DNA damage induces Chk1-dependent centrosome amplification.
ABSTRACT: Centrosomal abnormalities are frequently observed in cancers and in cells with defective DNA repair. Here, we used light and electron microscopy to show that DNA damage induces centrosome amplification, not fragmentation, in human cells. Caffeine abrogated this amplification in both ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated)- and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related)-defective cells, indicating a complementary role for these DNA-damage-responsive kinases in promoting centrosome amplification. Inhibition of checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) by RNA-mediated interference or drug treatment suppressed DNA-damage-induced centrosome amplification. Radiation-induced centrosome amplification was abrogated in Chk1(-/-) DT40 cells, but occurred at normal levels in Chk1(-/-) cells transgenically expressing Chk1. Expression of kinase-dead Chk1, or Chk1S345A, through which the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase cannot signal, failed to restore centrosome amplification, showing that signalling to Chk1 and Chk1 catalytic activity are necessary to promote centrosome overduplication after DNA damage.
Project description:Exposure of proliferating cells to genotoxic stresses activates a cascade of signaling events termed the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR preserves genetic stability by detecting DNA lesions, activating cell cycle checkpoints and promoting DNA damage repair. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs) ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), ATM and Rad 3-related kinase (ATR) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) are crucial for sensing lesions and signal transduction. The checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) is a traditional ATR target involved in DDR and normal cell cycle progression and represents a pharmacological target for anticancer regimens. This study employed cell lines stably depleted for CHK1, ATM or both for dissecting cross-talk and compensatory effects on G(2)/M checkpoint in response to ionizing radiation (IR). We show that a 90% depletion of CHK1 renders cells radiosensitive without abrogating their IR-mediated G(2)/M checkpoint arrest. ATM phosphorylation is enhanced in CHK1-deficient cells compared with their wild-type counterparts. This correlates with lower nuclear abundance of the PP2A catalytic subunit in CHK1-depleted cells. Stable depletion of CHK1 in an ATM-deficient background showed only a 50% reduction from wild-type CHK1 protein expression levels and resulted in an additive attenuation of the G(2)/M checkpoint response compared with the individual knockdowns. ATM inhibition and 90% CHK1 depletion abrogated the early G(2)/M checkpoint and precluded the cells from mounting an efficient compensatory response to IR at later time points. Our data indicates that dual targeting of ATM and CHK1 functionalities disrupts the compensatory response to DNA damage and could be exploited for developing efficient anti-neoplastic treatments.
Project description:DNA damage can induce centrosome overduplication in a manner that requires G2-to-M checkpoint function, suggesting that genotoxic stress can decouple the centrosome and chromosome cycles. How this happens is unclear. Using live-cell imaging of cells that express fluorescently tagged NEDD1/GCP-WD and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, we found that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced centrosome amplification can occur outside S phase. Analysis of synchronized populations showed that significantly more centrosome amplification occurred after irradiation of G2-enriched populations compared with G1-enriched or asynchronous cells, consistent with G2 phase centrosome amplification. Irradiated and control populations of G2 cells were then fused to test whether centrosome overduplication is allowed through a diffusible stimulatory signal, or the loss of a duplication-inhibiting signal. Irradiated G2/irradiated G2 cell fusions showed significantly higher centrosome amplification levels than irradiated G2/unirradiated G2 fusions. Chicken-human cell fusions demonstrated that centrosome amplification was limited to the irradiated partner. Our finding that only the irradiated centrosome can duplicate supports a model where a centrosome-autonomous inhibitory signal is lost upon irradiation of G2 cells. We observed centriole disengagement after irradiation. Although overexpression of dominant-negative securin did not affect IR-induced centrosome amplification, Plk1 inhibition reduced radiation-induced amplification. Together, our data support centriole disengagement as a licensing signal for DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification.
Project description:Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1 or NR5A1) is a nuclear receptor that controls adrenogenital cell growth and differentiation. Adrenogenital primordial cells from SF-1 knockout mice die of apoptosis, but the mechanism by which SF-1 regulates cell survival is not entirely clear. Besides functioning in the nucleus, SF-1 also resides in the centrosome and controls centrosome homeostasis. Here, we show that SF-1 restricts centrosome overduplication by inhibiting aberrant activation of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) in the centrosome. SF-1 was found to be associated with Ku70/Ku80 only in the centrosome, sequestering them from the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs). In the absence of SF-1, DNA-PKcs was recruited to the centrosome and activated, causing aberrant activation of centrosomal Akt and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/cyclin A and leading to centrosome overduplication. Centrosome overduplication caused by SF-1 depletion was averted by the elimination of DNA-PKcs, Ku70/80, or cyclin A or by the inhibition of CDK2 or Akt. In the nucleus, SF-1 did not interact with Ku70/80, and SF-1 depletion did not activate a nuclear DNA damage response. Centriole biogenesis was also unaffected. Thus, centrosomal DNA-PK signaling triggers centrosome overduplication, and this centrosomal event, but not the nuclear DNA damage response, is controlled by SF-1.
Project description:Centrosomes are the principal microtubule organising centres in somatic cells. Abnormal centrosome number is common in tumours and occurs after gamma-irradiation and in cells with mutations in DNA repair genes. To investigate how DNA damage causes centrosome amplification, we examined cells that conditionally lack the Rad51 recombinase and thereby incur high levels of spontaneous DNA damage. Rad51-deficient cells arrested in G2 phase and formed supernumerary functional centrosomes, as assessed by light and serial section electron microscopy. This centrosome amplification occurred without an additional DNA replication round and was not the result of cytokinesis failure. G2-to-M checkpoint over-ride by caffeine or wortmannin treatment strongly reduced DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification. Radiation-induced centrosome amplification was potentiated by Rad54 disruption. Gene targeting of ATM reduced, but did not abrogate, centrosome amplification induced by DNA damage in both the Rad51 and Rad54 knockout models, demonstrating ATM-dependent and -independent components of DNA damage-inducible G2-phase centrosome amplification. Our data suggest DNA damage-induced centrosome amplification as a mechanism for ensuring death of cells that evade the DNA damage or spindle assembly checkpoints.
Project description:Recently, we showed that the metal chelator TPEN targets colon cancer cells through redox cycling of copper. Here, we studied the DNA damage potential of TPEN and deciphered the role of Chk1, ATM and DNA-PK in TPEN-induced toxicity in 3 human colon cancer cell lines, HCT116, SW480 and HT29. We also investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TPEN-induced DNA damage. TPEN reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity was associated with significant DNA damage and higher expression of ?-H2AX protein and activation of ATM/ATR signaling pathway. Cell death by TPEN was dependent on ROS generation as evidenced by the reversal of cell viability, and DNA damage and the abrogation of ?-H2AX levels in the presence of antioxidants. Treatment with antioxidants, however, failed to reverse cytotoxicity at high TPEN concentrations (10µM). TPEN-induced cell death was also dependent on the redox cycling of copper since the copper chelator neocuproine inhibited DNA damage and reduced pChk1, ?-H2AX, and ATM protein expression. Cell death by low TPEN concentrations, involved ATM/ATR signaling in all 3 cell lines, since pre-incubation with specific inhibitors of ATM and DNA-PK led to the recovery of cells from TPEN-induced DNA damage. In addition, siRNA silencing of Chk1, DNA-PK and ATM abrogated the expression of ?-H2AX and reversed cell death, suggesting that Chk1 and DNA-PK mediate TPEN-induced cytotoxicity in colon cancer cells. This study shows for the first time the involvement of Chk1, DNA-PK and ATM in TPEN-induced DNA damage and confirms our previous findings that ROS generation and the redox cycling of copper in response to TPEN are the main mechanisms by which this compound induces cell death in human colon cancer cells. Inhibition of ATM or DNA-PK did not reverse cytotoxicity at high TPEN concentrations that cause excessive levels of ROS and irreversible cellular damage.
Project description:BRCA1 is a DNA damage response protein and functions in the nucleus to stimulate DNA repair and at the centrosome to inhibit centrosome overduplication in response to DNA damage. The loss or mutation of BRCA1 causes centrosome amplification and abnormal mitotic spindle assembly in breast cancer cells. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer binds and ubiquitinates ?-tubulin to inhibit centrosome amplification and promote microtubule nucleation; however regulation of BRCA1 targeting and function at the centrosome is poorly understood. Here we show that both N and C termini of BRCA1 are required for its centrosomal localization and that BRCA1 moves to the centrosome independently of BARD1 and ?-tubulin. Mutations in the C-terminal phosphoprotein-binding BRCT domain of BRCA1 prevented localization to centrosomes. Photobleaching experiments identified dynamic (60%) and immobilized (40%) pools of ectopic BRCA1 at the centrosome, and these are regulated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1) and BARD1. CRM1 mediates nuclear export of BRCA1, and mutation of the export sequence blocked BRCA1 regulation of centrosome amplification in irradiated cells. CRM1 binds to undimerized BRCA1 and is displaced by BARD1. Photobleaching assays implicate CRM1 in driving undimerized BRCA1 to the centrosome and revealed that when BRCA1 subsequently binds to BARD1, it is less well retained at centrosomes, suggesting a mechanism to accelerate BRCA1 release after formation of the active heterodimer. Moreover, Aurora A binding and phosphorylation of BRCA1 enhanced its centrosomal retention and regulation of centrosome amplification. Thus, CRM1, BARD1 and Aurora A promote the targeting and function of BRCA1 at centrosomes.
Project description:The presence of DNA damage initiates signaling through the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM) and the ATM- and the Rad3-related kinase (ATR), which phosphorylate, thus activating, the checkpoint kinases (Chk) 1 and 2, which leads to cell cycle arrest. The bifunctional DNA alkylator 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) is cytotoxic primarily by inducing DNA monoadducts and ultimately, interstrand cross-links, which block DNA replication. In this study, we investigated the activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway in response to BCNU treatment and the dependence of this response on the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) capacity. Medulloblastoma cells were exposed to low and moderate doses of BCNU, and the effects on this DNA damage signaling pathway were examined. In response to BCNU, Chk1 was found to be phosphorylated at serine 345 and exhibited increased kinase activity. Caffeine and wortmannin, which are broad-spectrum inhibitors of ATM and ATR, reduced this phosphorylation. Cell cycle analysis further revealed an accumulation of cells in the S phase in response to BCNU, an effect that was attenuated by caffeine. Small interfering RNA knockdown of ATR also reduced Chk1 phosphorylation after exposure to BCNU. However, knockdown of ATM had no effect on the observed Chk1 phosphorylation, suggesting that ATR was primarily responsible for Chk1 activation. Analysis of Chk1 activation in cells deficient in MMR proteins MutLalpha or MutSalpha indicated that the DNA damage response induced by BCNU was independent of the MMR apparatus. This MMR-independent activation seems to be the result of DNA interstrand cross-link formation.
Project description:The Hsc70 cochaperone, G cyclin-associated kinase (GAK), has been shown to be essential for the chaperoning of clathrin by Hsc70 in the cell. In this study, we used conditional GAK knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to determine the effect of completely inhibiting clathrin-dependent trafficking on the cell cycle. After GAK was knocked out, the cells developed the unusual phenotype of having multiple centrosomes, but at the same time failed to divide and ultimately became senescent. To explain this phenotype, we examined the signaling profile and found that mitogenic stimulation of the GAK KO cells and the control cells were similar except for increased phosphorylation of Akt. In addition, the disruption of intracellular trafficking caused by knocking out GAK destabilized the lysosomal membranes, resulting in DNA damage due to iron leakage. Knocking down clathrin heavy chain or inhibiting dynamin largely reproduced the GAK KO phenotype, but inhibiting only clathrin-mediated endocytosis by knocking down adaptor protein (AP2) caused growth arrest and centrosome overduplication, but no DNA damage or senescence. We conclude that disruption of clathrin-dependent trafficking induces senescence accompanied by centrosome overduplication because of a combination of DNA damage and changes in mitogenic signaling that uncouples centrosomal duplication from DNA replication.
Project description:Hyperthermia is widely used to treat patients with cancer, especially in combination with other treatments such as radiation therapy. Heat treatment per se activates DNA damage responses mediated by the ATR-Chk1 and ATM-Chk2 pathways but it is not fully understood how these DNA damage responses are activated and affect heat tolerance. By performing a genetic analysis of human HeLa cells and chicken B lymphoma DT40 cells, we found that heat-induced Chk1 Ser345 phosphorylation by ATR was largely dependent on Rad9, Rad17, TopBP1 and Claspin. Activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway by heat, however, was not associated with FancD2 monoubiquitination or RPA32 phosphorylation, which are known as downstream events of ATR kinase activation when replication forks are stalled. Downregulation of ATR, Rad9, Rad17, TopBP1 or Claspin drastically reduced clonogenic cell viability upon hyperthermia, while gene knockout or inhibition of ATM kinase reduced clonogenic viability only modestly. Suppression of the ATR-Chk1 pathway activation enhanced heat-induced phosphorylation of Chk2 Thr68 and simultaneous inhibition of ATR and ATM kinases rendered severe heat cytotoxicity. These data indicate that essential factors for activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway at stalled replication forks are also required for heat-induced activation of ATR kinase, which predominantly contributes to heat tolerance in a non-overlapping manner with ATM kinase.
Project description:Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection is restricted to erythroid progenitor cells of the human bone marrow. Although the mechanism by which the B19V genome replicates in these cells has not been studied in great detail, accumulating evidence has implicated involvement of the cellular DNA damage machinery in this process. Here, we report that, in ex vivo-expanded human erythroid progenitor cells, B19V infection induces a broad range of DNA damage responses by triggering phosphorylation of all the upstream kinases of each of three repair pathways: ATM (ataxia-telangiectasi mutated), ATR (ATM and Rad3 related), and DNA-PKcs (DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit). We found that phosphorylated ATM, ATR, and DNA-PKcs, and also their downstream substrates and components (Chk2, Chk1, and Ku70/Ku80 complex, respectively), localized within the B19V replication center. Notably, inhibition of kinase phosphorylation (through treatment with either kinase-specific inhibitors or kinase-specific shRNAs) revealed requirements for signaling of ATR and DNA-PKcs, but not ATM, in virus replication. Inhibition of the ATR substrate Chk1 led to similar levels of decreased virus replication, indicating that signaling via the ATR-Chk1 pathway is critical to B19V replication. Notably, the cell cycle arrest characteristic of B19V infection was not rescued by interference with the activity of any of the three repair pathway kinases.