A screen for recessive speciation genes expressed in the gametes of F1 hybrid yeast.
ABSTRACT: Diploid hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its closest relative, Saccharomyces paradoxus, are viable, but the sexual gametes they produce are not. One of several possible causes of this gamete inviability is incompatibility between genes from different species--such incompatible genes are usually called "speciation genes." In diploid F1 hybrids, which contain a complete haploid genome from each species, the presence of compatible alleles can mask the effects of (recessive) incompatible speciation genes. But in the haploid gametes produced by F1 hybrids, recessive speciation genes may be exposed, killing the gametes and thus preventing F1 hybrids from reproducing sexually. Here I present the results of an experiment to detect incompatibilities that kill hybrid gametes. I transferred nine of the 16 S. paradoxus chromosomes individually into S. cerevisiae gametes and tested the ability of each to replace its S. cerevisiae homeolog. All nine chromosomes were compatible, producing nine viable haploid strains, each with 15 S. cerevisiae chromosomes and one S. paradoxus chromosome. Thus, none of these chromosomes contain speciation genes that were capable of killing the hybrid gametes that received them. This is a surprising result that suggests that such speciation genes do not play a major role in yeast speciation.
Project description:Genetic incompatibility is believed to be the major cause of postzygotic reproductive isolation. Despite huge efforts seeking for speciation-related incompatibilities in the past several decades, a general understanding of how genetic incompatibility evolves in affecting hybrid fitness is not available, primarily due to the fact that the number of known incompatibilities is small. Instead of further mapping specific incompatible genes, in this paper we aimed to know the overall effects of incompatibility on fertility and viability, the two aspects of fitness, by examining 89 gametes produced by yeast S. cerevisiae-S. paradoxus F1 hybrids. Homozygous F2 hybrids formed by autodiploidization of F1 gametes were subject to tests for growth rate and sporulation efficiency. We observed much stronger defects in sporulation than in clonal growth for every single F2 hybrid strain, indicating that genetic incompatibility affects hybrid fertility more than hybrid viability in yeast. We related this finding in part to the fast-evolving nature of meiosis-related genes, and proposed that the generally low expression levels of these genes might be a cause of the observation.
Project description:Two types of natural hybrids were discovered in populations of three Hexagrammos species (Teleostei: Hexagrammidae) distributed off the southern coast of Hokkaido in the North Pacific Ocean. Both hybrids reproduce by hybridogenesis, in which the maternal haploid genome is transmitted to offspring without recombination and the paternal haploid genome is eliminated during gametogenesis. While natural hybrids are unisexual and reproduce hemiclonally by backcrossing with the paternal species (BC-P), artificial F1-hybrids between the pure species produce recombinant gametes. Thus, despite having the same genome composition, the natural hybrids and the F1-hybrids are not genetically identical. Here, to clarify the differences between both hybrids, we examined the karyotypes of the three Hexagrammos species, their natural hybrids, the artificial F1-hybrids, and several backcrosses. Artificial F1-hybrids have karyotypes and chromosome numbers that are intermediate between those of the parental species. Conversely, the natural hybrids differed from F1-hybrids by having several large metacentric chromosomes and microchromosomes. Since the entire maternal haploid genome is inherited by the natural hybrids, maternal backcrosses (BC-M) between natural hybrids and males of the maternal species (H. octogrammus; Hoc) have a hemiclonal Hoc genome with large chromosomes from the mother and a normal Hoc genome from the father. However, the large chromosomes disappear in offspring of BC-M, probably due to fissuring during gametogenesis. Similarly, microsatellite DNA analysis revealed that chromosomes of BC-M undergo recombination. These findings suggest that genetic factors associated with hemiclonal reproduction may be located on the large metacentric chromosomes of natural hybrids.
Project description:The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X/Y segregation is buffered against the accumulation of homology-disrupting mutations. Here, I investigate the interplay of PAR evolution and function in two interfertile house mouse subspecies characterized by structurally divergent PARs, Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. castaneus Using cytogenetic methods to visualize the sex chromosomes at meiosis, I show that intersubspecific F1 hybrids harbor an increased frequency of pachytene spermatocytes with unsynapsed sex chromosomes. This high rate of asynapsis is due, in part, to the premature release of synaptic associations prior to completion of prophase I. Further, I show that when sex chromosomes do synapse in intersubspecific hybrids, recombination is reduced across the paired region. Together, these meiotic defects afflict ?50% of spermatocytes from F1 hybrids and lead to increased apoptosis in meiotically dividing cells. Despite flagrant disruption of the meiotic program, a subset of spermatocytes complete meiosis and intersubspecific F1 males remain fertile. These findings cast light on the meiotic constraints that shape sex chromosome evolution and offer initial clues to resolve the paradox raised by the rapid evolution of this functionally significant locus.
Project description:Although microorganisms account for the largest fraction of Earth's biodiversity, we know little about how their reproductive barriers evolve. Sexual microorganisms such as Saccharomyces yeasts rapidly develop strong intrinsic post-zygotic isolation, but the role of extrinsic isolation in the early speciation process remains to be investigated. We measured the growth of F1 hybrids between two incipient species of Saccharomyces paradoxus to assess the presence of extrinsic post-zygotic isolation across 32 environments. More than 80% of hybrids showed either partial dominance of the best parent or over-dominance for growth, revealing no fitness defects in F1 hybrids. Extrinsic reproductive isolation therefore likely plays little role in limiting gene flow between incipient yeast species and is not a requirement for speciation.
Project description:Many closely related species are capable of mating to produce hybrid offspring, which are usually sterile. Nevertheless, altering the gametogenesis of hybrid offspring can rescue hybrids from sterility by enabling asexual reproduction. Hybridogenesis is one of the most complicated asexual reproductive modes, and it includes drastic genome reorganization only in the germline; this is achieved through elimination of one parental genome and duplication of the remaining one to restore diploid chromosomal set and overcome blocks in meiotic progression. We investigated a model of hybridogenesis, namely, water frogs from the Pelophylax esculentus complex, for the emergence of asexual reproduction. Further, we assessed the impact of its asexual reproduction on the maintenance of interspecies hybrids from two populations on the western edge of the P. esculentus range, in which hybrids coexist with either both parental species or with only one parental species. After analysing tadpole karyotypes, we conclude that in both studied populations, the majority of diploid hybrid males produced haploid gametes with the P. ridibundus genome after elimination of the P. lessonae genome. Hybrid females exhibited problems with genome elimination and duplication; they usually produced oocytes with univalents, but there were observations of individual oocytes with 13 bivalents and even 26 bivalents. In some hybrid tadpoles, especially F1 crosses, we observed failed germ cell development, while in tadpoles from backcrosses, germ cells were normally distributed and contained micronuclei. By identifying chromosomes present in micronuclei, we estimated that the majority of tadpoles from all crosses were able to selectively eliminate the P. lessonae chromosomes. According to our results, hybridogenesis in hybrids can appear both from crosses of parental species and crosses between sexual species with hybrid individuals. The ability to eliminate a genome and perform endoreplication to ensure gamete formation differed between male and female hybrids from the studied populations. Some diploid hybrid females can rarely produce not only haploid gametes but also diploid gametes, which is a crucial step in the formation of triploid hybrids.
Project description:Interspecies animal hybrids can employ clonal or hemiclonal reproduction modes where one or all parental genomes are transmitted to the progeny without recombination. Nevertheless, some interspecies hybrids retain strong connection with the parental species needed for successful reproduction. Appearance of polyploid hybrid animals may play an important role in the substitution of parental species and in the speciation process.To establish the mechanisms that enable parental species, diploid and polyploid hybrids coexist we have performed artificial crossing experiments of water frogs of Pelophylax esculentus complex. We identified tadpole karyotypes and oocyte genome composition in all females involved in the crossings. The majority of diploid and triploid hybrid frogs produced oocytes with 13 bivalents leading to haploid gametes with the same genome as parental species hybrids usually coexist with. After fertilization of such gametes only diploid animals appeared. Oocytes with 26 bivalents produced by some diploid hybrid frogs lead to diploid gametes, which give rise to triploid hybrids after fertilization. In gonads of all diploid and triploid hybrid tadpoles we found DAPI-positive micronuclei (nucleus-like bodies) involved in selective genome elimination. Hybrid male and female individuals produced tadpoles with variable karyotype and ploidy even in one crossing owing to gametes with various genome composition.We propose a model of diploid and triploid hybrid frog reproduction in R-E population systems. Triploid Pelophylax esculentus hybrids can transmit genome of parental species they coexist with by producing haploid gametes with the same genome composition. Triploid hybrids cannot produce triploid individuals after crossings with each other and depend on diploid hybrid females producing diploid eggs. In contrast to other population systems, the majority of diploid and triploid hybrid females unexpectedly produced gametes with the same genome as parental species hybrids coexist with.
Project description:Interspecific hybridization is required for the development of Jatropha curcas L. improved cultivars, due to its narrow genetic basis. The present study aimed to analyze the parental genomic composition of F1 and BC1F1 generations derived from interspecific crosses (J. curcas/J. integerrima and J. curcas/J. multifida) by GISH (Genomic In Situ Hybridization), and the meiotic index and pollen viability of F1 hybrids. In F1 cells from both hybrids, 11 chromosomes of each parental was observed, as expected, but chromosome rearrangement events could be detected using rDNA chromosome markers, suggesting unbalanced cells. In the BC1F1, both hybrids had 22 chromosomes, suggesting that only n = 11 gametes were viable in the next generation. However, GISH allowed the identification of three and two alien chromosomes in J. curcas//J. integerrima and J. curcas//J. multifida BC1F1 hybrids, respectively, suggesting a preferential transmission of J. curcas chromosomes for both hybrids. Pollen viability in F1 hybrids derived from J. curcas/J. integerrima crosses were higher (82-83%) than those found for J. curcas/J. multifida (68%), showing post-meiotic problems in these last hybrids, with dyads, triads, polyads, and micronuclei as post-meiosis results. The here presented cytogenetic characterization of interspecific hybrids and their backcross progenies can contribute to the selection of the best genotypes for future assisted breeding of J. curcas.
Project description:Mutations, recombinations, and genome duplications may promote genetic diversity and trigger evolutionary processes. However, quantifying these events in diploid hybrid genomes is challenging. Here, we present an integrated experimental and computational workflow to accurately track the mutational landscape of yeast diploid hybrids (MuLoYDH) in terms of single-nucleotide variants, small insertions/deletions, copy-number variants, aneuploidies, and loss-of-heterozygosity. Pairs of haploid Saccharomyces parents were combined to generate ancestor hybrids with phased genomes and varying levels of heterozygosity. These diploids were evolved under different laboratory protocols, in particular mutation accumulation experiments. Variant simulations enabled the efficient integration of competitive and standard mapping of short reads, depending on local levels of heterozygosity. Experimental validations proved the high accuracy and resolution of our computational approach. Finally, applying MuLoYDH to four different diploids revealed striking genetic background effects. Homozygous Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed a ?4-fold higher mutation rate compared with its closely related species S. paradoxus. Intraspecies hybrids unveiled that a substantial fraction of the genome (?250?bp per generation) was shaped by loss-of-heterozygosity, a process strongly inhibited in interspecies hybrids by high levels of sequence divergence between homologous chromosomes. In contrast, interspecies hybrids exhibited higher single-nucleotide mutation rates compared with intraspecies hybrids. MuLoYDH provided an unprecedented quantitative insight into the evolutionary processes that mold diploid yeast genomes and can be generalized to other genetic systems.
Project description:According to the Dobzhansky-Muller model, hybrid sterility is a consequence of the independent evolution of related taxa resulting in incompatible genomic interactions of their hybrids. The model implies that the incompatibilities evolve randomly, unless a particular gene or nongenic sequence diverges much faster than the rest of the genome. Here we propose that asynapsis of heterospecific chromosomes in meiotic prophase provides a recurrently evolving trigger for the meiotic arrest of interspecific F1 hybrids. We observed extensive asynapsis of chromosomes and disturbance of the sex body in >95% of pachynemas of Mus m. musculus × Mus m. domesticus sterile F1 males. Asynapsis was not preceded by a failure of double-strand break induction, and the rate of meiotic crossing over was not affected in synapsed chromosomes. DNA double-strand break repair was delayed or failed in unsynapsed autosomes, and misexpression of chromosome X and chromosome Y genes was detected in single pachynemas and by genome-wide expression profiling. Oocytes of F1 hybrid females showed the same kind of synaptic problems but with the incidence reduced to half. Most of the oocytes with pachytene asynapsis were eliminated before birth. We propose the heterospecific pairing of homologous chromosomes as a preexisting condition of asynapsis in interspecific hybrids. The asynapsis may represent a universal mechanistic basis of F1 hybrid sterility manifested by pachytene arrest. It is tempting to speculate that a fast-evolving subset of the noncoding genomic sequence important for chromosome pairing and synapsis may be the culprit.
Project description:Hybrid sterility is a hallmark of speciation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report that speciation may regularly proceed through a stage at which gene flow is completely interrupted, but hybrid sterility occurs only in male hybrids whereas female hybrids reproduce asexually. We analyzed gametogenic pathways in hybrids between the fish species Cobitis elongatoides and C. taenia, and revealed that male hybrids were sterile owing to extensive asynapsis and crossover reduction among heterospecific chromosomal pairs in their gametes, which was subsequently followed by apoptosis. We found that polyploidization allowed pairing between homologous chromosomes and therefore partially rescued the bivalent formation and crossover rates in triploid hybrid males. However, it was not sufficient to overcome sterility. In contrast, both diploid and triploid hybrid females exhibited premeiotic genome endoreplication, thereby ensuring proper bivalent formation between identical chromosomal copies. This endoreplication ultimately restored female fertility but it simultaneously resulted in the obligate production of clonal gametes, preventing any interspecific gene flow. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the emergence of asexuality can remedy hybrid sterility in a sex-specific manner and contributes to the speciation process.