ABSTRACT: Diabetes impairs numerous aspects of tissue repair. Failure of wound angiogenesis is known to delay diabetic wound healing, whereas the importance of lymphangiogenesis for wound healing is unclear. We have examined whether overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C via an adenoviral vector could improve the healing of full-thickness punch biopsy wounds in genetically diabetic (db/db) mice. We found that VEGF-C enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the wound and significantly accelerated wound healing in comparison to the control wounds. VEGF-C also recruited inflammatory cells, some of which expressed VEGFR-3. On the other hand, when the function of endogenous VEGF-C/VEGF-D was blocked with a specific inhibitor, wound closure was delayed even further. These results suggest a function for VEGF-C in wound healing and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of VEGF-C in the treatment of diabetic wounds.
Project description:Lymphangiogenesis plays an important role in homeostasis, metabolism, and immunity, and also occurs during wound-healing. Here, we examined the roles of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP) signaling in enhancement of lymphangiogenesis in wound healing processes. The hole-punch was made in the ears of male C57BL/6 mice using a metal ear punch. Healing process and lymphangiogenesis together with macrophage recruitment were analyzed in EP knockout mice. Lymphangiogenesis was up-regulated in the granulation tissues at the margins of punched-hole wounds in mouse ears, and this increase was accompanied by increased expression levels of COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. Administration of celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, suppressed lymphangiogenesis in the granulation tissues and reduced the induction of the pro-lymphangiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -C and VEGF-D. Topical applications of selective EP receptor agonists enhanced the expressions of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 and VEGF receptor-3. The wound-healing processes and recruitment of CD11b-positive macrophages, which produced VEGF-C and VEGF-D, were suppressed under COX-2 inhibition. Mice lacking either EP3 or EP4 exhibited reduced wound-healing, lymphangiogenesis and recruitment of M2 macrophages, compared with wild type mice. Proliferation of cultured human lymphatic endothelial cells was not detected under PGE2 stimulation. Lymphangiogenesis and recruitment of M2 macrophages that produced VEGF-C/D were suppressed in mice treated with a COX-2 inhibitor or lacking either EP3 or EP4 during wound healing. COX-2 and EP3/EP4 signaling may be novel targets to control lymphangiogenesis in vivo.
Project description:Microvascular dysfunction is a major cause of impaired wound healing seen in diabetic patients. Therefore, reestablishment of structural and functional microvasculature could be beneficial to promote wound healing in these patients. Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is a specific growth factor functioning to generate a stable and functional vasculature through the Tie2 and Tie1 receptors. Here we determined the effectiveness of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP)-Ang1, a soluble, stable, and potent form of Ang1, on promotion of healing in cutaneous wounds of diabetic mice. An excisional full-thickness wound was made in the dorsal side of the tail of diabetic (db/db) mice, and mice were then treated systemically with adenovirus (Ade) encoding COMP-Ang1 or with control virus encoding beta-gal (Ade-beta-gal) or treated topically with recombinant COMP-Ang1 protein or BSA. Time course observations revealed that mice treated with Ade-COMP-Ang1 or COMP-Ang1 protein showed accelerated wound closure and epidermal and dermal regeneration, enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, and higher blood flow in the wound region compared with mice treated with control virus or BSA. COMP-Ang1 promotion of wound closure and angiogenesis was not dependent on endothelial nitric oxide synthase or inducible nitric oxide synthase alone. Taken together, these findings indicate that COMP-Ang1 can promote wound healing in diabetes through enhanced angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and blood flow.
Project description:Wound healing is a physiological reparative response to injury and a well-orchestrated process that involves hemostasis, cellular migration, proliferation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition, and wound contraction and re-epithelialization. However, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are frequently afflicted with impaired wound healing that progresses into chronic wounds or diabetic ulcers, and may lead to complications including limb amputation. Herein, we investigate the potential role of microRNA-26a (miR-26a) in a diabetic model of wound healing. Expression of miR-26a is rapidly induced in response to high glucose in endothelial cells (ECs). Punch skin biopsy wounding of db/db mice revealed increased expression of miR-26a (~3.5-fold) four days post-wounding compared to that of WT mice. Local administration of a miR-26a inhibitor, LNA-anti-miR-26a, induced angiogenesis (up to ~80%), increased granulation tissue thickness (by 2.5-fold) and accelerated wound closure (53% after nine days) compared to scrambled anti-miR controls in db/db mice. These effects were independent of altered M1/M2 macrophage ratios. Mechanistically, inhibition of miR-26a increased its target gene SMAD1 in ECs nine days post-wounding of diabetic mice. In addition, high glucose reduced activity of the SMAD1-3'-UTR. Diabetic dermal wounds treated with LNA-anti-miR-26a had increased expression of ID1, a downstream modulator or SMAD1, and decreased expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27. These findings establish miR-26a as an important regulator on the progression of skin wounds of diabetic mice by specifically regulating the angiogenic response after injury, and demonstrate that neutralization of miR-26a may serve as a novel approach for therapy.
Project description:Poorly healing diabetic wounds are characterized by diminished collagen production and impaired angiogenesis. HoxD3, a homeobox transcription factor that promotes angiogenesis and collagen synthesis, is up-regulated during normal wound repair whereas its expression is diminished in poorly healing wounds of the genetically diabetic (db/db) mouse. To determine whether restoring expression of HoxD3 would accelerate diabetic wound healing, we devised a novel method of gene transfer, which incorporates HoxD3 plasmid DNA into a methylcellulose film that is placed on wounds created on db/db mice. The HoxD3 transgene was expressed in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and keratinocytes of the wounds for up to 10 days. More importantly, a single application of HoxD3 to db/db mice resulted in a statistically significant acceleration of wound closure compared to control-treated wounds. Furthermore, we also observed that the HoxD3-mediated improvement in diabetic wound repair was accompanied by increases in mRNA expression of the HoxD3 target genes, Col1A1 and beta 3-integrin leading to enhanced angiogenesis and collagen deposition in the wounds. Although HoxD3-treated wounds also show improved re-epithelialization as compared to control db/db wounds, this effect was not due to direct stimulation of keratinocyte migration by HoxD3. Finally, we show that despite the dramatic increase in collagen synthesis and deposition in HoxD3-treated wounds, these wounds showed normal remodeling and we found no evidence of abnormal wound healing. These results indicate that HoxD3 may provide a means to directly improve collagen deposition, angiogenesis and closure in poorly healing diabetic wounds.
Project description:Impaired angiogenesis is one of the crucial factors that impede the wound healing process in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). In this study, we found that 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), an aglycone of ginsenosides in Panax notoginseng, stimulated angiogenesis and benefited wound healing in genetically diabetic mice. In HUVECs, PPD promoted cell proliferation, tube formation and VEGF secretion accompanied by increased nuclear translocalization of HIF-1?, which led to elevated VEGF mRNA expression. PPD activated both PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathways in HUVECs, which were abrogated by LY294002 and PD98059. Furthermore, these two pathways had crosstalk through p70S6K, as LY294002, PD98059 and p70S6K siRNA abolished the angiogenic responses of PPD. In the excisional wound splinting model established in db/db diabetic mice, PPD (0.6, 6 and 60?mg?ml-1) accelerated wound closure, which was reflected by a significantly reduced wound area and epithelial gaps, as well as elevated VEGF expression and capillary formation. In addition, PPD activated PI3K/Akt/ERK signaling pathways, as well as enhanced p70S6K activity and HIF-1? synthesis in the wounds. Overall, our results revealed that PPD stimulated angiogenesis via HIF-1?-mediated VEGF expression by activating p70S6K through PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascades, which suggests that the compound has potential use in wound healing therapy in patients suffering from DFUs.
Project description:Nonhealing chronic wounds are major complications of diabetes resulting in >70,000 annual lower-limb amputations in the United States alone. The reasons the diabetic wound is recalcitrant to healing are not fully understood, and there are limited therapeutic agents that could accelerate or facilitate its repair. We previously identified two active forms of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-8 and MMP-9, in the wounds of db/db mice. We argued that the former might play a role in the body's response to wound healing and that the latter is the pathological consequence of the disease with detrimental effects. Here we demonstrate that the use of compound ND-336, a novel highly selective inhibitor of gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and MMP-14, accelerates diabetic wound healing by lowering inflammation and by enhancing angiogenesis and re-epithelialization of the wound, thereby reversing the pathological condition. The detrimental role of MMP-9 in the pathology of diabetic wounds was confirmed further by the study of diabetic MMP-9-knockout mice, which exhibited wounds more prone to healing. Furthermore, topical administration of active recombinant MMP-8 also accelerated diabetic wound healing as a consequence of complete re-epithelialization, diminished inflammation, and enhanced angiogenesis. The combined topical application of ND-336 (a small molecule) and the active recombinant MMP-8 (an enzyme) enhanced healing even more, in a strategy that holds considerable promise in healing of diabetic wounds.
Project description:Inflammation and angiogenesis are integral parts of wound healing. However, excessive and persistent wound-induced inflammation and angiogenesis in an avascular tissue such as the cornea may be associated with scarring and visual impairment. Junctional adhesion molecule A (Jam-A) is a tight junction protein that regulates leukocyte transmigration as well as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-induced angiogenesis. However its function in wound-induced inflammation and angiogenesis is still unknown. In this study, we report spontaneous corneal opacity in Jam-A deficient mice associated with inflammation, angiogenesis and the presence of myofibroblasts. Since wounds and/or corneal infections cause corneal opacities, we tested the role of Jam-A in wound-induced inflammation, angiogenesis and scarring by subjecting Jam-A deficient mice to full thickness corneal wounding. Analysis of these wounds demonstrated increased inflammation, angiogenesis, and increased number of myofibroblasts thereby indicating that Jam-A regulates the wound-healing response by controlling wound-induced inflammation, angiogenesis and scarring in the cornea. These effects were not due to inflammation alone since the inflammation-induced wound-healing response in Jam-A deficient mice was similar to wild type mice. In order to determine the molecular mechanism associated with the observed aberrant corneal wound healing in Jam-A deficient mice, we assessed the expression of the components of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor- 2(VEGFR-2) signaling pathway. Interestingly, we observed increased levels of VEGF-A mRNA in Jam-A deficient eyes. We also observed nuclear localization of phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3) indicative of TGF? pathway activation in the Jam-A deficient eyes. Furthermore the increased wound-induced corneal inflammation, angiogenesis, and scarring in Jam-A deficient mice was attenuated by treatment with DC101, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) antibody. Our results suggest that in the absence of Jam-A, the VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 pathway is upregulated, thereby augmenting wound induced corneal inflammation, angiogenesis, and myofibroblast accumulation leading to scarring.
Project description:In the past, the genetically diabetic-obese diabetes/diabetes (db/db) and obese/obese (ob/ob) mouse strains were used to investigate mechanisms of diabetes-impaired wound healing. Here we determined patterns of skin repair in genetically normal C57Bl/6J mice that were fed using a high fat diet (HFD) to induce a diabetes-obesity syndrome. Wound closure was markedly delayed in HFD-fed mice compared to mice which had received a standard chow diet (CD). Impaired wound tissue of HFD mice showed a marked prolongation of wound inflammation. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was delayed and associated with the disturbed formation of wound margin epithelia and an impaired angiogenesis in the reduced granulation tissue. Normal wound contraction was retarded and disordered. Wound disorders in obese C57Bl/6J mice were paralleled by a prominent degradation of the inhibitor of NF?B (I?B-?) in the absence of an Akt activation. By contrast to impaired wound conditions in ob/ob mice, late wounds of HFD mice did not develop a chronic inflammatory state and were epithelialized after 11 days of repair. Thus, only genetically obese and diabetic ob/ob mice finally developed chronic wounds and therefore represent a better suited experimental model to investigate diabetes-induced wound healing disorders.
Project description:Background & Aims:Endothelial precursor cell (EPC) dysfunction is one of the risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM) which results in delayed wound healing. Rosiglitazone (RSG) is a frequently prescribed oral glucose-lowering drug. Previous studies have shown the positive effects of RSG on ameliorating EPC dysfunction in diabetic patients. Interestingly, knowledge about RSG with regard to the wound healing process caused by DM is scarce. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the possible actions of RSG on wound healing and the related mechanisms involved in db/db diabetic mice. Methods:Db/db mice with spontaneous glucose metabolic disorder were used as a type 2 DM model. RSG (20 mg/kg/d, i.g.,) was administered for 4 weeks before wound creation and bone marrow derived EPC (BM-EPC) isolation. Wound closure was assessed by wound area and CD31 staining. Tubule formation and migration assays were used to judge the function of the BM-EPCs. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stromal cell derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) and insulin signaling was determined by ELISA. Cell viability of the BM-EPCs was measured by CCK-8 assay. Results:RSG significantly accelerated wound healing and improved angiogenesis in db/db mice. Bioactivities of tube formation and migration were decreased in db/db mice but were elevated by RSG. Level of both VEGF and SDF-1? was increased by RSG in the BM-EPCs of db/db mice. Insulin signaling was elevated by RSG reflected in the phosphorylated-to-total AKT in the BM-EPCs. In vitro, RSG improved impaired cell viability and tube formation of BM-EPCs induced by high glucose, but this was prevented by the VEGF inhibitor avastin. Conclusion:Our data demonstrates that RSG has benefits for wound healing and angiogenesis in diabetic mice, and was partially associated with improvement of EPC function through activation of VEGF and stimulation of SDF-1? in db/db mice.
Project description:Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the major complications in type II diabetes patients and can result in amputation and morbidity. Although multiple approaches are used clinically to help wound closure, many patients still lack adequate treatment. Here we show that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are upregulated during normal wound healing. While there is a redundant role for each individual cytokine in this subfamily in wound healing, mice deficient in IL-22R, the common receptor chain for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, display a significant delay in wound healing. Furthermore, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 are all able to promote wound healing in type II diabetic db/db mice. When compared to other growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF that accelerate wound healing in this model, IL-22 uniquely induced genes involved in reepithelialization, tissue remodeling and innate host defense mechanisms from wounded skin. Interestingly, IL-22 treatment showed superior efficacy compared to PDGF or VEGF in an infectious diabetic wound model. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-20 subfamily cytokines, particularly IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, might provide therapeutic benefit for patients with DFU. Overall design: There are 45 samples in total (nine groups n=5/group). We have prepared the RNA from Diabetic Foot Ulcer Skin wounds. The following is the experimental design: Groups 1-4: 24 hrs time point; Groups 5-9: day7 post wound; Group 1: db/db females, n=5, anti Ragweed; Group 2: db/db females, n=5 IL-22 Fc; Group 3: db/db females, n=5 VEGF; Group 4: db/db females, n=5 PDGF; Group 5: dbm females n=5, PBS (lean control mice); Group 6: db/db females, n=5, anti-Ragweed; Group 7: db/db females, n=5 IL-22 Fc; Group 8: db/db females, n=5 VEGF; Group 9: db/db females, n=5 PDGF anti-Ragweed (50 ug) and Il-22 Fc (20 ug). For groups 1-4, wound (6mm) will be created on Day0 and receive one dose of topical treatment. Mice will be euthanized 24 hrs post topical treatment and wound tissue will be harvested. For groups 5 through 9 wound will be created on day 0 and dosed topically on Day0, Day2, day4, day 6. Mice will be euthanized on Day 7 and wound tissue harvested and RNA prepared.