Contribution of horizontal gene transfer and deletion events to development of distinctive patterns of fimbrial operons during evolution of Salmonella serotypes.
ABSTRACT: Only certain serotypes of Salmonella represent 99% of all human clinical isolates. We determined whether the phylogenetic distribution of fimbrial operons would account for the host adaptations observed for Salmonella serotypes. We found that three fimbrial operons, fim, lpf, and agf, were present in a lineage ancestral to Salmonella. While the fim and agf fimbrial operons were highly conserved among all Salmonella serotypes, sequence analysis suggested that the lpf operon was lost from many distantly related lineages. As a consequence, the distribution of the lpf operon cannot be explained easily and may be a consequence of positive and negative selection in different hosts for the presence of these genes. Two other fimbrial operons, sef and pef, each entered two distantly related Salmonella lineages and each is present only in a small number of serotypes. These results show that horizontal gene transfer and deletion events have created unique combinations of fimbrial operons among Salmonella serotypes. The presence of sef and pef correlated with serotypes frequently isolated from common domesticated animals.
Project description:A chromosomal region present in Salmonella typhimurium but absent from related species was identified by hybridization. A DNA probe originating from 78 min on the S. typhimurium chromosome hybridized with DNA from Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella heidelberg, and Salmonella dublin but not with DNA from Salmonella typhi, Salmonella arizonae, Escherichia coli, and Shigella serotypes. Cloning and sequence analysis revealed that the corresponding region of the S. typhimurium chromosome encodes a fimbrial operon. Long fimbriae inserted at the poles of the bacterium were observed by electron microscopy when this fimbrial operon was introduced into a nonpiliated E. coli strain. The genes encoding these fimbriae were therefore termed lpfABCDE, for long polar fimbriae. Genetically, the lpf operon was found to be most closely related to the fim operon of S. typhimurium, both in gene order and in conservation of the deduced amino acid sequences.
Project description:The human-specific pathogen <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovar Typhi causes typhoid, a major public health issue in developing countries. Several aspects of its pathogenesis are still poorly understood. <i>S</i>. Typhi possesses 14 fimbrial gene clusters including 12 chaperone-usher fimbriae (<i>stg, sth, bcf</i>, <i>fim, saf</i>, <i>sef</i>, <i>sta, stb, stc, std, ste</i>, and <i>tcf</i>). These fimbriae are weakly expressed in laboratory conditions and only a few are actually characterized. In this study, expression of all <i>S</i>. Typhi chaperone-usher fimbriae and their potential roles in pathogenesis such as interaction with host cells, motility, or biofilm formation were assessed. All <i>S</i>. Typhi fimbriae were better expressed in minimal broth. Each system was overexpressed and only the fimbrial gene clusters without pseudogenes demonstrated a putative major subunits of about 17 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Six of these (Fim, Saf, Sta, Stb, Std, and Tcf) also show extracellular structure by electron microscopy. The impact of fimbrial deletion in a wild-type strain or addition of each individual fimbrial system to an <i>S</i>. Typhi afimbrial strain were tested for interactions with host cells, biofilm formation and motility. Several fimbriae modified bacterial interactions with human cells (THP-1 and INT-407) and biofilm formation. However, only Fim fimbriae had a deleterious effect on motility when overexpressed. Overall, chaperone-usher fimbriae seem to be an important part of the balance between the different steps (motility, adhesion, host invasion and persistence) of <i>S</i>. Typhi pathogenesis.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome encodes 13 fimbrial operons. Most of the fimbriae encoded by these operons are not produced under laboratory conditions but are likely to be synthesized in vivo We used an in vivo expression technology (IVET) strategy to identify four fimbrial operons, agf, saf, sti, and stc that are expressed in the spleen. When any three of these operons were deleted, the strain retained wild-type virulence. However, when all four operons were deleted, the resulting strain was completely attenuated, indicating that these four fimbriae play functionally redundant roles critical for virulence. In mice, oral doses of as low as 1 × 105 CFU of the strain with four fimbrial operons deleted provided 100% protection against challenge with 1 × 109 CFU of wild-type S Typhimurium. We also examined the possible effect of these fimbriae on the ability of a Salmonella vaccine strain to deliver a guest antigen. We modified one of our established attenuated vaccine strains, χ9088, to delete three fimbrial operons while the fourth operon was constitutively expressed. Each derivative was modified to express the Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen PspA. Strains that constitutively expressed saf or stc elicited a strong Th1 response with significantly greater levels of anti-PspA serum IgG and greater protective efficacy than strains carrying saf or stc deletions. The isogenic strain in which all four operons were deleted generated the lowest anti-PspA levels and did not protect against challenge with virulent S. pneumoniae Our results indicate that these fimbriae play important roles, as yet not understood, in Salmonella virulence and immunogenicity.IMPORTANCESalmonella enterica is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection in the United States. S. Typhimurium is capable of producing up to 13 distinct surface structures called fimbriae that presumably mediate its adherence to surfaces. The roles of most of these fimbriae in disease are unknown. Identifying fimbriae produced during infection will provide important insights into how these bacterial structures contribute to disease and potentially induce protective immunity to Salmonella infection. We identified four fimbriae that are produced during infection. Deletion of all four of these fimbriae results in a significant reduction in virulence. We explored ways in which the expression of these fimbriae may be exploited for use in recombinant Salmonella vaccine strains and found that production of Saf and Stc fimbriae are important for generating a strong immune response against a vectored antigen. This work provides new insight into the role of fimbriae in disease and their potential for improving the efficacy of Salmonella-based vaccines.
Project description:Genomes of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae contain large repertoires of putative fimbrial operons. Since many of these operons are poorly expressed in vitro, a convenient method for inducing elaboration of the encoded fimbriae would greatly facilitate their functional characterization. Here we describe a new technique for identifying fimbriated bacteria from a library of transposon mutants by screening with immunomagnetic particles for ligand expression (SIMPLE). The SIMPLE method was applied to identify the T-POP mutants of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium carrying on their surfaces filaments composed of PefA, the major subunit product of a fimbrial operon (pef) that is not expressed during growth in Luria-Bertani broth. Four such mutants were identified from a library of 24,000 mutants, each of which carried a T-POP insertion within the hns gene, which encodes a global silencer of horizontally acquired genes. Our data suggest that the SIMPLE method is an effective approach for isolating fimbriated bacteria, which can be readily applied to fimbrial operons identified by whole-genome sequencing.
Project description:The distribution of eight putative adhesins that are not encoded in the locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE) in 139 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of different serotypes was investigated by PCR. Five of the adhesins (Iha, Efa1, LPF(O157/OI-141), LPF(O157/OI-154), and LPF(O113)) are encoded in regions corresponding to genomic O islands of E. coli EDL933, while the other three adhesins have been reported to be encoded in the STEC megaplasmid of various serotypes (ToxB [O157:H7], Saa [O113:H21], and Sfp [O157:NM]). STEC strains were isolated from humans (n = 54), animals (n = 52), and food (n = 33). They were classified into five seropathotypes (A through E) based on the reported occurrence of STEC serotypes in human disease, in outbreaks, and in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (M. A. Karmali, M. Mascarenhas, S. Shen, K. Ziebell, S. Johnson, R. Reid-Smith, J. Isaac-Renton, C. Clark, K. Rahn, and J. B. Kaper, J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:4930-4940, 2003). The most prevalent adhesin was that encoded by the iha gene (91%; 127 of 139 strains), which was distributed in all seropathotypes. toxB and efa1 were present mainly in strains of seropathotypes A and B, which were LEE positive. saa was present only in strains of seropathotypes C, D, and E, which were LEE negative. Two fimbrial genes, lpfA(O157/OI-141) and lpfA(O157/OI-154), were strongly associated with seropathotype A. The fimbrial gene lpfA(O113) was present in all seropathotypes except for seropathotype A, while sfpA was not present in any of the strains studied. The distribution of STEC adhesins depends mainly on serotypes and not on the source of isolation. Seropathotype A, which is associated with severe disease and frequently is involved in outbreaks, possesses a unique adhesin profile which is not present in the other seropathotypes. The wide distribution of iha in STEC strains suggested that it could be a candidate for vaccine development.
Project description:Lpf (stands for long polar fimbriae) is one of the few adhesive factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with colonization of the intestine. E. coli O157:H7 strains possess two lpf loci encoding highly regulated fimbrial structures. Database analysis of the genes encoding the major fimbrial subunits demonstrated that they are present in commensal as well as pathogenic (both intestinal and extraintestinal) E. coli strains and in Salmonella strains and that the lpfA1 and lpfA2 genes are highly prevalent among LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement)-positive E. coli strains associated with severe and/or epidemic disease. Further DNA sequence analysis of the lpfA1 and lpfA2 genes from different attaching-and-effacing E. coli strains has led us to the identification of several polymorphisms and the classification of the major fimbrial subunits into distinct variants. Using collections of pathogenic E. coli isolates from Europe and Latin America, we demonstrated that the different lpfA types are associated with the presence of specific intimin (eae) adhesin variants and, most importantly, that they are found in specific E. coli pathotypes. Our results showed that the use of these fimbrial genes as markers, in combination with the different intimin types, resulted in a specific test for the identification of E. coli O157:H7, distinguishing it from other pathogenic E. coli strains.
Project description:Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a highly pathogenic strain leading to hemorrhagic colitis and to the hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) in humans. The mechanisms by which pathogenic E. coli infect and colonize humans leading to the typical disease pattern are in focus of many investigations. The adhesion of EHEC to epithelial cells by the coordinated translocation of receptor Tir and surface expression of corresponding adhesin intimin is a key event in host-pathogen-interaction. However, less is known about other adhesins encoded by EHEC, especially about the complex set of fimbrial adhesins varying among various serotypes. Here, we investigate EHEC serotype O157:H7 strain Sakai possessing at least 16 putative fimbrial gene clusters. Using a synthetic heterologous expression system in a non-pathogenic E. coli strain, a subset of 6 gene clusters for fimbrial adhesins was analyzed. We were able to visualize surface expression of two ?1 class fimbriae (Fim and Ycb), two ?4 class fimbriae (Yad and Yeh), and two fimbrial adhesins which are assembled by the nucleation/precipitation pathway (Curli fimbriae), and by a type 2 secretion system (type 4 pili). Further, we elucidated the impact of these fimbrial adhesins in adhesion to various epithelial cells lines (HeLa, MDCK, and CaCo2), and the contribution on biofilm formation. We demonstrate the ultrastructure of Fim fimbriae and Yad fimbriae of EHEC Sakai, and Yeh fimbriae of E. coli in general. The involvement of Fim fimbriae of EHEC Sakai to adhesion to various epithelial cell lines, and contribution to biofilm formation is reported here. Our approach provides first ultrastructural and functional data for novel EHEC adhesins, and enables further understanding of the involvement of fimbrial adhesins in pathogenesis of EHEC Sakai.
Project description:The aim of this study was to generate a reference set of Salmonella enterica genomes isolated from wildlife from the United States and to determine the antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profile of the isolates from the genome sequence data. We sequenced the whole genomes of 103 Salmonella isolates sampled between 1988 and 2003 from wildlife and exotic pet cases that were submitted to the Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Stillwater, Oklahoma. Among 103 isolates, 50.48% were from wild birds, 0.9% was from fish, 24.27% each were from reptiles and mammals. 50.48% isolates showed resistance to at least one antibiotic. Resistance against the aminoglycoside streptomycin was most common while 9 isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant having resistance against more than three antibiotics. Determination of virulence gene profile revealed that the genes belonging to csg operons, the fim genes that encode for type 1 fimbriae and the genes belonging to type III secretion system were predominant among the isolates. The universal presence of fimbrial genes and the genes encoded by pathogenicity islands 1-2 among the isolates we report here indicates that these isolates could potentially cause disease in humans. Therefore, the genomes we report here could be a valuable reference point for future traceback investigations when wildlife is considered to be the potential source of human Salmonellosis.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Enteric fever is a systemic disease caused by Salmonella organism such as serotypes Typhi and ParaTyphi A, B, C. Salmonella ParaTyphi A contributes more than 50% of all the enteric fever cases and it has recently been projected as an emerging pathogen. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The present study was aimed to detect Salmonella Typhi and ParaTyphi A in urine, blood and stool specimens collected from cases of enteric fever (110), chronic typhoid carriers (46) and healthy controls (75) to explore the possibility of mixed infection by nested PCR. A new nested PCR primer was designed targeting putative fimbrial protein (stkG) gene which is one of the fimbrial gene families to Salmonella ParaTyphi A and for S. Typhi already reported primers targeting flagellin (fliC) gene. RESULTS:Large volume of urine specimens (15 ml) was found to be the best for detection of Salmonella serotypes. The urine sample was found to have mixed-infection by both the serotypes in 40.9% of the cases but lower in blood (27.3%) and stool (13.6%). CONCLUSION:The present study concludes that occurrence of mixed infection may be quite frequent in typhoid and chronic typhoid carriers' individuals, although the reported recent rise in ParaTyphi A incidence may not be real.
Project description:Fimbriae play an important role in adhesion and are therefore essential for the interaction of bacteria with the environments they encounter. Most of them are expressed in vivo but not in vitro, thus making difficult the full characterization of these fimbriae. Here, we characterized the silencing of plasmid-encoded fimbriae (Pef) expression, encoded by the pef operon, in the worldwide pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium. We demonstrated that the nucleoid-associated proteins H-NS and Hha, and their respective paralogs StpA and YdgT, negatively regulate at pH 5.1 and pH 7.1 the transcription of the pef operon. Two promoters, PpefB and PpefA, direct the transcription of this operon. All the nucleoid-associated proteins silence the PpefB promoter and H-NS also targets the PpefA promoter. While Hha and YdgT are mainly considered as acting primarily through H-NS to modulate gene transcription, our results strongly suggest that Hha and YdgT silence pef transcription at acidic pH either by interacting with StpA or independently of H-NS and StpA. We also confirmed the previously described post-transcriptional repression of Pef fimbriae by CsrA titration via the fim mRNA and CsrB and CsrC sRNA. Finally, among all these regulators, H-NS clearly appeared as the major repressor of Pef expression. These results open new avenues of research to better characterize the regulation of these bacterial adhesive proteins and to clarify their role in the virulence of pathogens.