Classical transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) is essential for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and alveolar gas exchange.
ABSTRACT: Regional alveolar hypoxia causes local vasoconstriction in the lung, shifting blood flow from hypoxic to normoxic areas, thereby maintaining gas exchange. This mechanism is known as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Disturbances in HPV can cause life-threatening hypoxemia whereas chronic hypoxia triggers lung vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. The signaling cascade of this vitally important mechanism is still unresolved. Using transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6)-deficient mice, we show that this channel is a key regulator of acute HPV as this regulatory mechanism was absent in TRPC6(-/-) mice whereas the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to the thromboxane mimetic U46619 was unchanged. Accordingly, induction of regional hypoventilation resulted in severe arterial hypoxemia in TRPC6(-/-) but not in WT mice. This effect was mirrored by a lack of hypoxia-induced cation influx and currents in smooth-muscle cells from precapillary pulmonary arteries (PASMC) of TRPC6(-/-) mice. In both WT and TRPC6(-/-) PASMC hypoxia caused diacylglycerol (DAG) accumulation. DAG seems to exert its action via TRPC6, as DAG kinase inhibition provoked a cation influx only in WT but not in TRPC6(-/-) PASMC. Notably, chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension was independent of TRPC6 activity. We conclude that TRPC6 plays a unique and indispensable role in acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Manipulation of TRPC6 function may thus offer a therapeutic strategy for the control of pulmonary hemodynamics and gas exchange.
Project description:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) redistributes blood flow from poorly ventilated to better aerated areas in the lung, thereby optimizing ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q). Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) contraction in response to hypoxia is triggered by Ca2+ influx via transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) cation channels that have translocated to caveolae in the plasma membrane. Since phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was suggested to regulate TRPC6 in endothelial cells, we aimed to define its role in the hypoxic response of PASMCs and as a putative mediator of HPV.In isolated perfused mouse lungs, smooth muscle specific PTEN deficiency attenuated pulmonary vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia but not to angiotensin II (Ang II). Analogously, siRNA-mediated knock down of PTEN in human PASMC inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays revealed increased interaction of PTEN with TRPC6 in human PASMC and murine lungs in response to hypoxia. In hypoxic PASMC, both PTEN and TRPC6 translocated to caveolae, and this response was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) which in parallel prevented PTEN-TRPC6 interaction, hypoxia-induced [Ca2+]i increase, and HPV in PASMC and murine lungs, respectively.Our data indicate a novel interplay between ROCK and [Ca2+]i signalling in HPV via PTEN, in that ROCK mediates interaction of PTEN and TRPC6 which then conjointly translocate to caveolae allowing for Ca2+ influx into and subsequent contraction of PASMC.
Project description:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca(2+) mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca(2+) mobilization. Ca(2+) mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction.
Project description:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a homeostatic mechanism that is intrinsic to the pulmonary vasculature. Intrapulmonary arteries constrict in response to alveolar hypoxia, diverting blood to better-oxygenated lung segments, thereby optimizing ventilation/perfusion matching and systemic oxygen delivery. In response to alveolar hypoxia, a mitochondrial sensor dynamically changes reactive oxygen species and redox couples in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). This inhibits potassium channels, depolarizes PASMC, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and increases cytosolic calcium, causing vasoconstriction. Sustained hypoxia activates rho kinase, reinforcing vasoconstriction, and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, leading to adverse pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension (PH). In the nonventilated fetal lung, HPV diverts blood to the systemic vasculature. After birth, HPV commonly occurs as a localized homeostatic response to focal pneumonia or atelectasis, which optimizes systemic Po2 without altering pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). In single-lung anesthesia, HPV reduces blood flow to the nonventilated lung, thereby facilitating thoracic surgery. At altitude, global hypoxia causes diffuse HPV, increases PAP, and initiates PH. Exaggerated or heterogeneous HPV contributes to high-altitude pulmonary edema. Conversely, impaired HPV, whether due to disease (eg, COPD, sepsis) or vasodilator drugs, promotes systemic hypoxemia. Genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of this oxygen-sensing pathway can trigger normoxic activation of HIF-1? and can promote abnormal metabolism and cell proliferation. The resulting pseudohypoxic state underlies the Warburg metabolic shift and contributes to the neoplasia-like phenotype of PH. HPV and oxygen sensing are important in human health and disease.
Project description:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) requires Ca(2+) influx through store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCC) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and is greater in distal than proximal pulmonary arteries (PA). SOCC may be composed of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins and activated by stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1). To assess the possibility that HPV is greater in distal PA because store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is greater in distal PASMC, we measured intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and SOCE in primary cultures of PASMC using fluorescent microscopy and the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fura 2. Both hypoxia (4% O(2)) and KCl (60 mM) increased [Ca(2+)](i). Responses to hypoxia, but not KCl, were greater in distal cells. We measured SOCE in PASMC perfused with Ca(2+)-free solutions containing cyclopiazonic acid to deplete Ca(2+) stores in sarcoplasmic reticulum and nifedipine to prevent Ca(2+) entry through L-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. Under these conditions, the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) caused by restoration of extracellular Ca(2+) and the decrease in fura 2 fluorescence caused by Mn(2+) were greater in distal PASMC, indicating greater SOCE. Moreover, the increase in SOCE caused by hypoxia was also greater in distal cells. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of PASMC and freshly isolated deendothelialized PA tissue demonstrated expression of STIM1 and five of seven known TRPC isoforms (TRPC1 > TRPC6 > TRPC4 >> TRPC3 approximately TRPC5). For both protein, as measured by Western blotting, and mRNA, expression of STIM1, TRPC1, TRPC6, and TRPC4 was greater in distal than proximal PASMC and PA. These results provide further support for the importance of SOCE in HPV and suggest that HPV is greater in distal than proximal PA because greater numbers and activation of SOCC in distal PASMC generate bigger increases in [Ca(2+)](i).
Project description:Mitochondria play an important role in sensing both acute and chronic hypoxia in the pulmonary vasculature, but their primary oxygen-sensing mechanism and contribution to stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) remains elusive. Alteration of the mitochondrial electron flux and increased superoxide release from complex III has been proposed as an essential trigger for hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). We used mice expressing a tunicate alternative oxidase, AOX, which maintains electron flux when respiratory complexes III and/or IV are inhibited. Respiratory restoration by AOX prevented acute HPV and hypoxic responses of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC), acute hypoxia-induced redox changes of NADH and cytochrome c, and superoxide production. In contrast, AOX did not affect the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and HIF-1? stabilization. These results indicate that distal inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in PASMC is an essential initial step for acute but not chronic oxygen sensing.
Project description:Recent findings have indicated a role for cytochrome P-450 (CYP) epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Given that the intracellular concentration of EETs is determined by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), we assessed the influence of the sEH and 11,12-EET on pulmonary artery pressure and HPV in the isolated mouse lung. In lungs from wild-type mice, HPV was significantly increased by sEH inhibition, an effect abolished by pretreatment with CYP epoxygenase inhibitors and the EET antagonist 14,15-EEZE. HPV and EET production were greater in lungs from sEH(-/-) mice than from wild-type mice and sEH inhibition had no further effect on HPV, while MSPPOH and 14,15-EEZE decreased the response. 11,12-EET increased pulmonary artery pressure in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced HPV via a Rho-dependent mechanism. Both 11,12-EET and hypoxia elicited the membrane translocation of a transient receptor potential (TRP) C6-V5 fusion protein, the latter effect was sensitive to 14,15-EEZE. Moreover, while acute hypoxia and 11,12-EET increased pulmonary pressure in lungs from TRPC6(+/-) mice, lungs from TRPC6(-/-) mice did not respond to either stimuli. These data demonstrate that CYP-derived EETs are involved in HPV and that EET-induced pulmonary contraction under normoxic and hypoxic conditions involves a TRPC6-dependent pathway.
Project description:The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling in the O(2) sensing mechanism underlying acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) has been controversial. Although mitochondria are important sources of ROS, studies using chemical inhibitors have yielded conflicting results, whereas cellular models using genetic suppression have precluded in vivo confirmation. Hence, genetic animal models are required to test mechanistic hypotheses.We tested whether mitochondrial Complex III is required for the ROS signaling and vasoconstriction responses to acute hypoxia in pulmonary arteries (PA).A mouse permitting Cre-mediated conditional deletion of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) of Complex III was generated. Adenoviral Cre recombinase was used to delete RISP from isolated PA vessels or smooth muscle cells (PASMC).In PASMC, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in ROS signaling in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and cytosol, and it abrogated hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i). In isolated PA vessels, RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced ROS signaling in the cytosol. Breeding the RISP mice with transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-activated Cre in smooth muscle permitted the depletion of RISP in PASMC in vivo. Precision-cut lung slices from those mice revealed that RISP depletion abolished hypoxia-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) of the PA. In vivo RISP depletion in smooth muscle attenuated the acute hypoxia-induced increase in right ventricular systolic pressure in anesthetized mice.Acute hypoxia induces superoxide release from Complex III of smooth muscle cells. These oxidant signals diffuse into the cytosol and trigger increases in [Ca(2+)](i) that cause acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
Project description:RATIONALE:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes systemic oxygen delivery by matching ventilation to perfusion. HPV is intrinsic to pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Hypoxia dilates systemic arteries, including renal arteries. Hypoxia is sensed by changes in mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species, notably hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) ([H2O2]mito). Decreases in [H2O2]mito elevate pulmonary vascular tone by increasing intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) through reduction-oxidation regulation of ion channels. Although HPV is mimicked by the Complex I inhibitor, rotenone, the molecular identity of the O2 sensor is unknown. OBJECTIVE:To determine the role of Ndufs2 (NADH [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide] dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2), Complex I's rotenone binding site, in pulmonary vascular oxygen-sensing. METHODS AND RESULTS:Mitochondria-conditioned media from pulmonary and renal mitochondria isolated from normoxic and chronically hypoxic rats were infused into an isolated lung bioassay. Mitochondria-conditioned media from normoxic lungs contained more H2O2 than mitochondria-conditioned media from chronic hypoxic lungs or kidneys and uniquely attenuated HPV via a catalase-dependent mechanism. In PASMC, acute hypoxia decreased H2O2 within 112±7 seconds, followed, within 205±34 seconds, by increased intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i. Hypoxia had no effects on [Ca2+]i in renal artery SMC. Hypoxia decreases both cytosolic and mitochondrial H2O2 in PASMC while increasing cytosolic H2O2 in renal artery SMC. Ndufs2 expression was greater in PASMC versus renal artery SMC. Lung Ndufs2 cysteine residues became reduced during acute hypoxia and both hypoxia and reducing agents caused functional inhibition of Complex I. In PASMC, siNdufs2 (cells/tissue treated with Ndufs2 siRNA) decreased normoxic H2O2, prevented hypoxic increases in [Ca2+]i, and mimicked aspects of chronic hypoxia, including decreasing Complex I activity, elevating the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH/NAD+) ratio and decreasing expression of the O2-sensitive ion channel, Kv1.5. Knocking down another Fe-S center within Complex I (Ndufs1, NADH [nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide] dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 1) or other mitochondrial subunits proposed as putative oxygen sensors (Complex III's Rieske Fe-S center and COX4i2 [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2] in Complex IV) had no effect on hypoxic increases in [Ca2+]i. In vivo, siNdufs2 significantly decreased hypoxia- and rotenone-induced constriction while enhancing phenylephrine-induced constriction. CONCLUSIONS:Ndufs2 is essential for oxygen-sensing and HPV.
Project description:Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a physiological mechanism by which pulmonary arteries constrict in hypoxic lung areas in order to redirect blood flow to areas with greater oxygen supply. Both oxygen sensing and the contractile response are thought to be intrinsic to pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Here we speculated that the ideal site for oxygen sensing might instead be at the alveolocapillary level, with subsequent retrograde propagation to upstream arterioles via connexin 40 (Cx40) endothelial gap junctions. HPV was largely attenuated by Cx40-specific and nonspecific gap junction uncouplers in the lungs of wild-type mice and in lungs from mice lacking Cx40 (Cx40-/-). In vivo, hypoxemia was more severe in Cx40-/- mice than in wild-type mice. Real-time fluorescence imaging revealed that hypoxia caused endothelial membrane depolarization in alveolar capillaries that propagated to upstream arterioles in wild-type, but not Cx40-/-, mice. Transformation of endothelial depolarization into vasoconstriction involved endothelial voltage-dependent ?1G subtype Ca2+ channels, cytosolic phospholipase A2, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Based on these data, we propose that HPV originates at the alveolocapillary level, from which the hypoxic signal is propagated as endothelial membrane depolarization to upstream arterioles in a Cx40-dependent manner.
Project description:The C-terminal domain of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their less active diols, while the N-terminal domain demonstrates lipid phosphatase activity. As EETs are potent vasoconstrictors in the pulmonary circulation, we assessed the development of pulmonary hypertension induced by exposure to hypoxia (10% O(2)) for 21 days in wild-type (WT) and sEH(-/-) mice and compared the effects with chronic (4 months) sEH inhibition.In isolated lungs from WT mice, acute hypoxic vasoconstriction (HPV) was potentiated by sEH inhibition and attenuated by an EET antagonist. After prolonged hypoxia, the acute HPV and sensitivity to the EET antagonist were increased, but potentiation of vasoconstriction following sEH inhibition was not evident. Chronic hypoxia also stimulated the muscularization of pulmonary arteries and decreased sEH expression in WT mice. In normoxic sEH(-/-) mice, acute HPV and small artery muscularization were greater than that in WT lungs and enhanced muscularization was accompanied with decreased voluntary exercise capacity. Acute HPV in sEH(-/-) mice was insensitive to sEH inhibition but inhibited by the EET antagonist and chronic hypoxia induced an exaggerated pulmonary vascular remodelling. In WT mice, chronic sEH inhibition increased serum EET levels but failed to affect acute HPV, right ventricle weight, pulmonary artery muscularization, or voluntary running distance. In human donor lungs, the sEH was expressed in the wall of pulmonary arteries, however, sEH expression was absent in samples from patients with pulmonary hypertension.These data suggest that a decrease in sEH expression is intimately linked to pathophysiology of hypoxia-induced pulmonary remodelling and hypertension. However, as sEH inhibitors do not promote the development of pulmonary hypertension it seems likely that the N-terminal lipid phosphatase may play a role in the development of this disease.