Complex chromosome 17p rearrangements associated with low-copy repeats in two patients with congenital anomalies.
ABSTRACT: Recent molecular cytogenetic data have shown that the constitution of complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs) may be more complicated than previously thought. The complicated nature of these rearrangements challenges the accurate delineation of the chromosomal breakpoints and mechanisms involved. Here, we report a molecular cytogenetic analysis of two patients with congenital anomalies and unbalanced de novo CCRs involving chromosome 17p using high-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). In the first patient, a 4-month-old boy with developmental delay, hypotonia, growth retardation, coronal synostosis, mild hypertelorism, and bilateral club feet, we found a duplication of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) chromosome regions, inverted insertion of the Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome region into the SMS region, and two microdeletions including a terminal deletion of 17p. The latter, together with a duplication of 21q22.3-qter detected by array CGH, are likely the unbalanced product of a translocation t(17;21)(p13.3;q22.3). In the second patient, an 8-year-old girl with mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly and mild dysmorphic features, we identified four submicroscopic interspersed 17p duplications. All 17 breakpoints were examined in detail by FISH analysis. We found that four of the breakpoints mapped within known low-copy repeats (LCRs), including LCR17pA, middle SMS-REP/LCR17pB block, and LCR17pC. Our findings suggest that the LCR burden in proximal 17p may have stimulated the formation of these CCRs and, thus, that genome architectural features such as LCRs may have been instrumental in the generation of these CCRs.
Project description:To investigate the potential involvement of genome architecture in nonrecurrent chromosome rearrangements, we analyzed the breakpoints of eight translocations and 18 unusual-sized deletions involving human proximal 17p. Surprisingly, we found that many deletion breakpoints occurred in low-copy repeats (LCRs); 13 were associated with novel large LCR17p structures, and 2 mapped within an LCR sequence (middle SMS-REP) within the Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) common deletion. Three translocation breakpoints involving 17p11 were found to be located within the centromeric alpha-satellite sequence D17Z1, three within a pericentromeric segment, and one at the distal SMS-REP. Remarkably, our analysis reveals that LCRs constitute >23% of the analyzed genome sequence in proximal 17p--an experimental observation two- to fourfold higher than predictions based on virtual analysis of the genome. Our data demonstrate that higher-order genomic architecture involving LCRs plays a significant role not only in recurrent chromosome rearrangements but also in translocations and unusual-sized deletions involving 17p.
Project description:A male child with multiple congenital anomalies initially was clinically diagnosed as having Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS). Subsequent cytogenetic studies revealed an interstitial deletion of 17p11.2, which is associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Biochemical studies were not supportive of a diagnosis of SLOS, and the child did not display the typical SMS phenotype. The father's karyotype showed a paracentric inversion of 17p, with breakpoints in p11.2 and p13.3, and the same inversion was also found in two of the father's sisters. FISH analyses of the deleted and inverted 17p chromosomes indicated that the deletion was similar to that typically seen in SMS patients and was found to bracket the proximal inversion breakpoint. Available family members were genotyped at 33 polymorphic DNA loci in 17p. These studies determined that the deletion was of paternal origin and that the inversion was of grandpaternal origin. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that the 17p11.2 deletion arose following a recombination event involving the father's normal and inverted chromosome 17 homologues. A mechanism is proposed to explain the simultaneous deletion and apparent "reinversion" of the recombinant paternal chromosome. These findings have implications for prenatal counseling of carriers of paracentric inversions, who typically are considered to bear minimal reproductive risk.
Project description:Cri-du-Chat syndrome (MIM 123450) is a chromosomal syndrome characterized by the characteristic features, including cat-like cry and chromosome 5p deletions. We report a family with five individuals showing chromosomal rearrangements involving 5p, resulting from rare maternal complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs), diagnosed post- and pre-natally by comprehensive molecular and cytogenetic analyses. Two probands, including a 4½-year-old brother and his 2½-year- old sister, showed no diagnostic cat cry during infancy, but presented with developmental delay, dysmorphic and autistic features. Both patients had an interstitial deletion del(5)(p13.3p15.33) spanning ? 26.22 Mb. The phenotypically normal mother had de novo CCRs involving 11 breakpoints and three chromosomes: ins(11;5) (q23;p14.1p15.31),ins(21;5)(q21;p13.3p14.1),ins(21;5)(q21;p15.31p15.33),inv(7)(p22q32)dn. In addition to these two children, she had three first-trimester miscarriages, two terminations due to the identification of the 5p deletion and one delivery of a phenotypically normal daughter. The unaffected daughter had the maternal ins(11;5) identified prenatally and an identical maternal allele haplotype of 5p. Array CGH did not detect any copy number changes in the mother, and revealed three interstitial deletions within 5p15.33-p13.3, in the unaffected daughter, likely products of the maternal insertions ins(21;5). Chromothripsis has been recently reported as a mechanism drives germline CCRs in pediatric patients with congenital defects. We postulate that the unique CCRs in the phenotypically normal mother could resulted from chromosome 5p chromothripsis, that further resulted in the interstitial 5p deletions in the unaffected daughter. Further high resolution sequencing based analysis is needed to determine whether chromothripsis is also present as a germline structural variation in phenotypically normal individuals in this family.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiovascular defects, cognitive deficits and developmental delay. WBS is caused by a segmental aneuploidy of chromosome 7 due to heterozygous deletion of contiguous genes at the long arm of chromosome 7q11.23. We aimed to apply array-CGH technique for the detection of copy number variants in suspected WBS patients and to determine the size of the deleted segment at chromosome 7q11.23 in correlation with the phenotype. The study included 24 patients referred to the CEGMR with the provisional diagnosis of WBS and 8 parents. The patients were subjected to conventional Cytogenetic (G-banding) analysis, Molecular Cytogenetic (Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization), array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) and quantitative Real time PCR (qPCR) Techniques. RESULTS:No deletions were detected by Karyotyping, however, one patient showed unbalanced translocation between chromosome 18 and 19, the karyotype was 45,XX, der(19) t(18;19)(q11.1;p13.3)-18. FISH technique could detect microdeletion in chromosome 7q11.23 in 10/24 patients. Array-CGH and qPCR confirmed the deletion in all samples, and could detect duplication of 7q11.23 in three patients and two parents. Furthermore, the size of the deletion could be detected accurately by both array-CGH and qPCR techniques. Three patients not showing the 7q11.23 deletion were diagnosed by array-CGH to have deletion in chr9p13.1-p11.2, chr18p11.32-p11.21 and chr1p36.13. CONCLUSION:Both FISH and array-CGH are reliable methods for the diagnosis of WBS; however, array-CGH has the advantage of detection of genome deletions/ duplications that cannot otherwise be detected by conventional cytogenetic techniques. Array-CGH and qPCR are useful for detection of deletion sizes and prediction of the interrupted genes and their impact on the disease phenotype. Further investigations are needed for studying the impact of deletion sizes and function of the deleted genes on chromosome 7q11.23. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ISRCTN ISRCTN73824458. MOCY-D-16-00041R1. Registered 28 September 2014. Retrospectively registered.
Project description:Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are balanced or unbalanced structural rearrangements involving three or more cytogenetic breakpoints on two or more chromosomal pairs. The phenotypic anomalies in such cases are attributed to gene disruption, superimposed cryptic imbalances in the genome, and/or position effects. We report a 14-year-old girl who presented with multiple congenital anomalies and developmental delay. Chromosome and FISH analysis indicated a highly complex chromosomal rearrangement involving three chromosomes (3, 7 and 12), seven breakpoints as a result of one inversion, two insertions, and two translocations forming three derivative chromosomes. Additionally, chromosomal microarray study (CMA) revealed two submicroscopic deletions at 3p12.3 (467 kb) and 12q13.12 (442 kb). We postulate that microdeletion within the ROBO1 gene at 3p12.3 may have played a role in the patient's developmental delay, since it has potential activity-dependent role in neurons. Additionally, factors other than genomic deletions such as loss of function or position effects may also contribute to the abnormal phenotype in our patient.
Project description:Multiple myeloma (MM) is an uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and these cells play an important role in the immune system. In this research, we retrospectively analyzed cytogenetic abnormalities in 381 patients with MM. Conventional cytogenetic analysis was successful in 354 patients (92.9%). Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 31.9% (113/354) and 45.8% (116/253) of patients screened with conventional cytogenetics and FISH, respectively. Of 113 patients with chromosomal abnormalities, 31 patients (27.4%) had hyperdiploid and 26 of 31 patients with hyperdiploidy had both numerical and structural anomalies. On the other hand, non-hyperdiploidy was observed in 62 patients (54.8%). The most common gains of chromosomes were 15, 9, 19 followed by 3, 5, 11, and 21. Whole chromosome losses were also frequent involving Y, 13 and 22 chromosomes. In our patients, 1q gain was determined in a total of 25 patients (22%), including 7 structural abnormalities and 19 unbalanced translocations causing complete or partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 1. Although the breakpoints were different, t(1;5) balanced translocation and unbalanced translocations of t(1;2), t(1;3), t(1;7), t(1;16) and t(1;19) were observed twice. The most common structural abnormality was the deletion of the short arm of chromosome 13 (13q) or monosomy of chromosome 13 (-13) (24.1%, 61/253) in patients evaluated by FISH. Deletion involving chromosome 17p (del 17p) or monosomy of chromosome 17 (-17) were found in 31 (12.3%) patients. Translocations involving IgH regions were as follows: t(11;14)(q13;q32.33) in 22 (8.7%), t(4;14)(p16.3;q32.33) in 22 (8.7%) and t(14;16)(q32.33;q23.1) in 2 (0.8%) patients. In addition, t(14;17)(q32;q21) translocation was detected in a multiple myeloma patient for the first time in this study. There are a limited number of large study groups including both cytogenetic and FISH findings in MM patients. As the number of these studies increases, it is thought that new cytogenetic data can be guiding especially in clinical risk determination.
Project description:Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCRs) are rearrangements involving more than two chromosomes or more than two breakpoints. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) allows for outstanding high resolution characterization on the nucleotide level in unique sequences of such rearrangements, but problems remain for mapping breakpoints in repetitive regions of the genome, which are known to be prone to rearrangements. Hence, multiple complementary WGS experiments are sometimes needed to solve the structures of CCRs. We have studied three individuals with CCRs: Case 1 and Case 2 presented with de novo karyotypically balanced, complex interchromosomal rearrangements (46,XX,t(2;8;15)(q35;q24.1;q22) and 46,XY,t(1;10;5)(q32;p12;q31)), and Case 3 presented with a de novo, extremely complex intrachromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 1. Molecular cytogenetic investigation revealed cryptic deletions in the breakpoints of chromosome 2 and 8 in Case 1, and on chromosome 10 in Case 2, explaining their clinical symptoms. In Case 3, 26 breakpoints were identified using WGS, disrupting five known disease genes. All rearrangements were subsequently analyzed using optical maps, linked-read WGS, and short-read WGS. In conclusion, we present a case series of three unique de novo CCRs where we by combining the results from the different technologies fully solved the structure of each rearrangement. The power in combining short-read WGS with long-molecule sequencing or optical mapping in these unique de novo CCRs in a clinical setting is demonstrated.
Project description:Comprehensive chromosome analysis techniques such as metaphase-Comparative Genomic Hybridisation (CGH) and array-CGH are available for single-cell analysis. However, while metaphase-CGH and BAC array-CGH have been widely used for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, oligonucleotide array-CGH has not been used in an extensive way. A comparison between oligonucleotide array-CGH and metaphase-CGH has been performed analysing 15 single fibroblasts from aneuploid cell-lines and 18 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. Afterwards, oligonucleotide array-CGH and BAC array-CGH were also compared analysing 16 single blastomeres from human cleavage-stage embryos. All three comprehensive analysis techniques provided broadly similar cytogenetic profiles; however, non-identical profiles appeared when extensive aneuploidies were present in a cell. Both array techniques provided an optimised analysis procedure and a higher resolution than metaphase-CGH. Moreover, oligonucleotide array-CGH was able to define extra segmental imbalances in 14.7% of the blastomeres and it better determined the specific unbalanced chromosome regions due to a higher resolution of the technique (? 20 kb). Applicability of oligonucleotide array-CGH for Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis has been demonstrated in two cases of Robertsonian translocation carriers 45,XY,der(13;14)(q10;q10). Transfer of euploid embryos was performed in both cases and pregnancy was achieved by one of the couples. This is the first time that an oligonucleotide array-CGH approach has been successfully applied to Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for balanced chromosome rearrangement carriers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Complex chromosomal rearrangements (CCR) are rare cytogenetic findings that are difficult to karyotype by conventional cytogenetic analysis partially because of the relative low resolution of this technique. High resolution genotyping is necessary in order to identify cryptic imbalances, for instance near the multiple breakpoints, to explain the abnormal phenotype in these patients. We applied several molecular techniques to elucidate the complexity of the CCRs of two adult patients with abnormal phenotypes. RESULTS:Multicolour fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) showed that in patient 1 the chromosomes 1, 10, 15 and 18 were involved in the rearrangement whereas for patient 2 the chromosomes 5, 9, 11 and 13 were involved. A 250 k Nsp1 SNP-array analysis uncovered a deletion in chromosome region 10p13 for patient 1, harbouring 17 genes, while patient 2 showed no pathogenic gains or losses. Additional FISH analysis with locus specific BAC-probes was performed, leading to the identification of cryptic interstitial structural rearrangements in both patients. CONCLUSION:Application of M-FISH and SNP-array analysis to apparently balanced CCRs is useful to delineate the complex chromosomal rearrangement in detail. However, it does not always identify cryptic imbalances as an explanation for the abnormal phenotype in patients with a CCR.
Project description:By applying a method that combines end-sequence profiling and massively parallel sequencing, we obtained a sequence-level map of chromosomal aberrations in the genome of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. A total of 157 distinct somatic breakpoints of two distinct types, dispersed and clustered, were identified. A total of 89 breakpoints are evenly dispersed across the genome. A majority of dispersed breakpoints are in regions of low copy repeats (LCRs), indicating a possible role for LCRs in chromosome breakage. The remaining 68 breakpoints form four distinct clusters of closely spaced breakpoints that coincide with the four highly amplified regions in MCF-7 detected by array CGH located in the 1p13.1-p21.1, 3p14.1-p14.2, 17q22-q24.3, and 20q12-q13.33 chromosomal cytobands. The clustered breakpoints are not significantly associated with LCRs. Sequences flanking most (95%) breakpoint junctions are consistent with double-stranded DNA break repair by nonhomologous end-joining or template switching. A total of 79 known or predicted genes are involved in rearrangement events, including 10 fusions of coding exons from different genes and 77 other rearrangements. Four fusions result in novel expressed chimeric mRNA transcripts. One of the four expressed fusion products (RAD51C-ATXN7) and one gene truncation (BRIP1 or BACH1) involve genes coding for members of protein complexes responsible for homology-driven repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. Another one of the four expressed fusion products (ARFGEF2-SULF2) involves SULF2, a regulator of cell growth and angiogenesis. We show that knock-down of SULF2 in cell lines causes tumorigenic phenotypes, including increased proliferation, enhanced survival, and increased anchorage-independent growth.