Effect of tiotropium bromide on circadian variation in airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the degree of circadian variation in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and the influence of anticholinergic blockade is not known. Tiotropium is a long acting inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator that increases daytime FEV1 in COPD. We hypothesised that tiotropium would modify the overnight change in FEV1, and this would be unaffected by the timing of drug administration. METHODS:A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial was conducted with tiotropium 18 mg once daily in the morning (09.00 hours), evening (21.00 hours), or an identical placebo. Patients with stable COPD (n=121, FEV1=41% predicted) underwent spirometric tests every 3 hours for 24 hours at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. RESULTS:There were no significant differences at baseline between the groups. Tiotropium improved mean (SE) FEV1 (over 24 hours) in the morning (1.11 (0.03) l) and evening (1.06 (0.03) l) groups compared with placebo (0.90 (0.03) l), and nocturnal FEV1 (mean of 03.00 and 06.00 hours) in the morning (1.03 (0.03) l) and evening (1.04 (0.03) l) groups compared with placebo (0.82 (0.03) l) at the 6 week visit (p<0.01). FEV1 before morning or evening dosing was similar, while the peak FEV1 moved later in the day with active treatment. The mean percentage change in FEV1 from 09.00 hours to 03.00 hours (the nocturnal decline in FEV1) was -2.8% in the morning group, -1.0% in the evening group, and -12.8% in the placebo group. The magnitude of the peak to trough change in FEV1 was not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS:Tiotropium produced sustained bronchodilation throughout the 24 hour day without necessarily abolishing circadian variation in airway calibre.
Project description:This randomized, double-blind, Phase IIIb study evaluated the 24-hour bronchodilatory efficacy of aclidinium bromide versus placebo and tiotropium in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Patients received aclidinium 400 ?g twice daily (morning and evening), tiotropium 18 ?g once daily (morning), or placebo for 6 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second area under the curve for the 24-hour period post-morning dose (FEV1 AUC0-24) at week 6. Secondary and additional endpoints included FEV1 AUC12-24, COPD symptoms (EXAcerbations of chronic pulmonary disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS] total score and additional symptoms questionnaire), and safety.Overall, 414 patients were randomized and treated (FEV1 1.63 L [55.8% predicted]). Compared with placebo, FEV1 AUC0-24 and FEV1 AUC12-24 were significantly increased from baseline with aclidinium (? = 150 mL and 160 mL, respectively; p < 0.0001) and tiotropium (? = 140 mL and 123 mL, respectively; p < 0.0001) at week 6. Significant improvements in E-RS total scores over 6 weeks were numerically greater with aclidinium (p < 0.0001) than tiotropium (p < 0.05) versus placebo. Only aclidinium significantly reduced the severity of early-morning cough, wheeze, shortness of breath, and phlegm, and of nighttime symptoms versus placebo (p < 0.05). Adverse-event (AE) incidence (28%) was similar between treatments. Few anticholinergic AEs (<1.5%) or serious AEs (<3%) occurred in any group.Aclidinium provided significant 24-hour bronchodilation versus placebo from day 1 with comparable efficacy to tiotropium after 6 weeks. Improvements in COPD symptoms were consistently numerically greater with aclidinium versus tiotropium. Aclidinium was generally well tolerated.
Project description:A previous Phase IIIb study (NCT01462929) in patients with moderate to severe COPD demonstrated that 6 weeks of treatment with aclidinium led to improvements in 24-hour bronchodilation comparable to those with tiotropium, and improvement of symptoms versus placebo. This post hoc analysis was performed to assess the effect of treatment in the symptomatic patient group participating in the study.Symptomatic patients (defined as those with Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms [E-RS™] in COPD baseline score ?10 units) received aclidinium bromide 400 ?g twice daily (BID), tiotropium 18 ?g once daily (QD), or placebo, for 6 weeks. Lung function, COPD respiratory symptoms, and incidence of adverse events (AEs) were assessed.In all, 277 symptomatic patients were included in this post hoc analysis. Aclidinium and tiotropium treatment improved forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) from baseline to week 6 at all time points over 24 hours versus placebo. In addition, improvements in FEV1 from baseline during the nighttime period were observed for aclidinium versus tiotropium on day 1 (aclidinium 157 mL, tiotropium 67 mL; P<0.001) and week 6 (aclidinium 153 mL, tiotropium 90 mL; P<0.05). Aclidinium improved trough FEV1 from baseline versus placebo and tiotropium at day 1 (aclidinium 136 mL, tiotropium 68 mL; P<0.05) and week 6 (aclidinium 137 mL, tiotropium 71 mL; P<0.05). Aclidinium also improved early-morning and nighttime symptom severity, limitation of early-morning activities, and E-RS Total and domain scores versus tiotropium (except E-RS Chest Symptoms) and placebo over 6 weeks. Tolerability showed similar incidence of AEs in each arm.In this post hoc analysis of symptomatic patients with moderate to severe COPD, aclidinium 400 ?g BID provided additional improvements compared with tiotropium 18 ?g QD in: 1) bronchodilation, particularly during the nighttime, 2) daily COPD symptoms (E-RS), 3) early-morning and nighttime symptoms, and 4) early-morning limitation of activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) is an inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS:This was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over, incomplete block study to evaluate UMEC 15.6, 31.25, 62.5, and 125 μg administered once daily (QD), and UMEC 15.6 μg and 31.25 μg administered twice daily (BID), over 7 days in patients with COPD. Tiotropium was included as an open-label treatment arm. The primary efficacy endpoint was trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) on Day 8. Secondary efficacy endpoints included weighted mean FEV1 over 0-24 hours after morning dosing on Day 7, and serial FEV1 at each time point over 24 hours after morning dosing on Day 7. Safety and pharmacokinetics were also examined. RESULTS:One hundred and sixty-three patients (mean age 59.5 years, 52% female) were randomised. Based on the population dose-response model of trough FEV1 data, the geometric mean potency (ED50) of UMEC was 37 μg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18, 57) with a predicted maximum intrinsic efficacy (Emax) at trough of 0.185 L (95% CI: 0.153, 0.218) after QD dosing. UMEC 125 μg QD demonstrated the greatest improvements in measure of lung function compared with doses of 62.5 μg and below. UMEC 125 μg QD exhibited more consistent increases in FEV1 from baseline across serial time points over 24 hours compared with other UMEC doses and tiotropium. Increases in FEV1 over 0-12 hours were similar to those observed over 12-24 hours after the second dose of UMEC was administered. UMEC was rapidly absorbed following inhaled dosing and eliminated from plasma. Adverse events, generally mild, were highest with UMEC 125 μg QD (18%) compared with placebo (8%), tiotropium (4%) and other UMEC doses (5-12%). CONCLUSIONS:UMEC is a potent QD bronchodilator with geometric mean ED50 of 37 μg. A dose ordering over the range of UMEC 15.6-125 μg QD doses was observed, with UMEC 125 μg showing the greatest improvement in trough FEV1.
Project description:Tiotropium, a once-daily long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, when administered via Respimat® SoftMist™ inhaler (tiotropium Respimat®) significantly reduces the risk of severe exacerbations and improves lung function in patients with severe persistent asthma that is not fully controlled despite using inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting ?2-agonists. To further explore the dose-response curve in asthma, we investigated the efficacy and safety of three different doses of tiotropium Respimat® as add-on to ICS in symptomatic patients with moderate persistent asthma.In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study, patients were randomised to tiotropium Respimat® 5 ?g, 2.5 ?g or 1.25 ?g or placebo Respimat®, once daily in the evening. Each treatment was administered for 4 weeks, without washout between treatment periods. Eligibility criteria included ?60% and ?90% of predicted normal forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and seven-question Asthma Control Questionnaire mean score of ?1.5. Patients were required to continue maintenance treatment with stable medium-dose ICS for at least 4 weeks prior to and during the treatment period. Long-acting ?2-agonists were not permitted during the treatment phase. The primary efficacy end point was peak FEV1 measured within 3 hours after dosing (peak FEV1(0-3h)) at the end of each 4-week period, analysed as a response (change from study baseline).In total, 149 patients were randomised and 141 completed the study. Statistically significant improvements in peak FEV1(0-3h) response were observed with each tiotropium Respimat® dose versus placebo (all P?<?0.0001). The largest difference from placebo was with tiotropium Respimat® 5 ?g (188 mL). Trough FEV1 and FEV1 area under the curve (AUC)(0-3h) responses were greater with each tiotropium Respimat® dose than with placebo (all P?<?0.0001), and both were greatest with 5 ?g. Peak forced vital capacity (FVC)(0-3h), trough FVC and FVC AUC(0-3h) responses, versus placebo, were greatest with tiotropium Respimat® 5 ?g (P?<?0.0001, P?=?0.0012 and P?<?0.0001, respectively). Incidence of adverse events was comparable between placebo and all tiotropium Respimat® groups.Once-daily tiotropium Respimat® add-on to medium-dose ICS improves lung function in symptomatic patients with moderate asthma. Overall, improvements were largest with tiotropium Respimat® 5 ?g.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01233284.
Project description:Increasing age is associated with poor prognosis in patients with COPD.This analysis from the replicate Phase III OTEMTO® and TONADO® studies examined the efficacy and safety of tiotropium, a long-acting anticholinergic, combined with olodaterol, a long-acting ?2-agonist, compared to monotherapies and placebo in patients with COPD aged 40 years to <65 years, 65 years to <75 years, 75 years to <85 years, and ?85 years.In these double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, multicenter, randomized studies, patients received tiotropium + olodaterol 2.5/5 ?g or 5/5 ?g, tiotropium 5 ?g or 2.5 ?g (TONADO only), olodaterol 5 ?g (TONADO only), or placebo (OTEMTO only). This analysis used the approved doses of tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 ?g, tiotropium 5 ?g, and olodaterol 5 ?g. Primary end points at 12 weeks (OTEMTO) or 24 weeks (TONADO) included St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) area under the curve from 0 hour to 3 hours (AUC0-3) response, and trough FEV1 response.A total of 1,621 patients were randomized (40 years to <65 years, n=749; 65 years to <75 years, n=674; 75 years to <85 years, n=186; ?85 years, n=12) in OTEMTO and 5,162 patients (40 years to <65 years, n=2,654; 65 years to <75 years, n=1,967; 75 to <85 years, n=528; ?85 years, n=13) in TONADO. FEV1 AUC0-3 and trough FEV1 responses improved with tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 ?g at 12 weeks and 24 weeks compared to monotherapies or placebo for all age groups. SGRQ scores generally improved with tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 ?g after 12 weeks in OTEMTO and improved after 24 weeks in all age groups in TONADO. In all age groups receiving tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 ?g compared to monotherapies or placebo, transition dyspnea index scores generally improved, while rescue medication usage improved.No differences were noted in relative responses to treatment or safety when using tiotropium + olodaterol 5/5 ?g compared to monotherapies or placebo across all age groups.
Project description:A systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of tiotropium, a long acting anticholinergic drug, on clinical events, symptom scales, pulmonary function, and adverse events in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).A systematic search was made of the Cochrane trials database, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and a hand search of 20 respiratory journals. Missing data were obtained from authors and the manufacturer. Randomised controlled trials of > or =12 weeks' duration comparing tiotropium with placebo, ipratropium bromide, or long acting beta2 agonists (LABA) were reviewed. Studies were pooled to yield odds ratios (OR) or weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI).Nine trials (8002 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Tiotropium reduced the odds of a COPD exacerbation (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.81) and related hospitalisation (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.84) but not pulmonary (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.19 to 1.29) or all-cause (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.47) mortality compared with placebo and ipratropium. Reductions in exacerbations and hospitalisations compared with LABA were not statistically significant. Similar patterns were evident for quality of life and symptom scales. Tiotropium yielded greater increases in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from baseline to 6-12 months than did placebo, ipratropium, and LABA. Decline in FEV1 over 1 year was 30 ml (95% CI 7 to 53) slower with tiotropium than with placebo and ipratropium (data were not available for LABA). Reports of dry mouth and urinary tract infections were increased with tiotropium.Tiotropium reduced COPD exacerbations and related hospitalisations, improved quality of life and symptoms, and may have slowed the decline in FEV1. Long term trials are warranted to evaluate the effects of tiotropium on decline in FEV1 and to clarify its role compared with LABA.
Project description:The benefits of pharmacotherapy with tiotropium HandiHaler 18??g for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been previously demonstrated. However, few data exist regarding the treatment of moderate disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage II).To determine whether tiotropium improves lung function/patient-reported outcomes in patients with GOLD stage II COPD naive to maintenance therapy.A randomised 24-week double-blind placebo-controlled trial of tiotropium 18??g once daily (via HandiHaler) was performed in maintenance therapy-naive patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio <0.7 and post-bronchodilator FEV1 ?50 and <80%.A total of 457 patients were randomised (238 tiotropium, 219 placebo; mean age 62 years; FEV1 1.93?l (66% predicted)). Tiotropium was superior to placebo in mean change from baseline in post-dose FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 3?h (AUC0-3h) at week 24 (primary endpoint): 0.19 vs. -0.03?l (least-squares mean difference 0.23?l, P<0.001). FVC AUC0-3h, trough and peak FEV1 and FVC were significantly improved with tiotropium versus placebo (P<0.001). Compared with placebo, tiotropium provided numerical improvements in physical activity (P=NS). Physician's Global Assessment (health status) improved (P=0.045) with less impairment on the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (P=0.043) at week 24. The incidence of exacerbations, cough, bronchitis and dyspnoea was lower with tiotropium than placebo.Tiotropium improved lung function and patient-reported outcomes in maintenance therapy-naive patients with GOLD stage II COPD, suggesting benefits in initiating maintenance therapy early.
Project description:Combining bronchodilators with different mechanisms of action may improve efficacy and reduce risk of side effects compared to increasing the dose of a single agent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated this by combining two long-acting bronchodilators: once-daily muscarinic antagonist tiotropium and once-daily β2-agonist olodaterol.Two replicate, double-blind, randomized, 12-week studies (ANHELTO 1 [NCT01694771] and ANHELTO 2 [NCT01696058]) evaluated the efficacy and safety of olodaterol 5 μg once daily (via Respimat(®)) combined with tiotropium 18 μg once daily (via HandiHaler(®)) versus tiotropium 18 μg once daily (via HandiHaler(®)) combined with placebo (via Respimat(®)) in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Primary efficacy end points were area under the curve from 0-3 hours of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 AUC0-3) and trough FEV1 after 12 weeks (for the individual trials). A key secondary end point was health status by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score (combined data set).Olodaterol + tiotropium resulted in significant improvements over tiotropium + placebo in FEV1 AUC0-3 (treatment differences: 0.117 L [P<0.001], ANHELTO 1; 0.106 L [P<0.001], ANHELTO 2) and trough FEV1 (treatment differences: 0.062 L [P<0.001], ANHELTO 1; 0.040 L [P=0.0029], ANHELTO 2); these were supported by secondary end points. These effects translated to improvements in SGRQ total scores (treatment difference -1.85; P<0.0001). The tolerability profile of olodaterol + tiotropium was similar to tiotropium monotherapy.These studies demonstrated that olodaterol (Respimat(®)) and tiotropium (HandiHaler(®)) provided bronchodilatory effects above tiotropium alone in patients with COPD. In general, both treatments were well tolerated.
Project description:An extrafine formulation of the long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium bromide (GB) is in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in combination with beclometasone dipropionate and formoterol fumarate - a "fixed triple". This two-part study was randomized, double blind, placebo controlled in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD: Part 1: single-dose escalation, GB 12.5, 25, 50, 100 or 200 ?g versus placebo; Part 2: repeat-dose (7-day), four-period crossover, GB 12.5, 25 or 50 ?g twice daily (BID) versus placebo, with an open-label extension in which all patients received tiotropium 18 ?g once daily. On the morning of Day 8 in all five periods, patients also received formoterol 12 ?g. In study Part 1, 27 patients were recruited. All GB doses significantly increased from baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) area under the curve (AUC0-12h) and peak FEV1, with a trend toward greater efficacy with higher GB dose. All adverse events were mild-moderate in severity, with a lower incidence with GB than placebo and no evidence of a dose-response relationship. In study Part 2, of 38 patients recruited, 34 completed the study. Adjusted mean differences from placebo in 12 h trough FEV1 on Day 7 (primary) were 115, 142 and 136 mL for GB 12.5, 25 and 50 ?g BID, respectively (all P<0.001). GB 25 and 50 ?g BID were superior (P<0.05) to GB 12.5 ?g BID for pre-dose morning FEV1 on Day 8. For this endpoint, GB 25 and 50 ?g BID were also superior to tiotropium. Compared with Day 7, addition of formoterol significantly increased Day 8 FEV1 peak and AUC0-12h with all GB doses and placebo (all P<0.001). All adverse events were mild-moderate in severity and there was no indication of a dose-related relationship. This study provides initial evidence on bronchodilation, safety and pharmacokinetics of extrafine GB BID. Overall, the results suggest that GB 25 ?g BID is the optimal dose in patients with COPD.
Project description:Tiotropium is prescribed for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and delivered via HandiHaler(®) (18 μg once daily) or Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ inhaler (5 μg once daily). The recent TIOtropium Safety and Performance In Respimat(®) (TIOSPIR™) study demonstrated that both exhibit similar safety profiles. This analysis provides an updated comprehensive safety evaluation of tiotropium(®) using data from placebo-controlled HandiHaler(®) and Respimat(®) trials.Pooled analysis of adverse event (AE) data from tiotropium HandiHaler(®) 18 μg and Respimat(®) 5 μg randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in patients with COPD (treatment duration ≥4 weeks). Incidence rates, rate ratios (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for HandiHaler(®) and Respimat(®) trials, both together and separately.In the 28 HandiHaler(®) and 7 Respimat(®) trials included in this analysis, 11,626 patients were treated with placebo and 12,929 with tiotropium, totaling 14,909 (12,469 with HandiHaler(®); 2,440 with Respimat(®)) patient-years of tiotropium exposure. Mean age was 65 years, and mean prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) was 1.16 L (41% predicted). The risk (RR [95% CI]) of AEs (0.90 [0.87, 0.93]) and of serious AEs (SAEs) (0.94 [0.89, 0.99]) was significantly lower in the tiotropium than in the placebo group (HandiHaler(®) and Respimat(®) pooled results), and there was a numerically lower risk of fatal AEs (FAEs) (0.90 [0.79, 1.01]). The risk of cardiac AEs (0.93 [0.85, 1.02]) was numerically lower in the tiotropium group. Incidences of typical anticholinergic AEs, but not SAEs, were higher with tiotropium. Analyzed separately by inhaler, the risks of AE and SAE in the tiotropium groups remained lower than in placebo and similarly for FAEs.This analysis indicates that tiotropium is associated with lower rates of AEs, SAEs, and similar rates of FAEs than placebo when delivered via HandiHaler(®) or Respimat(®) (overall and separately) in patients with COPD.