Endocytic down-regulation of ErbB2 is stimulated by cleavage of its C-terminus.
ABSTRACT: High ErbB2 levels are associated with cancer, and impaired endocytosis of ErbB2 could contribute to its overexpression. Therefore, knowledge about the mechanisms underlying endocytic down-regulation of ErbB2 is warranted. The C-terminus of ErbB2 can be cleaved after various stimuli, and after inhibition of HSP90 with geldanamycin this cleavage is accompanied by proteasome-dependent endocytosis of ErbB2. However, it is unknown whether C-terminal cleavage is linked to endocytosis. To study ErbB2 cleavage and endocytic trafficking, we fused yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to the N- and C-terminus of ErbB2, respectively (YFP-ErbB2-CFP). After geldanamycin stimulation YFP-ErbB2-CFP became cleaved in nonapoptotic cells in a proteasome-dependent manner, and a markedly larger relative amount of cleaved YFP-ErbB2-CFP was observed in early endosomes than in the plasma membrane. Furthermore, cleavage took place at the plasma membrane, and cleaved ErbB2 was internalized and degraded far more efficiently than full-length ErbB2. Concordantly, a C-terminally truncated ErbB2 was also readily endocytosed and degraded in lysosomes compared with full-length ErbB2. Altogether, we suggest that geldanamycin leads to C-terminal cleavage of ErbB2, which releases the receptor from a retention mechanism and causes endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of ErbB2.
Project description:ErbB2 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase whose surface overexpression is linked to tumorigenesis and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Two models have emerged that account for the high surface distribution of ErbB2. In one model, the surface pool is dynamic and governed by a balance between endocytosis and recycling, whereas in the other it is retained, static, and excluded from endocytosis. These models have contrasting implications for how ErbB2 exerts its biological function and how cancer therapies might down-regulate surface ErbB2, such as the antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) or the Hsp90 inhibitor geldanamycin. Little is known, however, about how these treatments affect ErbB2 endocytic trafficking. To investigate this issue, we examined breast carcinoma cells by immunofluorescence and quantitative immunoelectron microscopy and developed imaging and trafficking kinetics assays using cell surface fluorescence quenching. Surprisingly, trastuzumab does not influence ErbB2 distribution but instead recycles passively with internalized ErbB2. By contrast, geldanamycin down-regulates surface ErbB2 through improved degradative sorting in endosomes exclusively rather than through increased endocytosis. These results reveal substantial dynamism in the surface ErbB2 pool and clearly demonstrate the significance of endosomal sorting in the maintenance of ErbB2 surface distribution, a critical feature of its biological function.
Project description:The receptor tyrosine kinase ERBB2 interacts with HSP90 and is overexpressed in aggressive breast cancers. Therapeutic HSP90 inhibitors, i.e. Geldanamycin (GA), target ERBB2 to degradation. We have previously shown that HSP90 is responsible for the missorting of recycling ERBB2 to degradation compartments. In this study, we used biochemical, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy techniques to demonstrate that in SKBR3 human breast cancer cells, GA strongly induces polyubiquitination and internalization of the full-length p185-ERBB2, and promotes its cleavage, with the formation of a p116-ERBB2 form in EEA1-positive endosomes (EE). p116-ERBB2 corresponds to a non-ubiquitinated, signaling-impaired, membrane-bound fragment, which is readily sorted to lysosomes and degraded. To define the sequence of events leading to p116-ERBB2 degradation, we first blocked the EE maturation/trafficking to late endosomes/lysosomes with wortmannin, and found an increase in GA-dependent formation of p116-ERBB2; we then inhibited the proteasome activity with MG-132 or lactacystin, and observed an efficient block of p185-ERBB2 cleavage, and its accumulation in EE, suggesting that p185-ERBB2 polyubiquitination is necessary for proteasome-dependent p116-ERBB2 generation occurring in EE. As polyubiquitination has also been implicated in autophagy-mediated degradation of ERBB2 under different experimental conditions, we exploited this possibility and demonstrate that GA strongly inhibits early autophagy, and reduces the levels of the autophagy markers atg5-12 and LC3-II, irrespective of GA-induced ERBB2 polyubiquitination, ruling out a GA-dependent autophagic degradation of ERBB2. In conclusion, we propose that HSP90 inhibition fosters ERBB2 polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent generation of a non-ubiquitinated and inactive p116-ERBB2 form in EE, which is trafficked from altered EE to lysosomes.
Project description:To investigate the proteolytic mechanism of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and to explore amyloid-beta (A beta) generation in living neurons.DNA fragments were amplified by PCR or synthesized. The four fragments, CFP, 54bp, YFP and C99 were ligated into pcDNA3.0 vector to construct the recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP and pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP-C99. The SH-SY5Y cells were transiently transfected with pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP or pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP-C99. The expression of fusion gene was examined under a multiphoton laser scanning microscope. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to measure the beta cleavage and gamma cleavage of APP. A beta generation was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and multiphoton laser scanning microscopy. Cell viability was tested by MTT assay at different time points.(1) The double restriction endonuclease digestion and sequencing analysis confirmed the authenticity of the recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP and pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP-C99. (2) Blue and yellow fluorescences were detected in the transfected cells. (3) FRET occurred in pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP-transfected cells but not in pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP-C99-transfected cells. (4) A beta was produced in the pcDNA3.0-CFP-54bp-YFP-C99 transfected cells. (5) A beta-deposition was widespread in the cell. (6) Cell viability decreased along with the intracellular A beta deposition.C99 is important for the APP beta cleavage. A beta may be generated and deposited in cells at the early stage of Alzheimeros disease. Intracellular A beta accumulation brings deleterious effects on cells.
Project description:ErbB receptors (EGFR (ErbB1), ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4) are important regulators of normal growth and differentiation, and they are involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Following ligand binding and receptor activation, EGFR is endocytosed and transported to lysosomes where the receptor is degraded. This downregulation of EGFR is a complex and tightly regulated process. The functions of ErbB2, ErbB3, and ErbB4 are also regulated by endocytosis to some extent, although the current knowledge of these processes is sparse. Impaired endocytic downregulation of signaling receptors is frequently associated with cancer, since it can lead to increased and uncontrolled receptor signaling. In this review we describe the current knowledge of ErbB receptor endocytic downregulation. In addition, we outline how ErbB receptors can escape endocytic downregulation in cancer, and we discuss how targeted anti-cancer therapy may induce endocytic downregulation of ErbB receptors.
Project description:Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) act as zinc-dependent endopeptidases that cleave proteins required for neurotransmitter release. To detect toxin activity, fragments of the toxin substrate proteins, synaptobrevin (Syb) or synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), were used to link cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Cleavage of these fusion proteins by BoNTs abolished fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the CFP and YFP, providing a sensitive means to detect toxin activity in real-time in vitro. Furthermore, using full-length SNAP-25 and Syb as the linkers, we report two fluorescent biosensors that can detect toxin activity within living cells. Cleavage of the SNAP-25 fusion protein abolished fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CFP and YFP, and cleavage of Syb resulted in spatial redistribution of YFP fluorescence in cells. This approach provides a means to carry out cell-based screening of toxin inhibitors and to study toxin activity in situ. By using these biosensors, we found that the subcellular localizations of SNAP-25 and Syb are critical for efficient cleavage by BoNT/A and B, respectively.
Project description:The AtSERK1 protein is a plasma membrane-located LRR receptor-like serine threonine kinase that is transiently expressed during plant embryogenesis. Our results show that AtSERK1 interacts with the kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) in vitro. The kinase interaction (KI) domain of KAPP does not interact with a catalytically inactive kinase mutant. Using mutant AtSERK1 proteins in which Thr 462, Thr 463, and Thr 468 in the A-loop of the AtSERK1 kinase domain were replaced by alanines, we show that phosphorylation status of the receptor is involved in interaction with KAPP. KAPP and AtSERK1 cDNAs were fused to two different variants of green fluorescent protein (GFP), the yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) or the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP). Both KAPP and AtSERK1 proteins are found at the plasma membrane. Our results show that AtSERK1-CFP becomes sequestered into intracellular vesicles when transiently coexpressed with KAPP-YFP proteins. AtSERK1(T463A)-CFP and AtSERK1(3T-->A)-CFP proteins were partially sequestered intracellularly in the absence of KAPP-YFP protein, suggesting an active role for KAPP dephosphorylation of threonine residues in the AtSERK1 A-loop in receptor internalization. The interaction between the KAPP-CFP/YFP and AtSERK1-CFP/YFP fusion proteins was investigated with fluorescence spectral imaging microscopy (FSPIM). Our results show that AtSERK1-CFP and KAPP-YFP proteins are colocalized at the plasma membrane but only show fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) indicative of physical interaction in intracellular vesicles. These results suggest that KAPP is an integral part of the AtSERK1 endocytosis mechanism.
Project description:We have developed a system that makes it possible to study the fate of a foreign polypeptide that is inserted in the plasma membrane. Diphtheria toxin is a bacterial protein toxin that, upon acidification, has the ability to insert into the plasma membrane from the outside of eukaryotic cells. We present results that indicate endocytic uptake and degradation of the diphtheria toxin B-fragment after insertion into the membrane of Vero cells. The degradation rate of the fragment was found to be very high (t1/2 = 6 min) and dependent on cleavage of the extracellular part of the polypeptide with protease. Degradation was strongly inhibited in ATP-depleted cells, as well as at temperatures below 18 degrees C, and it was partially inhibited when the cytosol was acidified to block endocytosis from clathrin-coated pits. Degradation was also reduced in the presence of NH4Cl. The results indicate that the inserted and cleaved B-fragment is degraded by a process requiring endocytosis and transport to late endosomes or to lysosomes.
Project description:Eps15 is an endocytic adaptor protein that stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Among other interactions, Eps15 binds ubiquitin via UIM domains, recruiting ubiquitinated cargo into clathrin-coated vesicles. In EGF-treated cells, Eps15 also localizes to endosomes. The basis of this localization is not known.We show that accumulation of ubiquitinated cargo can recruit Eps15 to endosomes via UIM domain interactions. First, treatment of SK-Br-3 breast cancer cells, which overexpress the EGFR family member ErbB2, with geldanamycin to promote receptor ubiquitination and endosomal transport, recruited FLAG-Eps15 to endosomes. Two in-frame ubiquitin constructs, PM-GFP-Ub (retained in endosomes after endocytosis), and GFP-FYVE-Ub?GG (targeted directly to endosomes) also recruited Eps15 to endosomes, as did slowing endosome maturation with constitutively-active Rab5-Q79L. Endosomal recruitment required the UIM domains, but not the N-terminal EH domains or central coiled-coil domains, of Eps15. Silencing of the endosomal Eps15 binding partner Hrs did not affect recruitment of Eps15 to ubiquitin-enriched endosomes. In fact, Hrs silencing itself modestly recruited Eps15 to endosomes, probably by accumulating endogenous ubiquitinated cargo. Eps15 silencing did not affect lysosomal degradation of ubiquitinated ErbB2; however, GFP-FYVE-Ub?GG overexpression inhibited internalization of EGFR and transferrin receptor.We show for the first time that ubiquitin is sufficient for Eps15 recruitment to endosomes. We speculate that Eps15 recruitment to ubiquitin-rich endosomes may reduce the level of Eps15 at the plasma membrane, slowing endocytosis to allow time for processing of ubiquitinated cargo in endosomes.
Project description:Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2/ErbB2/neu), a receptor tyrosine kinase that is amplified/overexpressed in poor prognosis breast carcinomas, confers resistance to apoptosis by activating cell survival pathways. Here we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic tail of HER-2 is cleaved by caspases at Asp(1016)/Asp(1019) to release a approximately 47-kDa product, which is subsequently proteolyzed by caspases at Asp(1125) into an unstable 22-kDa fragment that is degraded by the proteasome and a predicted 25-kDa product. Both the 47- and 25-kDa products translocate to mitochondria, release cytochrome c by a Bcl-x(L)-suppressible mechanism, and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis. The 47- and 25-kDa HER-2 cleavage products share a functional BH3-like domain, which is required for cytochrome c release in cells and isolated mitochondria and for apoptosis induction. Caspase-cleaved HER-2 binds Bcl-x(L) and acts synergistically with truncated Bid to induce apoptosis, mimicking the actions of the BH3-only protein Bad. Moreover, the HER-2 cleavage products cooperate with Noxa to induce apoptosis in cells expressing both Bcl-x(L) and Mcl-1, confirming their Bad-like function. Collectively, our results indicate that caspases activate a previously unrecognized proapoptotic function of HER-2 by releasing a Bad-like cell death effector.
Project description:The light chain of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A-LC) is a zinc-metalloprotease that requires two extended exosites for optimal substrate binding and recognition of its intracellular target SNAP25. CFP and YFP connected through SNAP25 peptide (141-206) containing both exosites (CsY) has been used in a FRET-based assay for BoNT/A. To further improve the FRET efficiency in this BoNT/A substrate for in vitro high-throughput assays, we explored the feasibility of enhancing the capture of CFP emission by doubling the number of YFP acceptors. In comparison to CsY, the tandem fluorescence substrates CsYY and YsCsY enhanced the ratiometric fluorescence signal between YFP and CFP. YsCsY, containing two substrate sites, offered the greatest fluorometric change upon toxin-catalyzed cleavage. In addition to known approaches for enhancing fluorescence yield through various mutations, this alternative tandem substrate approach can boost the FRET signal and is particularly useful for substrates requiring extensive exosite recognition for specificity.