Phylogeny and classification of bacteria in the genera Clavibacter and Rathayibacter on the basis of 16s rRNA gene sequence analyses.
ABSTRACT: A phylogenetic analysis by parsimony of 16S rRNA gene sequences (16S rDNA) revealed that species and subspecies of Clavibacter and Rathayibacter form a discrete monophyletic clade, paraphyletic to Corynebacterium species. Within the Clavibacter-Rathayibacter clade, four major phylogenetic groups (subclades) with a total of 10 distinct taxa were recognized: (I) species C. michiganensis; (II) species C. xyli; (III) species R. iranicus and R. tritici; and (IV) species R. rathayi. The first three groups form a monophyletic cluster, paraphyletic to R. rathayi. On the basis of the phylogeny inferred, reclassification of members of Clavibacter-Rathayibacter group is proposed. A system for classification of taxa in Clavibacter and Rathayibacter was developed based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequences. The groups delineated on the basis of RFLP patterns of 16S rDNA coincided well with the subclades delineated on the basis of phylogeny. In contrast to previous classification systems, which are based primarily on phenotypic properties and are laborious, the RFLP analyses allow for rapid differentiation among species and subspecies in the two genera.
Project description:A global phylogenetic analysis using parsimony of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 46 mollicutes, 19 mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) (new trivial name, phytoplasmas), and several related bacteria placed the MLOs definitively among the members of the class Mollicutes and revealed that MLOs form a large discrete monophyletic clade, paraphyletic to the Acholeplasma species, within the Anaeroplasma clade. Within the MLO clade resolved in the global mollicutes phylogeny and a comprehensive MLO phylogeny derived by parsimony analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 30 diverse MLOs representative of nearly all known distinct MLO groups, five major phylogenetic groups with a total of 11 distinct subclades (monophyletic groups or taxa) could be recognized. These MLO subclades (roman numerals) and designated type strains were as follows: i, Maryland aster yellows AY1; ii, apple proliferation AP-A; iii, peanut witches'-broom PnWB; iv, Canada peach X CX; v, rice yellow dwarf RYD; vi, pigeon pea witches'-broom PPWB; vii, palm lethal yellowing LY; viii, ash yellows AshY; ix, clover proliferation CP; x, elm yellows EY; and xi, loofah witches'-broom LfWB. The designations of subclades and their phylogenetic positions within the MLO clade were supported by a congruent phylogeny derived by parsimony analyses of ribosomal protein L22 gene sequences from most representative MLOs. On the basis of the phylogenies inferred in the present study, we propose that MLOs should be represented taxonomically at the minimal level of genus and that each phylogenetically distinct MLO subclade identified should represent at least a distinct species under this new genus.
Project description:In this study, the nitrogen fixing Astragalus glycyphyllos symbionts were characterized by phenotypic properties, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and sequences of 16S rDNA. The generation time of A. glycyphyllos rhizobia in yeast extract mannitol medium was in the range 4-6 h. The studied isolates exhibited a low resistance to antibiotics, a moderate tolerance to NaCl, assimilated di- and trisaccharides, and produced acid in medium containing mannitol as a sole carbon source. In the cluster analysis, based on 86 phenotypic properties of A. glycyphyllos symbionts and the reference rhizobia, examined isolates and the genus Mesorhizobium strains were placed on a single branch, clearly distinct from other lineages of rhizobial genera. By the comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and 16S rDNA-RFLP, A. glycyphyllos nodulators were also identified as the members of the genus Mesorhizobium. On the 16S rDNA sequence phylogram, the representatives of A. glycyphyllos nodule isolates formed a robust, monophyletic cluster together with the Mesorhizobium species at 16S rDNA sequence similarity of these bacteria between 95 and 99 %. Similarly, the cluster analysis of the combined RFLP-16S rDNA patterns, obtained with seven restriction endonucleases, showed that A. glycyphyllos rhizobia are closely related to the genus Mesorhizobium bacteria. The taxonomic approaches used in this paper allowed us to classify the studied bacteria into the genus Mesorhizobium.
Project description:The genus Bacillus comprises of a diverse group with a wide range of nutritional requirements and physiological and metabolic diversity. Their role in nutrient cycle is well documented. 16S rDNA sequences do not always allow the species to be discriminated. In this study 40 Bacillus spp. obtained from fish culture pond and 10 culture type strains were analysed for their genomic diversity by PCR-RFLP of intergenic spacer region of 16S-23S and HSP60 genes. TaqI digestion of PCR products amplified by ITS PCR did not render distinctive RFLP patterns. Numerical analysis of ITS PCR-RFLP pattern differentiated the isolates into 11 clusters. Same species were found to be grouped in different clusters. But PstI digested PCR products amplified from HSP60 gene of the isolates showed distinctive RFLP patterns. The dendrogram constructed from HSP60 PCR-RFLP delineated the isolates into 11 clusters also. All the clusters, except cluster I grouped only one type of species. The results showed that Bacillus spp. could be clearly distinguished by PCR-RFLP of HSP60 gene. Therefore, the HSP60 gene is proposed as an additional molecular marker for discrimination of Bacillus group.
Project description:Methods for constructing trees using DNA sequences, known as molecular phylogenetics, have been applied to analyses of phylogenetic origin, evolutionary relatedness and taxonomic classification. Combining data sequenced in this study and downloaded from GenBank, we sampled 112 (chloroplast data) / 122 (ITS data) specimens belonging to 49 (chloroplast data) / 46 (ITS data) poplar species or hybrids from six (chloroplast data) / five sections (ITS data). Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to analyze phylogenetic relationships within the genus Populus based on eight chloroplast combinations and ITS regions. The results suggested that Bayesian inference might be more suitable for the phylogenetic reconstruction of Populus. All Populus species could be divided into two clades: clade 1, including subclades 1 and 2, and clade 2, including subclades 3 and 4. Species within clade 1, involving five sections except for Leuce, clustered coinciding with their two specific main geographical distribution areas: China (subclade 1) and North America (subclade 2). Clustering in subclade 3, section Leuce was confirmed to be of monophyletic origin and independent evolution. Its two subsections, namely Albidae and Trepidae, could be separated by chloroplast data but had frequent gene flow based on ITS data. Phylogeny analysis based on chloroplast data demonstrated once more that section Aigeiros was paraphyletic and further showed that the P. deltoides lineage is restricted in subclade 2 and that P. nigra lineage, located in subclade 3, originated from a hybrid of which an Albidae ancestor species was the material parent. Similarly, section Tacamahaca was found to be paraphyletic and had two lineages: a clade 1 lineage, such as P. cathayana, and a clade 2 lineage, such as P. simonii. Section Leucoides was paraphyletic and closely linked to section Tacamahaca. Their section boundaries were not conclusively delimitated by sequencing information.
Project description:Accurate and rapid detection of bacterial plant pathogen is the first step toward disease management and prevention of pathogen spread. Bacterial plant pathogens Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn), Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss), and Rathayibacter tritici (Rt) cause Goss's bacterial wilt and blight of maize, Stewart's wilt of maize and spike blight of wheat and barley, respectively. The bacterial diseases are not globally distributed and not present in Korea. This study adopted comparative genomics approach and aimed to develop specific primer pairs to detect these three bacterial pathogens. Genome comparison among target pathogens and their closely related bacterial species generated 15-20 candidate primer pairs per bacterial pathogen. The primer pairs were assessed by a conventional PCR for specificity against 33 species of Clavibacter, Pantoea, Rathayibacter, Pectobacterium, Curtobacterium. The investigation for specificity and sensitivity of the primer pairs allowed final selection of one or two primer pairs per bacterial pathogens. In our assay condition, a detection limit of Pss and Cmn was 2 pg/?l of genomic DNA per PCR reaction, while the detection limit for Rt primers was higher. The selected primers could also detect bacterial cells up to 8.8 × 103 cfu to 7.84 × 104 cfu per gram of grain seeds artificially infected with corresponding bacterial pathogens. The primer pairs and PCR assay developed in this study provide an accurate and rapid detection method for three bacterial pathogens of grains, which can be used to investigate bacteria contamination in grain seeds and to ultimately prevent pathogen dissemination over countries.
Project description:PCR-RFLP targeting of the 16S rDNA and rpoB genes, as well as the vdc region, was applied to identify and differentiate between the spoilage and non-spoilage Alicyclobacillus species. Eight reference strains and 75 strains isolated from spoiled juices, juice concentrates, drinks, its intermediates, and fresh apples were subject to study. Hin6I restriction patterns of the 16S rDNA gene enabled distinguishing between all the species analyzed, while the rpoB gene and vdc gene cluster analysis also revealed that there were two major types among the A. acidoterrestris isolates, one similar to the reference strain A. acidoterrestris DSM 2498, and the other similar to the reference strain A. acidoterrestris ATCC 49025. Heterogeneity was also observed among the A. acidocaldarius isolates. RFLP analysis of the 16S rDNA and rpoB genes, as well as vdc region, can be used successfully in the identification and research of intraspecies heterogeneity of the Alicyclobacillus species.
Project description:Bacteroides spp. are opportunist pathogens that cause blood and soft tissue infections and are often resistant to antimicrobial agents. We have developed a combined PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique to characterize the 16S rRNA gene for identification purposes and the nitroimidazole resistance (nim) gene for detection of resistance to the major antimicrobial agent used to treat Bacteroides infections: metronidazole (MTZ). PCR-RFLP analysis of 16S ribosomal (rDNA) with HpaII and TaqI produced profiles that enabled discrimination of type strains and identification of 70 test strains to the species level. The 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP identification results agreed with routine phenotypic testing for 62 of the strains. The discrepancies between phenotypic and PCR-RFLP methods for eight strains were resolved by 16S rDNA sequencing in three cases, but five strains remain unidentified. The presence of nim genes was indicated by PCR in 25 of 28 strains that exhibited reduced sensitivity to MTZ. PCR-RFLP of the nim gene products identified the four reported genes (nimA, -B, -C, and -D) and indicated the presence of a previously unreported nim gene in 5 strains. This novel nim gene exhibited 75% DNA sequence similarity with nimB. These rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods should enable improved identification of Bacteroides spp. and the detection of MTZ resistance determinants.
Project description:Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with gaseous spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged, raw, tomato-marinated broiler meat strips were identified on the basis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (ribotyping) database containing DNAs coding for 16S and 23S rRNAs (rDNAs). A mixed LAB population dominated by a Leuconostoc species resembling Leuconostoc gelidum caused the spoilage of the product. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and a gram-positive rod phenotypically similar to heterofermentative Lactobacillus species were the other main organisms detected. An increase in pH together with the extreme bulging of packages suggested a rare LAB spoilage type called "protein swell." This spoilage is characterized by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is attributed to the subsequent deamination of amino acids. Protein swell has not previously been associated with any kind of meat product. A polyphasic approach, including classical phenotyping, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, 16 and 23S rDNA RFLP, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, was used for the identification of the dominant Leuconostoc species. In addition to the RFLP analysis, phenotyping, whole-cell protein analysis, and 16S rDNA sequence homology indicated that L. gelidum was most similar to the spoilage-associated species. The two spoilage strains studied possessed 98.8 and 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence homology with the L. gelidum type strain. DNA-DNA reassociation, however, clearly distinguished the two species. The same strains showed only 22 and 34% hybridization with the L. gelidum type strain. These results warrant a separate species status, and we propose the name Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov. for this spoilage-associated Leuconostoc species.
Project description:Recently, there have been a lot of intense debates about the acceptance/rejection of paraphyletic groups in biological classification. On the one hand, evolutionary classification states that similarity and common descent are two criteria for biological classification and paraphyletic groups are natural units of biological classification. On the other hand, cladistic classification considers that common descent is the only criterion in biological classification and monophyly should be strictly adhered to. Holcoglossum is used herein as a case to illustrate this problem. Although Holcoglossum is a small orchid genus of less than 20 species, there is little consensus about its generic circumscription since it was established, which leads to confusion in taxonomic treatments in the Aerides-Vanda group. Based on the analyses of molecular and morphological evidence, our results suggest that the clade comprising Holcoglossum s.s., Ascolabium, Penkimia and Ascocentrum himalaicum is strongly supported as a monophyly, and that the three taxa are nested within different subclades of Holcoglossum s.s. Thus, it is reasonable to recognize a monophyletic circumscription of Holcoglossum, which is also well supported by some vegetative and floral characters. The Holcoglossum s.l. would facilitate a better understanding of pollinator-driven floral divergence and vegetative stasis than a paraphyletic and narrowly defined genus.
Project description:We describe the first freshwater members of the class Actinobacteria that have been isolated. Nine ultramicro-size (<0.1 microm(3)) strains were isolated from five freshwater habitats in Europe and Asia. These habitats represent a broad spectrum of ecosystems, ranging from deep oligotrophic lakes to shallow hypertrophic lakes. Even when the isolated strains were grown in very rich media, the cell size was <0.1 microm(3) and was indistinguishable from the cell sizes of bacteria belonging to the smaller size classes of natural lake bacterioplankton. Hybridization of the isolates with oligonucleotide probes and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the isolated strains revealed that they are affiliated with the class Actinobacteria and the family Microbacteriaceae. The previously described species with the highest levels of sequence similarity are Clavibacter michiganensis and Rathayibacter tritici, two phytopathogens of terrestrial plants. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the nine isolates examined are more closely related to cloned sequences from uncultured freshwater bacteria than to the sequences of any previously isolated bacteria. The nine ultramicrobacteria isolated form, together with several uncultured bacteria, a diverse phylogenetic cluster (Luna cluster) consisting exclusively of freshwater bacteria. Isolates obtained from lakes that are ecologically different and geographically separated by great distances possess identical 16S rRNA gene sequences but have clearly different ecophysiological and phenotypic traits. Predator-prey experiments demonstrated that at least one of the ultramicro-size isolates is protected against predation by the bacterivorous nanoflagellate Ochromonas sp. strain DS.