate a wide variety of signaling pathways and are frequently misregulated in cancer. Much less is known about ErbB4. Here we use tandem mass spectrometry to identify 19 sites of tyrosine phosphorylation on ErbB4, and protein microarrays to quantify biophysical interactions between these sites and virtually every SH2 and PTB domain encoded in the human genome. Our unbiased approach highlighted several previously unrecognized interactions and led to the finding that ErbB4 can recruit and activate STAT1. At a systems level, we found that ErbB4 is much more selective than the other ErbB receptors. This suggests that ErbB4 may enable ErbB2 and ErbB3 to signal independently of EGFR under normal conditions, and provides a possible explanation for the protective properties of ErbB4 in cancer.
Project description:ERBB family members including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also known as HER1, ERBB2/HER2/Neu, ERBB3/HER3 and ERBB4/HER4 are aberrantly activated in multiple cancers and hence serve as drug targets and biomarkers in modern precision therapy. The therapeutic potential of HER3 has long been underappreciated, due to impaired kinase activity and relatively low expression in tumors. However, HER3 has received attention in recent years as it is a crucial heterodimeric partner for other EGFR family members and has the potential to regulate EGFR/HER2-mediated resistance. Upregulation of HER3 is associated with several malignancies where it fosters tumor progression via interaction with different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Studies also implicate HER3 contributing significantly to treatment failure, mostly through the activation of PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK and JAK/STAT pathways. Moreover, activating mutations in HER3 have highlighted the role of HER3 as a direct therapeutic target. Therapeutic targeting of HER3 includes abrogating its dimerization partners' kinase activity using small molecule inhibitors (lapatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, neratinib) or direct targeting of its extracellular domain. In this review, we focus on HER3-mediated signaling, its role in drug resistance and discuss the latest advances to overcome resistance by targeting HER3 using mono- and bispecific antibodies and small molecule inhibitors.
Project description:ErbB4 (HER4) is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which includes the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/ErbB1), ErbB2 (HER2/Neu), and ErbB3 (HER3). Mounting evidence indicates that ErbB4, unlike EGFR or ErbB2, functions as a tumor suppressor in many human malignancies. Previous analyses of the constitutively-dimerized and -active ErbB4 Q646C mutant indicate that ErbB4 kinase activity and phosphorylation of ErbB4 Tyr1056 are both required for the tumor suppressor activity of this mutant in human breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. However, the cytoplasmic region of ErbB4 possesses additional putative functional motifs, and the contributions of these functional motifs to ErbB4 tumor suppressor activity have been largely underexplored. Here we demonstrate that ErbB4 BH3 and LXXLL motifs, which are thought to mediate interactions with Bcl family proteins and steroid hormone receptors, respectively, are required for the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. Furthermore, abrogation of the site of ErbB4 cleavage by gamma-secretase also disrupts the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. This last result suggests that ErbB4 cleavage and subcellular trafficking of the ErbB4 cytoplasmic domain may be required for the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. Indeed, here we demonstrate that mutants that disrupt ErbB4 kinase activity, ErbB4 phosphorylation at Tyr1056, or ErbB4 cleavage by gamma-secretase also disrupt ErbB4 trafficking away from the plasma membrane and to the cytoplasm. This supports a model for ErbB4 function in which ErbB4 tumor suppressor activity is dependent on ErbB4 trafficking away from the plasma membrane and to the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and/or the nucleus.
Project description:The ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase possesses both tumour suppressor and oncogenic activities. Thus pharmacological agents are needed to help elucidate ErbB4 functions. However, limitations of existing ErbB4 agonists and antagonists have led us to seek novel ErbB4 antagonists. The Q43L mutant of the ErbB4 agonist NRG2? (neuregulin 2?) stimulates ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation, yet fails to stimulate ErbB4 coupling to cell proliferation. Thus in the present paper we hypothesize that NRG2?/Q43L may be an ErbB4 antagonist. NRG2?/Q43L competitively antagonizes agonist stimulation of ErbB4 coupling to cell proliferation. NRG2?/Q43L stimulates less ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation than does NRG2?. In addition, NRG2? stimulation of cell proliferation requires PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activity and NRG2? stimulates greater Akt phosphorylation than does NRG2?/Q43L. Moreover, EGFR [EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor] kinase activity (but not that of ErbB4) is critical for coupling ErbB4 to proliferation. Experiments utilizing ErbB4 splicing isoforms and mutants suggest that NRG2? and NRG2?/Q43L may differentially stimulate ErbB4 coupling to the transcriptional co-regulator YAP (Yes-associated protein). Finally, NRG2?/Q43L competitively antagonizes agonist stimulation of EGFR and ErbB2/ErbB3, indicating that NRG2?/Q43L is a pan-ErbB antagonist. Thus we postulate that NRG2?/Q43L and other antagonistic ligands stimulate ErbB tyrosine phosphorylation on a set of residues distinct from that stimulated by agonists, thus suggesting a novel mechanism of ErbB receptor regulation. Moreover, NRG2?/Q43L and related ligand-based antagonists establish a paradigm for the discovery of anti-ErbB therapeutics.
Project description:We previously found that EGF (epidermal growth factor) increases the EGFR (EGF receptor) kinase-binding affinity towards the major tyrosine phosphorylation sites in downstream adaptor proteins such as Gab1 (Grb2-associated binding protein 1) and Shc [Src homology 2 (SH2) domain and collagen containing protein], but not that towards EGFR autophosphorylation sites [Fan, Wong, Deb and Johnson (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279 , 38143-38150]. EGFR activation can also result in transphosphorylation of tyrosine resides in the C-terminal region of the related receptors ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 in heterodimers which are formed upon ligand stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the specificity of EGFR kinase by comparing the steady state kinetic parameters for peptides derived from all four ErbBs in the absence or presence of EGF. Our results demonstrated that (i) EGFR kinase can efficiently phosphorylate a broad range of diverse peptide sequences representing ErbB sites; (ii) certain ErbB2, ErbB3 and ErbB4 sites had higher specificity constants than any EGFR sequence and (iii) EGF stimulation consistently increases the k(cat) approx. 5-fold, but does not significantly alter the K(m) for any ErbB peptides. Furthermore, peptides containing lysine at position -2 or -3 N-terminal to the target tyrosine were found to be poor EGFR kinase substrates, and substitution of these lysines with glutamine decreased the K(m) and increased the k(cat) for these substrates. We conclude that EGFR kinase-mediated ErbB transphosphorylations are mostly controlled at the level of oligomerization, and not by a preference of the EGFR kinase for phosphorylation sites in any particular ErbB. The results also demonstrated that, unlike phosphorylation sites in select downstream targets, EGF does not regulate the recognition of phosphorylation sites in the C-terminal region of any of the ErbBs.
Project description:EGFR mutation-induced drug resistance has become a major threat to the treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Essentially, the resistance mechanism involves modifications of the intracellular signaling pathways. In our work, we separately investigated the EGFR and ErbB-3 heterodimerization, regarded as the origin of intracellular signaling pathways. On one hand, we combined the molecular interaction in EGFR heterodimerization with that between the EGFR tyrosine kinase and its inhibitor. For 168 clinical subjects, we characterized their corresponding EGFR mutations using molecular interactions, with three potential dimerization partners (ErbB-2, IGF-1R and c-Met) of EGFR and two of its small molecule inhibitors (gefitinib and erlotinib). Based on molecular dynamics simulations and structural analysis, we modeled these mutant-partner or mutant-inhibitor interactions using binding free energy and its components. As a consequence, the mutant-partner interactions are amplified for mutants L858R and L858R_T790M, compared to the wild type EGFR. Mutant delL747_P753insS represents the largest difference between the mutant-IGF-1R interaction and the mutant-inhibitor interaction, which explains the shorter progression-free survival of an inhibitor to this mutant type. Besides, feature sets including different energy components were constructed, and efficient regression trees were applied to map these features to the progression-free survival of an inhibitor. On the other hand, we comparably examined the interactions between ErbB-3 and its partners (EGFR mutants, IGF-1R, ErbB-2 and c-Met). Compared to others, c-Met shows a remarkably-strong binding with ErbB-3, implying its significant role in regulating ErbB-3 signaling. Moreover, EGFR mutants corresponding to poor clinical outcomes, such as L858R_T790M, possess lower binding affinities with ErbB-3 than c-Met does. This may promote the communication between ErbB-3 and c-Met in these cancer cells. The analysis verified the important contribution of IGF-1R or c-Met in the drug resistance mechanism developed in lung cancer treatments, which may bring many benefits to specialized therapy design and innovative drug discovery.
Project description:Understanding the mechanisms of neurodegeneration is crucial for development of therapies to treat neurological disorders. S100 proteins are extensively expressed in the injured brain but S100's role and signalling in neural cells remain elusive. We recently demonstrated that the S100A4 protein protects neurons in brain injury and designed S100A4-derived peptides mimicking its beneficial effects. Here we show that neuroprotection by S100A4 involves the growth factor family receptor ErbB4 and its ligand Neuregulin 1 (NRG), key regulators of neuronal plasticity and implicated in multiple brain pathologies. The neuroprotective effect of S100A4 depends on ErbB4 expression and the ErbB4 signalling partners ErbB2/Akt, and is reduced by functional blockade of NRG/ErbB4 in cell models of neurodegeneration. We also detect binding of S100A4 with ErbB1 (EGFR) and ErbB3. S100A4-derived peptides interact with, and signal through ErbB, are neuroprotective in primary and immortalized dopaminergic neurons, and do not affect cell proliferation/motility - features which make them promising as potential neuroprotectants. Our data suggest that the S100-ErbB axis may be an important mechanism regulating neuronal survival and plasticity.
Project description:Neisseria meningitidis, the causative agent of meningitis and septicemia, attaches to and invades various cell types. Both steps induce and/or require tyrosine phosphorylation of host cell proteins. Here, we used a phospho array platform to identify active receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and key signaling nodes in N. meningitidis-infected brain endothelial cells to decipher RTK-dependent signaling pathways necessary for bacterial uptake. We detected several activated RTKs, including the ErbB family receptors epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB2, and ErbB4. We found that pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of ErbB receptor tyrosine phosphorylation and expression resulted in decreased bacterial uptake and heterologous expression of EGFR, ErbB2, or ErbB4 in Chinese ovary hamster (CHO-K1) cells, which do not express of EGFR and ErbB4; the decrease caused a significant increase in meningococcal invasion. Activation of EGFR and ErbB4 was mediated by transactivation via the common ligand HB-EGF (heparin-binding EGF-like ligand), which was significantly elevated in infected cell culture supernatants. We furthermore determined that N. meningitidis induced phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr845 independent of ligand binding, which required c-Src activation and was involved in mediating uptake of N. meningitidis into eukaryotic cells. Increased uptake was repressed by expression of EGFR Y845F, which harbored a point mutation in the kinase domain. In addition, activation of ErbB4 at its autophosphorylation site, Tyr1284, and phosphorylation of ErbB2 Thr686 were observed. Altogether, our results provide evidence that EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB4 are activated in response to N. meningitidis infection and shed new light on the role of ErbB signaling in meningococcal infection biology.
Project description:ErbB receptors (EGFR (ErbB1), ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4) are important regulators of normal growth and differentiation, and they are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Following ligand binding and receptor activation, EGFR is endocytosed and transported to lysosomes where the receptor is degraded. This downregulation of EGFR is a complex and tightly regulated process. The functions of ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 are also regulated by endocytosis to some extent, although the current knowledge of these processes is sparse. Impaired endocytic downregulation of signaling receptors is frequently associated with cancer, since it can lead to increased and uncontrolled receptor signaling. In this review we describe the current knowledge of ErbB receptor endocytic downregulation. In addition, we outline how ErbB receptors can escape endocytic downregulation in cancer, and we discuss how targeted anti-cancer therapy may induce endocytic downregulation of ErbB receptors.
Project description:Stretch-induced differentiation of lung fetal type II epithelial cells is mediated through EGFR (ErbB1) via release of HB-EGF and TGF-? ligands. Employing an EGFR knock-out mice model, we further investigated the role of the ErbB family of receptors in mechanotranduction during lung development. Deletion of EGFR prevented endogenous and mechanical stretch-induced type II cell differentiation via the ERK pathway, which was rescued by overexpression of a constitutively active MEK. Interestingly, the expression of ErbB4, the only ErbB receptor that EGFR co-precipitates in wild-type cells, was decreased in EGFR-deficient type II cells. Similar to EGFR, ErbB4 was activated by stretch and participated in ERK phosphorylation and type II cell differentiation. However, neuregulin (NRG) or stretch-induced ErbB4 activation were blunted in EGFR-deficient cells and not rescued after ErbB4 overexpression, suggesting that induction of ErbB4 phosphorylation is EGFR-dependent. Finally, we addressed how shedding of ligands is regulated by EGFR. In knock-out cells, TGF-?, a ligand for EGFR, was not released by stretch, while HB-EGF, a ligand for EGFR and ErbB4, was shed by stretch although to a lower magnitude than in normal cells. Release of these ligands was inhibited by blocking EGFR and ERK pathway. In conclusion, our studies show that EGFR and ErbB4 regulate stretch-induced type II cell differentiation via ERK pathway. Interactions between these two receptors are important for mechanical signals in lung fetal type II cells. These studies provide novel insights into the cell signaling mechanisms regulating ErbB family receptors in lung cell differentiation.