Systems-level analyses identify extensive coupling among gene expression machines.
ABSTRACT: Here, we develop computational methods to assess and consolidate large, diverse protein interaction data sets, with the objective of identifying proteins involved in the coupling of multicomponent complexes within the yeast gene expression pathway. From among approximately 43 000 total interactions and 2100 proteins, our methods identify known structural complexes, such as the spliceosome and SAGA, and functional modules, such as the DEAD-box helicases, within the interaction network of proteins involved in gene expression. Our process identifies and ranks instances of three distinct, biologically motivated motifs, or patterns of coupling among distinct machineries involved in different subprocesses of gene expression. Our results confirm known coupling among transcription, RNA processing, and export, and predict further coupling with translation and nonsense-mediated decay. We systematically corroborate our analysis with two independent, comprehensive experimental data sets. The methods presented here may be generalized to other biological processes and organisms to generate principled, systems-level network models that provide experimentally testable hypotheses for coupling among biological machines.
Project description:Despite the availability of several large-scale proteomics studies aiming to identify protein interactions on a global scale, little is known about how proteins interact and are organized within macromolecular complexes. Here, we describe a technique that consists of a combination of biochemistry approaches, quantitative proteomics and computational methods using wild-type and deletion strains to investigate the organization of proteins within macromolecular protein complexes. We applied this technique to determine the organization of two well-studied complexes, Spt-Ada-Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase (SAGA) and ADA, for which no comprehensive high-resolution structures exist. This approach revealed that SAGA/ADA is composed of five distinct functional modules, which can persist separately. Furthermore, we identified a novel subunit of the ADA complex, termed Ahc2, and characterized Sgf29 as an ADA family protein present in all Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase complexes. Finally, we propose a model for the architecture of the SAGA and ADA complexes, which predicts novel functional associations within the SAGA complex and provides mechanistic insights into phenotypical observations in SAGA mutants.
Project description:SAGA and ATAC are two distinct chromatin modifying co-activator complexes with distinct enzymatic activities involved in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription regulation. To investigate the mobility of co-activator complexes and general transcription factors in live-cell nuclei, we performed imaging experiments based on photobleaching. SAGA and ATAC, but also two general transcription factors (TFIID and TFIIB), were highly dynamic, exhibiting mainly transient associations with chromatin, contrary to Pol II, which formed more stable chromatin interactions. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy analyses revealed that the mobile pool of the two co-activators, as well as that of TFIID and TFIIB, can be subdivided into "fast" (free) and "slow" (chromatin-interacting) populations. Inhibiting transcription elongation decreased H3K4 trimethylation and reduced the "slow" population of SAGA, ATAC, TFIIB and TFIID In addition, inhibiting histone H3K4 trimethylation also reduced the "slow" populations of SAGA and ATAC Thus, our results demonstrate that in the nuclei of live cells the equilibrium between fast and slow population of SAGA or ATAC complexes is regulated by active transcription via changes in the abundance of H3K4me3 on chromatin.
Project description:GCN5 is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and required for transcription of specific genes within chromatin as part of the SAGA (SPT-ADA-GCN5 acetylase) coactivator complex. Mammalian cells have two distinct GCN5 homologs (PCAF and GCN5L) that have been found in three different SAGA-like complexes (PCAF complex, TFTC [TATA-binding-protein-free TAF(II)-containing complex], and STAGA [SPT3-TAF(II)31-GCN5L acetylase]). The composition and roles of these mammalian HAT complexes are still poorly characterized. Here, we present the purification and characterization of the human STAGA complex. We show that STAGA contains homologs of most yeast SAGA components, including two novel human proteins with histone-like folds and sequence relationships to yeast SPT7 and ADA1. Furthermore, we demonstrate that STAGA has acetyl coenzyme A-dependent transcriptional coactivator functions from a chromatin-assembled template in vitro and associates in HeLa cells with spliceosome-associated protein 130 (SAP130) and DDB1, two structurally related proteins. SAP130 is a component of the splicing factor SF3b that associates with U2 snRNP and is recruited to prespliceosomal complexes. DDB1 (p127) is a UV-damaged-DNA-binding protein that is involved, as part of a complex with DDB2 (p48), in nucleotide excision repair and the hereditary disease xeroderma pigmentosum. Our results thus suggest cellular roles of STAGA in chromatin modification, transcription, and transcription-coupled processes through direct physical interactions with sequence-specific transcription activators and with components of the splicing and DNA repair machineries.
Project description:A gene encoding a major secreted antigen, SagA, was identified in Enterococcus faecium by screening an E. faecium genomic expression library with sera from patients with E. faecium-associated endocarditis. Recombinant SagA protein showed broad-spectrum binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including fibrinogen, collagen type I, collagen type IV, fibronectin, and laminin. A fibrinogen-binding protein, purified from culture supernatants of an E. faecium clinical isolate, was found to match the N-terminal sequence of the predicted SagA protein and to react with the anti-SagA antibody, confirming that it was the SagA protein; this protein appeared as an 80- to 90-kDa smear on a Western blot that was sensitive to proteinase K and resistant to periodate treatment and glycoprotein staining. When overexpressed in E. faecium and Escherichia coli, the native and recombinant SagA proteins formed stable oligomers, apparently via their C-terminal domains. The SagA protein is composed of three domains: (i) a putative coiled-coil N-terminal domain that shows homology to the N-terminal domain of Streptococcus mutans SagA protein (42% similarity), previously shown to be involved in cell wall integrity and cell shape maintenance, and to the P45 protein of Listeria monocytogenes (41% similarity); (ii) a central domain containing direct repeats; and (iii) a C-terminal domain that is similar to that found in various proteins, including P45 (50% similarity) and P60 (52% similarity) of L. monocytogenes. The P45 and P60 proteins both have cell wall hydrolase activity, and the latter has also been shown to be involved in virulence, whereas cell wall hydrolase activity was not detected for SagA protein. The E. faecium sagA gene, like the S. mutans homologue, is located in a cluster of genes encoding proteins that appear to be involved in cell wall metabolism and could not be disrupted unless it was first transcomplemented, suggesting that the sagA gene is essential for E. faecium growth and may be involved in cell wall metabolism. In conclusion, the extracelluar E. faecium SagA protein is apparently essential for growth, shows broad-spectrum binding to ECM proteins, forms oligomers, and is antigenic during infection.
Project description:RNA polymerases frequently deal with a number of obstacles during transcription elongation that need to be removed for transcription resumption. One important type of hindrance consists of DNA lesions, which are removed by transcription-coupled repair (TC-NER), a specific sub-pathway of nucleotide excision repair. To improve our knowledge of transcription elongation and its coupling to TC-NER, we used the yeast library of non-essential knock-out mutations to screen for genes conferring resistance to the transcription-elongation inhibitor mycophenolic acid and the DNA-damaging agent 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide. Our data provide evidence that subunits of the SAGA and Ccr4-Not complexes, Mediator, Bre1, Bur2, and Fun12 affect transcription elongation to different extents. Given the dependency of TC-NER on RNA Polymerase II transcription and the fact that the few proteins known to be involved in TC-NER are related to transcription, we performed an in-depth TC-NER analysis of a selection of mutants. We found that mutants of the PAF and Ccr4-Not complexes are impaired in TC-NER. This study provides evidence that PAF and Ccr4-Not are required for efficient TC-NER in yeast, unraveling a novel function for these transcription complexes and opening new perspectives for the understanding of TC-NER and its functional interconnection with transcription elongation.
Project description:Acetylation of histones regulates gene expression in eukaryotes. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae it depends mainly upon the ADA and SAGA histone acetyltransferase complexes for which Gcn5 is the catalytic subunit. Previous screens have determined that global acetylation is reduced in cells lacking subunits of the Ccr4–Not complex, a global regulator of eukaryotic gene expression. In this study we have characterized the functional connection between the Ccr4–Not complex and SAGA. We show that SAGA mRNAs encoding a core set of SAGA subunits are tethered together for co-translational assembly of the encoded proteins. Ccr4–Not subunits bind SAGA mRNAs and promote the co-translational assembly of these subunits. This is needed for integrity of SAGA. In addition, we determine that a glycolytic enzyme, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Tdh3, a prototypical moonlighting protein, is tethered at this site of Ccr4–Not-dependent co-translational SAGA assembly and functions as a chaperone.
Project description:In many complex physical phenomena such as wave propagation in scattering media, the process of interest often cannot be easily distinguished from other processes because only the total combined process is accessible. This makes it difficult to extract the precise knowledge of each subprocess. Here, we derive an analytic expression describing the way the eigenchannel coupling of the total process distributes its energy to the individual subprocesses, with only partial information on each subprocess such as the average eigenvalue 〈τ〉 and enhancement factor η. We found that the ratio of (η - 1)〈τ〉 between two subprocesses is a critical parameter determining the preferable subprocess in the energy coupling. This work provides a new analytic framework for understanding the effect of wavefront shaping in the control of wave propagation in disordered media.
Project description:TATA-binding protein (TBP) is central to the regulation of eukaryotic transcription initiation. Recruitment of TBP to target genes can be positively regulated by one of two basal transcription factor complexes: SAGA or TFIID. Negative regulation of TBP promoter association can be performed by Mot1p or the NC2 complex. Recent evidence suggests that Mot1p, NC2 and TBP form a DNA-dependent protein complex. Here, we compare the functions of Mot1p and NC2?during basal and activated transcription using the anchor-away technique for conditional nuclear depletion. Genome-wide expression analysis indicates that both proteins regulate a highly similar set of genes. Upregulated genes were enriched for SAGA occupancy, while downregulated genes preferred TFIID binding. Mot1p and NC2? depletion during heat shock resulted in failure to downregulate gene expression after initial activation, which was accompanied by increased TBP and RNA pol II promoter occupancies. Depletion of Mot1p or NC2? displayed preferential synthetic lethality with the TBP-interaction module of SAGA. Our results support the model that Mot1p and NC2? directly cooperate in vivo to regulate TBP function, and that they are involved in maintaining basal expression levels as well as in resetting gene expression after induction by stress.
Project description:Transcription activation in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) involves ordered recruitment of transcription factor complexes, such as TFIID, SAGA, and Mot1p. Previously, we showed that both Mot1p and Taf1p are recruited to the HXT2 and HXT4 genes, which encode hexose transporter proteins. Here, we show that SAGA also binds to the HXT2 and HXT4 promoters and plays a pivotal role in the recruitment of Mot1p and Taf1p. The deletion of either SPT3 or SPT8 reduces Mot1p binding to HXT2 and HXT4. Surprisingly, the deletion of GCN5 reduces Taf1p binding to both promoters. When GCN5 is deleted in spt3Delta or spt8Delta strains, neither Mot1p nor Taf1p binds, and this results in a diminished recruitment of TATA binding protein and polymerase II to the HXT4 but not the HXT2 promoter. This is reflected by the SAGA-dependent expression of HXT4. In contrast, SAGA-independent induction of HXT2 suggests a functional redundancy with other factors. A functional interplay of different SAGA subunits with Mot1p and Taf1p was supported by phenotypic analysis of MOT1 SAGA or TAF1/SAGA double mutant strains, which revealed novel genetic interactions between MOT1 and SPT8 and between TAF1 and GCN5. In conclusion, our data demonstrate functional links between SAGA, Mot1p, and TFIID in HXT gene regulation.
Project description:The ARABIDOPSIS CBF transcriptional activators bind to the CRT/DRE regulatory element present in the promoters of many cold-regulated genes and stimulate their transcription. Expression of the CBF1 proteins in yeast activates reporter genes carrying a minimal promoter with the CRT/DRE as an upstream regulatory element. Here we report that this ability of CBF1 is dependent upon the activities of three key components of the yeast Ada and SAGA complexes, namely the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Gcn5 and the transcriptional adaptor proteins Ada2 and Ada3. This result suggested that CBF1 might function through the action of similar complexes in ARABIDOPSIS In support of this hypothesis we found that ARABIDOPSIS has a homolog of the GCN5 gene and two homologs of ADA2, the first report of multiple ADA2 genes in an organism. The ARABIDOPSIS GCN5 protein has intrinsic HAT activity and can physically interact in vitro with both the ARABIDOPSIS ADA2a and ADA2b proteins. In addition, the CBF1 transcriptional activator can interact with the ARABIDOPSIS GCN5 and ADA2 proteins. We conclude that ARABIDOPSIS encodes HAT-containing adaptor complexes that are related to the Ada and SAGA complexes of yeast and propose that the CBF1 transcriptional activator functions through the action of one or more of these complexes.