Inhibitory impact of bifidobacteria on the transfer of beta-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in the gnotobiotic mouse digestive tract.
ABSTRACT: While looking for new means to limit the dissemination of antibiotic resistance, we evaluated the role of potentially probiotic bifidobacteria on the transfer of resistance genes between enterobacteria. Transfers of bla genes encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (SHV-5 and CTX-M-15) were studied in the absence or presence of bifidobacteria. In vitro, transfer frequencies of these bla genes decreased significantly in the presence of three of five tested strains, i.e., Bifidobacterium longum CUETM-89-215, Bifidobacterium bifidum CIP-56.7T, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CIP-104168T. Four transfer experiments were conducted in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice, the first three observing the effect of B. longum CUETM-89-215, B. bifidum CIP-56.7T, and B. pseudocatenulatum CIP-104168T on blaSHV-5 transfer and the fourth experiment studying the effect of B. bifidum CIP-56.7T on blaCTX-M-15 transfer. These experiments revealed significant decreases in the transconjugant levels (up to 3 logs) in mice having received B. bifidum CIP-56.7T or B. pseudocatenulatum CIP-104168T compared to control mice. Bifidobacteria appear to have an inhibitory impact on the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The inhibitory effect is associated to specific bifidobacterial strains and may be related to the production of thermostable metabolites by these strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bifidobacteria are important probiotics; some of the beneficial effects of bifidobacteria are achieved by the hydrolysis of glycans in the human gut. However, because the diet of breastfed infants typically lacks plant-derived glycans, in the gut environment of mothers and their breastfed infants, the mother will intake a variety of plant-derived glycans, such as from onions and bananas, through her diet. Under this assumption, we are interested in whether the same species of bifidobacteria isolated from mother-infant pairs present a distinction in their hydrolysis of plant-derived carbohydrates. RESULTS:Among the 36 Bifidobacterium strains, bifidobacterial carbohydrate utilization showed two trends related to the intestinal environment where the bacteria lived. Compared with infant-type bifidobacterial strains, adult-type bifidobacterial strains preferred to use plant-derived glycans. Of these strains, 10 isolates, 2 Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (B. pseudocatenulatum), 2 Bifidobacterium pseudolongum (B. pseudolongum), 2 Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum), 2 Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve), and 2 Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum), were shared between the mother-infant pairs. Moreover, the repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) results illustrated that B. pseudolongum and B. bifidum showed genotypic similarities of 95.3 and 98.2%, respectively. Combined with the carbohydrate fermentation study, these results indicated that the adult-type strains have a stronger ability to use plant-derived glycans than infant-type strains. Our work suggests that bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism differences resulted in the selective adaptation to the distinct intestinal environment of an adult or breastfed infant. CONCLUSIONS:The present study revealed that the different gut environments can lead to the differences in the polysaccharide utilization in the same strains of bifidobacterial strains, suggesting a further goal of investigating the exact expression of certain enzymes in response to specific carbon sources.
Project description:This study investigated the potential utilization of lacto-N-biose I (LNB) by individual strains of bifidobacteria. LNB is a building block for the human milk oligosaccharides, which have been suggested to be a factor for selective growth of bifidobacteria. A total of 208 strains comprising 10 species and 4 subspecies were analyzed for the presence of the galacto-N-biose/lacto-N-biose I phosphorylase (GLNBP) gene (lnpA) and examined for growth when LNB was used as the sole carbohydrate source. While all strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, B. longum subsp. infantis, B. breve, and B. bifidum were able to grow on LNB, none of the strains of B. adolescentis, B. catenulatum, B. dentium, B. angulatum, B. animalis subsp. lactis, and B. thermophilum showed any growth. In addition, some strains of B. pseudocatenulatum, B. animalis subsp. animalis, and B. pseudolongum exhibited the ability to utilize LNB. With the exception for B. pseudocatenulatum, the presence of lnpA coincided with LNB utilization in almost all strains. These results indicate that bifidobacterial species, which are the predominant species found in infant intestines, are potential utilizers of LNB. These findings support the hypothesis that GLNBP plays a key role in the colonization of bifidobacteria in the infant intestine.
Project description:OBJECTIVES: Bifidobacterium species are one of the major components of the infant's intestine microbiota. Colonization with bifidobacteria in early infancy is suggested to be important for health in later life. However, information remains limited regarding the source of these microbes. Here, we investigated whether specific strains of bifidobacteria in the maternal intestinal flora are transmitted to their infant's intestine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from healthy 17 mother and infant pairs (Vaginal delivery: 12; Cesarean section delivery: 5). Mother's feces were collected twice before delivery. Infant's feces were collected at 0 (meconium), 3, 7, 30, 90 days after birth. Bifidobacteria isolated from feces were genotyped by multilocus sequencing typing, and the transitions of bifidobacteria counts in infant's feces were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: Stains belonging to Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, were identified to be monophyletic between mother's and infant's intestine. Eleven out of 12 vaginal delivered infants carried at least one monophyletic strain. The bifidobacterial counts of the species to which the monophyletic strains belong, increased predominantly in the infant's intestine within 3 days after birth. Among infants delivered by C-section, monophyletic strains were not observed. Moreover, the bifidobacterial counts were significantly lower than the vaginal delivered infants until 7 days of age. CONCLUSIONS: Among infants born vaginally, several Bifidobacterium strains transmit from the mother and colonize the infant's intestine shortly after birth. Our data suggest that the mother's intestine is an important source for the vaginal delivered infant's intestinal microbiota.
Project description:Gut microbiota of breast-fed infants are generally rich in bifidobacteria. Recent studies show that infant gut-associated bifidobacteria can assimilate human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) specifically among the gut microbes. Nonetheless, little is known about how bifidobacterial-rich communities are shaped in the gut. Interestingly, HMOs assimilation ability is not related to the dominance of each species. Bifidobacterium longum susbp. longum and Bifidobacterium breve are commonly found as the dominant species in infant stools; however, they show limited HMOs assimilation ability in vitro. In contrast, avid in vitro HMOs consumers, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, are less abundant in infant stools. In this study, we observed altruistic behaviour by B. bifidum when incubated in HMOs-containing faecal cultures. Four B. bifidum strains, all of which contained complete sets of HMO-degrading genes, commonly left HMOs degradants unconsumed during in vitro growth. These strains stimulated the growth of other Bifidobacterium species when added to faecal cultures supplemented with HMOs, thereby increasing the prevalence of bifidobacteria in faecal communities. Enhanced HMOs consumption by B. bifidum-supplemented cultures was also observed. We also determined the complete genome sequences of B. bifidum strains JCM7004 and TMC3115. Our results suggest B. bifidum-mediated cross-feeding of HMOs degradants within bifidobacterial communities.
Project description:The objective of this work was to elucidate if breast milk contains bifidobacteria and whether they can be transmitted to the infant gut through breastfeeding. Twenty-three women and their respective infants provided samples of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 4 to 7 after birth. Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates from specific media with typical bifidobacterial shapes were identified to the genus level by F6PPK (fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase) assays and to the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bifidobacterial communities in breast milk were assessed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and their levels were estimated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRTi-PCR). Bifidobacteria were present in 8 milk samples and 21 fecal samples. Bifidobacterium breve, B. adolescentis, and B. bifidum were isolated from milk samples, while infant feces also contained B. longum and B. pseudocatenulatum. PCR-DGGE revealed the presence of one to four dominant bifidobacterial bands in 22 milk samples. Sequences with similarities above 98% were identified as Bifidobacterium breve, B. adolescentis, B. longum, B. bifidum, and B. dentium. Bifidobacterial DNA was detected by qRTi-PCR in the same 22 milk samples at a range between 40 and 10,000 16S rRNA gene copies per ml. In conclusion, human milk seems to be a source of living bifidobacteria for the infant gut.
Project description:Recent studies have shown that metabolites produced by microbes can be considered as mediators of host-microbial interactions. In this study, we examined the production of tryptophan metabolites by Bifidobacterium strains found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals. Indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) was the only tryptophan metabolite produced in bifidobacteria culture supernatants. No others, including indole-3-propionic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde, were produced. Strains of bifidobacterial species commonly isolated from the intestines of human infants, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, produced higher levels of ILA than did strains of other species. These results imply that infant-type bifidobacteria might play a specific role in host-microbial cross-talk by producing ILA in human infants.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37 °C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants.
Project description:Although the health-promoting roles of bifidobacteria are widely accepted, the diversity of bifidobacteria among the human intestinal microbiota is still poorly understood. We performed a census of bifidobacterial populations from human intestinal mucosal and fecal samples by plating them on selective medium, coupled with molecular analysis of selected rRNA gene sequences (16S rRNA gene and internally transcribed spacer [ITS] 16S-23S spacer sequences) of isolated colonies. A total of 900 isolates were collected, of which 704 were shown to belong to bifidobacteria. Analyses showed that the culturable bifidobacterial population from intestinal and fecal samples include six main phylogenetic taxa, i.e., Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and two species mostly detected in fecal samples, i.e., Bifidobacterium dentium and Bifidobacterium animalis subp. lactis. Analysis of bifidobacterial distribution based on age of the subject revealed that certain identified bifidobacterial species were exclusively present in the adult human gut microbiota whereas others were found to be widely distributed. We encountered significant intersubject variability and composition differences between fecal and mucosa-adherent bifidobacterial communities. In contrast, a modest diversification of bifidobacterial populations was noticed between different intestinal regions within the same individual (intrasubject variability). Notably, a small number of bifidobacterial isolates were shown to display a wide ecological distribution, thus suggesting that they possess a broad colonization capacity.
Project description:Health-promoting effects have been attributed to a number of Bifidobacterium sp. strains. These effects as well as the ability to colonise the host depend on secreted proteins. Moreover, rational design of protein secretion systems bears the potential for the generation of novel probiotic bifidobacteria with improved health-promoting or therapeutic properties. To date, there is only very limited data on secretion signals of bifidobacteria available. Using in silico analysis, we demonstrate that all bifidobacteria encode the major components of Sec-dependent secretion machineries but only B. longum strains harbour Tat protein translocation systems. A reporter plasmid for secretion signals in bifidobacteria was established by fusing the coding sequence of the signal peptide of a sialidase of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 to the phytase gene appA of E. coli. The recombinant strain showed increased phytase activity in spent culture supernatants and reduced phytase levels in crude extracts compared to the control indicating efficient phytase secretion. The reporter plasmid was used to screen seven predicted signal peptides in B. bifidum S17 and B. longum E18. The tested signal peptides differed substantially in their efficacy to mediate protein secretion in different host strains. An efficient signal peptide was used for expression and secretion of a therapeutically relevant protein in B. bifidum S17. Expression of a secreted cytosine deaminase led to a 100-fold reduced sensitivity of B. bifidum S17 to 5-fluorocytosine compared to the non-secreted cytosine deaminase suggesting efficient conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to the cytotoxic cancer drug 5-fluorouracil by cytosine deaminase occurred outside the bacterial cell. Selection of appropriate signal peptides for defined protein secretion might improve therapeutic efficacy as well as probiotic properties of bifidobacteria.
Project description:The bifidogenic effect of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) has long been known, yet the precise mechanism underlying it remains unresolved. Recent studies show that some species/subspecies of Bifidobacterium are equipped with genetic and enzymatic sets dedicated to the utilization of HMOs, and consequently they can grow on HMOs; however, the ability to metabolize HMOs has not been directly linked to the actual metabolic behavior of the bacteria. In this report, we clarify the fate of each HMO during cultivation of infant gut-associated bifidobacteria. Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM1254, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis JCM1222, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum JCM1217, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192 were selected for this purpose and were grown on HMO media containing a main neutral oligosaccharide fraction. The mono- and oligosaccharides in the spent media were labeled with 2-anthranilic acid, and their concentrations were determined at various incubation times using normal phase high performance liquid chromatography. The results reflect the metabolic abilities of the respective bifidobacteria. B. bifidum used secretory glycosidases to degrade HMOs, whereas B. longum subsp. infantis assimilated all HMOs by incorporating them in their intact forms. B. longum subsp. longum and B. breve consumed lacto-N-tetraose only. Interestingly, B. bifidum left degraded HMO metabolites outside of the cell even when the cells initiate vegetative growth, which indicates that the different species/subspecies can share the produced sugars. The predominance of type 1 chains in HMOs and the preferential use of type 1 HMO by infant gut-associated bifidobacteria suggest the coevolution of the bacteria with humans.