Composition, acquisition, and distribution of the Vi exopolysaccharide-encoding Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island SPI-7.
ABSTRACT: Vi capsular polysaccharide production is encoded by the viaB locus, which has a limited distribution in Salmonella enterica serovars. In S. enterica serovar Typhi, viaB is encoded on a 134-kb pathogenicity island known as SPI-7 that is located between partially duplicated tRNA(pheU) sites. Functional and bioinformatic analysis suggests that SPI-7 has a mosaic structure and may have evolved as a consequence of several independent insertion events. Analysis of viaB-associated DNA in Vi-positive S. enterica serovar Paratyphi C and S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates revealed the presence of similar SPI-7 islands. In S. enterica serovars Paratyphi C and Dublin, the SopE bacteriophage and a 15-kb fragment adjacent to the intact tRNA(pheU) site were absent. In S. enterica serovar Paratyphi C only, a region encoding a type IV pilus involved in the adherence of S. enterica serovar Typhi to host cells was missing. The remainder of the SPI-7 islands investigated exhibited over 99% DNA sequence identity in the three serovars. Of 30 other Salmonella serovars examined, 24 contained no insertions at the equivalent tRNA(pheU) site, 2 had a 3.7-kb insertion, and 4 showed sequence variation at the tRNA(pheU)-phoN junction, which was not analyzed further. Sequence analysis of the SPI-7 region from S. enterica serovar Typhi strain CT18 revealed significant synteny with clusters of genes from a variety of saprophytic bacteria and phytobacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. This analysis suggested that SPI-7 may be a mobile element, such as a conjugative transposon or an integrated plasmid remnant.
Project description:The large pathogenicity island (SPI7) of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a 133,477-bp segment of DNA flanked by two 52-bp direct repeats overlapping the pheU (phenylalanyl-tRNA) gene, contains 151 potential open reading frames, and includes the viaB operon involved in the synthesis of Vi antigen. Some clinical isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhi are missing the entire SPI7, due to its precise excision; these strains have lost the ability to produce Vi antigen, are resistant to phage Vi-II, and invade a human epithelial cell line more rapidly. Excision of SPI7 occurs spontaneously in a clinical isolate of S. enterica serovar Typhi when it is grown in the laboratory, leaves an intact copy of the pheU gene at its novel join point, and results in the same three phenotypic consequences. SPI7 is an unstable genetic element, probably an intermediate in the pathway of lateral transfer of such pathogenicity islands among enteric gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:The PCR primers for O, H, and Vi antigen genes, tyv (rfbE), prt (rfbS), fliC-d, fliC-a, and viaB, were designed and used for the rapid identification of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A with multiplex PCR. The results showed that all the clinical isolates examined of Salmonella serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A were accurately identified by this assay.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai are human-adapted pathogens that cause typhoid (enteric) fever. The acute prevalence in some global regions and the disease severity of typhoidal Salmonella have necessitated the development of rapid and specific detection tests. Most of the methodologies currently used to detect serovar Typhi do not identify serovars Paratyphi A or Sendai. To assist in this aim, comparative sequence analyses were performed at the loci of core bacterial genetic determinants and Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 genes encoded by clinically significant S. enterica serovars. Genetic polymorphisms specific for serovar Typhi (at trpS), as well as polymorphisms unique to human-adapted typhoidal serovars (at sseC and sseF), were observed. Furthermore, entire coding sequences unique to human-adapted typhoidal Salmonella strains (i.e., serovar-specific genetic loci rather than polymorphisms) were observed in publicly available comparative genomic DNA microarray data sets. These polymorphisms and loci were developed into real-time PCR, standard PCR, and liquid microsphere suspension array-based molecular protocols and tested for with a panel of clinical and reference subspecies I S. enterica strains. A proportion of the nontyphoidal Salmonella strains hybridized with the allele-specific oligonucleotide probes for sseC and sseF; but the trpS allele was unique to serovar Typhi (with a singular serovar Paratyphi B strain as an exception), and the coding sequences STY4220 and STY4221 were unique among serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai. These determinants provided phylogenetic data on the genetic relatedness of serovars Typhi, Paratyphi A, and Sendai; and the protocols developed might allow the rapid identification of these Salmonella serovars that cause enteric fever.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A is a human-specific serovar that, together with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Sendai, causes enteric fever. Unlike the nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the genomes of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A are characterized by inactivation of multiple genes, including in the flagellum-chemotaxis pathway. Here, we explored the motility phenotype of S. Paratyphi A and the role of flagellin in key virulence-associated phenotypes. Motility studies established that the human-adapted typhoidal S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A, and S. Sendai are all noticeably less motile than S. Typhimurium, and comparative transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) showed that in S. Paratyphi A, the entire motility-chemotaxis regulon is expressed at significantly lowers levels than in S. Typhimurium. Nevertheless, S. Paratyphi A, like S. Typhimurium, requires a functional flagellum for epithelial cell invasion and macrophage uptake, probably in a motility-independent mechanism. In contrast, flagella were found to be dispensable for host cell adhesion. Moreover, we demonstrate that in S. Paratyphi A, but not in S. Typhimurium, the lack of flagellin results in increased transcription of the flagellar and the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) regulons in a FliZ-dependent manner and in oversecretion of SPI-1 effectors via type three secretion system 1. Collectively, these results suggest a novel regulatory linkage between flagellin and SPI-1 in S. Paratyphi A that does not occur in S. Typhimurium and demonstrate curious distinctions in motility and the expression of the flagellum-chemotaxis regulon between these clinically relevant pathogens.
Project description:Enteric fever is predominantly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, and accounts for an annual global incidence of 26.9 millions. In recent years, the rate of S. Paratyphi A infection has progressively increased. Currently licensed vaccines for typhoid fever, live Ty21a vaccine, Vi subunit vaccine, and Vi-conjugate vaccine, confer inadequate cross immunoprotection against enteric fever caused by S. Paratyphi A. Therefore, development of bivalent vaccines against enteric fever is urgently required. The immunogenic Vi capsular polysaccharide is characteristically produced in S. Typhi, but it is absent in S. Paratyphi A. We propose that engineering synthesis of Vi in S. Paratyphi A live-attenuated vaccine may expand its protection range to cover S. Typhi. In this study, we cloned the viaB locus, which contains 10 genes responsible for Vi biosynthesis, and integrated into the chromosome of S. Paratyphi A CMCC 50093. Two virulence loci, htrA and phoPQ, were subsequently deleted to achieve a Vi-producing attenuated vaccine candidate. Our data showed that, despite more than 200 passages, the viaB locus was stably maintained in the chromosome of S. Paratyphi A and produced the Vi polysaccharide. Nasal immunization of the vaccine candidate stimulated high levels of Vi-specific and S. Paratyphi A-specific antibodies in mice sera as well as total sIgA in intestinal contents, and showed significant protection against wild-type challenge of S. Paratyphi A or S. Typhi. Our study show that the Vi-producing attenuated S. Paratyphi A is a promising bivalent vaccine candidate for the prevention of enteric fever.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a host-restricted serovar associated with typhoidal disease in cattle. In contrast, the fowl-associated serovar S. enterica serovar Gallinarum is avirulent in calves, yet it invades ileal mucosa and induces enteritis at levels comparable to those induced by S. enterica serovar Dublin. Suppression subtractive hybridization was employed to identify S. enterica serovar Dublin strain SD3246 genes absent from S. enterica serovar Gallinarum strain SG9. Forty-one S. enterica serovar Dublin fragments were cloned and sequenced. Among these, 24 mobile-element-associated genes were identified, and 12 clones exhibited similarity with sequences of known or predicted function in other serovars. Three S. enterica serovar Dublin-specific regions were homologous to regions from the genome of Enterobacter sp. strain 638. Sequencing of fragments adjacent to these three sequences revealed the presence of a 21-kb genomic island, designated S. enterica serovar Dublin island 1 (SDI-1). PCR analysis and Southern blotting showed that SDI-1 is highly conserved within S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates but rarely found in other serovars. To probe the role of genes identified by subtractive hybridization in vivo, 24 signature-tagged S. enterica serovar Dublin SD3246 mutants lacking loci not present in Salmonella serovar Gallinarum SG9 were created and screened by oral challenge of cattle. Though attenuation of tagged SG9 and SD3246 Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1) and SPI-2 mutant strains was detected, no obvious defects of these 24 mutants were detected. Subsequently, a DeltaSDI-1 mutant was found to exhibit weak but significant attenuation compared with the parent strain in coinfection of calves. SDI-1 mutation did not impair invasion, intramacrophage survival, or virulence in mice, implying that SDI-1 does not influence fitness per se and may act in a host-specific manner.
Project description:Although four of the five Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) have been characterized in detail for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and the fifth has been characterized for Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin, there have been limited studies to examine them in detail in a range of pathogenic serovars of S. enterica. The aim of this study was to examine these regions, shown to be crucial in virulence, in pathogenic serovars to identify any major deletions or insertions that may explain variation in virulence and provide further understanding of the elements involved in the evolution of these regions. Multiple strains of each of the 13 serovars were compared by Southern blot hybridization using a series of probes that together encompassed the full length of all five SPIs. With the exception of serovar Typhimurium, all strains of the same serovar were identical in all five SPIs. Those serovars that differed from serovar Typhimurium in SPI-1 to SPI-4 and from serovar Dublin in SPI-5 were examined in more detail in the variant regions by PCR, and restriction endonuclease digestion and/or DNA sequencing. While most variation in hybridization patterns was attributable to loss or gain of single restriction endonuclease cleavage sites, three regions, in SPI-1, SPI-3, and SPI-5, had differences due to major insertions or deletions. In SPI-1 the avrA gene was replaced by a 200-base fragment in three serovars, as reported previously. In SPI-5, two serovars had acquired an insertion with similarity to the pagJ and pagK genes between pipC and pipD. In SPI-3 the genes sugR and rhuM were deleted in most serovars and in some were replaced by sequences that were very similar to either the Escherichia coli fimbrial operon, flanked by two distinct insertion sequence elements, or to the E. coli retron phage PhiR73. The distribution of these differences suggests that there have been a number of relatively recent horizontal transfers of genes into S. enterica and that in some cases the same event has occurred in multiple lineages of S. enterica. Thus, it seems that insertion sequences and retron phages are likely to be involved in continuing evolution of the pathogenicity islands of pathogenic Salmonella serovars.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Of the > 2000 serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, most cause self-limiting gastrointestinal disease in a wide range of mammalian hosts. However, S. enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are restricted to the human host and cause the similar systemic diseases typhoid and paratyphoid fever. Genome sequence similarity between Paratyphi A and Typhi has been attributed to convergent evolution via relatively recent recombination of a quarter of their genomes. The accumulation of pseudogenes is a key feature of these and other host-adapted pathogens, and overlapping pseudogene complements are evident in Paratyphi A and Typhi. RESULTS:We report the 4.5 Mbp genome of a clinical isolate of Paratyphi A, strain AKU_12601, completely sequenced using capillary techniques and subsequently checked using Illumina/Solexa resequencing. Comparison with the published genome of Paratyphi A ATCC9150 revealed the two are collinear and highly similar, with 188 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 39 insertions/deletions. A comparative analysis of pseudogene complements of these and two finished Typhi genomes (CT18, Ty2) identified several pseudogenes that had been overlooked in prior genome annotations of one or both serovars, and identified 66 pseudogenes shared between serovars. By determining whether each shared and serovar-specific pseudogene had been recombined between Paratyphi A and Typhi, we found evidence that most pseudogenes have accumulated after the recombination between serovars. We also divided pseudogenes into relative-time groups: ancestral pseudogenes inherited from a common ancestor, pseudogenes recombined between serovars which likely arose between initial divergence and later recombination, serovar-specific pseudogenes arising after recombination but prior to the last evolutionary bottlenecks in each population, and more recent strain-specific pseudogenes. CONCLUSION:Recombination and pseudogene-formation have been important mechanisms of genetic convergence between Paratyphi A and Typhi, with most pseudogenes arising independently after extensive recombination between the serovars. The recombination events, along with divergence of and within each serovar, provide a relative time scale for pseudogene-forming mutations, affording rare insights into the progression of functional gene loss associated with host adaptation in Salmonella.
Project description:The Enteritidis and Dublin serovars of Salmonella enterica are closely related, yet they differ significantly in pathogenicity and epidemiology. S. Enteritidis is a broad host range serovar that commonly causes gastroenteritis and infrequently causes invasive disease in humans. S. Dublin mainly colonizes cattle but upon infecting humans often results in invasive disease.To gain a broader view of the extent of these differences we conducted microarray-based comparative genomics between several field isolates from each serovar. Genome degradation has been correlated with host adaptation in Salmonella, thus we also compared at whole genome scale the available genomic sequences of them to evaluate pseudogene composition within each serovar.Microarray analysis revealed 3771 CDS shared by both serovars while 33 were only present in Enteritidis and 87 were exclusive to Dublin. Pseudogene evaluation showed 177 inactive CDS in S. Dublin which correspond to active genes in S. Enteritidis, nine of which are also inactive in the host adapted S. Gallinarum and S. Choleraesuis serovars. Sequencing of these 9 CDS in several S. Dublin clinical isolates revealed that they are pseudogenes in all of them, indicating that this feature is not peculiar to the sequenced strain. Among these CDS, shdA (Peyer´s patch colonization factor) and mglA (galactoside transport ATP binding protein), appear also to be inactive in the human adapted S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A, suggesting that functionality of these genes may be relevant for the capacity of certain Salmonella serovars to infect a broad range of hosts.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi has a 134-kb island of DNA identified as salmonella pathogenicity island 7 (SPI7), inserted between pheU and 'pheU (truncated), two genes for tRNA(Phe). SPI7 has genes for Vi exopolysaccharide, for type IVB pili, for putative conjugal transfer, and for sopE bacteriophage. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis following digestion with the endonuclease I-CeuI, using DNA from a set of 120 wild-type strains of serovar Typhi assembled from several sources, identified eight strains in which the I-CeuI G fragment, which contains SPI7, had a large deletion. In addition, agglutination tests with Vi antiserum and phage typing with Vi phages show that all eight strains are Vi negative. We therefore tested these strains for deletion of SPI7 by multiplex PCR, by microarray analysis, and by sequencing of PCR amplicons. Data show that seven of the eight strains are precise deletions of SPI7: a primer pair flanking SPI7 results in a PCR amplicon containing a single pheU gene; microarrays show that all SPI7 genes are deleted. Two of the strains produce amplicons which have A derived from pheU at bp 27, while five have C derived from 'pheU at this position; thus, the position of the crossover which results in the deletion can be inferred. The deletion in the eighth strain, TYT1669, removes 175 kb with junction points in genes STY4465 and STY4664; the left junction of SPI7 and adjacent genes, as well as part of SPI7 including the viaB operon for Vi exopolysaccharide, was removed, while the right junction of SPI7 was retained. We propose that these deletions occurred during storage following isolation.