Functional interplay between endothelial nitric oxide synthase and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in migrating endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is essential for vascular homeostasis and is also a critical modulator of angiogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms of NO action during angiogenesis remain elusive. We have investigated the potential relationship between NO and membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) during endothelial migration and capillary tube formation. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) colocalizes with MT1-MMP at motility-associated structures in migratory human endothelial cells (ECs); moreover, NO is produced at these structures and is released into the medium during EC migration. We have therefore addressed 2 questions: (1) the putative regulation of MT1-MMP by NO in migratory ECs; and (2) the requirement for MT1-MMP in NO-induced EC migration and tube formation. NO upregulates MT1-MMP membrane clustering on migratory human ECs, and this is accompanied by increased degradation of type I collagen substrate. MT1-MMP membrane expression and localization are impaired in lung ECs from eNOS-deficient mice, and these cells also show impaired migration and tube formation in vitro. Inhibition of MT1-MMP with a neutralizing antibody impairs NOinduced tube formation by human ECs, and NO-induced endothelial migration and tube formation are impaired in lung ECs from mice deficient in MT1-MMP. MT1-MMP thus appears to be a key molecular effector of NO during the EC migration and angiogenic processes, and is a potential therapeutic target for NO-associated vascular disorders.
Project description:Here we show that endothelial cells (EC) require matrix type 1-metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) for the formation of lumens and tube networks in 3-dimensional (3D) collagen matrices. A fundamental consequence of EC lumen formation is the generation of vascular guidance tunnels within collagen matrices through an MT1-MMP-dependent proteolytic process. Vascular guidance tunnels represent a conduit for EC motility within these spaces (a newly remodeled 2D matrix surface) to both assemble and remodel tube structures. Interestingly, it appears that twice as many tunnel spaces are created than are occupied by tube networks after several days of culture. After tunnel formation, these spaces represent a 2D migratory surface within 3D collagen matrices allowing for EC migration in an MMP-independent fashion. Blockade of EC lumenogenesis using inhibitors that interfere with the process (eg, integrin, MMP, PKC, Src) completely abrogates the formation of vascular guidance tunnels. Thus, the MT1-MMP-dependent proteolytic process that creates tunnel spaces is directly and functionally coupled to the signaling mechanisms required for EC lumen and tube network formation. In summary, a fundamental and previously unrecognized purpose of EC tube morphogenesis is to create networks of matrix conduits that are necessary for EC migration and tube remodeling events critical to blood vessel assembly.
Project description:Here, we define an endothelial cell (EC) lumen signaling complex involving Cdc42, Par6b, Par3, junction adhesion molecule (Jam)-B and Jam-C, membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), and integrin alpha(2)beta(1), which coassociate to control human EC tubulogenesis in 3D collagen matrices. Blockade of both Jam-B and Jam-C using antibodies, siRNA, or dominant-negative mutants completely interferes with lumen and tube formation resulting from a lack of Cdc42 activation, inhibition of Cdc42-GTP-dependent signal transduction, and blockade of MT1-MMP-dependent proteolysis. This process requires interdependent Cdc42 and MT1-MMP signaling, which involves Par3 binding to the Jam-B and Jam-C cytoplasmic tails, an interaction that is necessary to physically couple the components of the lumen signaling complex. MT1-MMP proteolytic activity is necessary for Cdc42 activation during EC tube formation in 3D collagen matrices but not on 2D collagen surfaces, whereas Cdc42 activation is necessary for MT1-MMP to create vascular guidance tunnels and tube networks in 3D matrices through proteolytic events. This work reveals a novel interdependent role for Cdc42-dependent signaling and MT1-MMP-dependent proteolysis, a process that occurs selectively in 3D collagen matrices and that requires EC lumen signaling complexes, to control human EC tubulogenesis during vascular morphogenesis.
Project description:Clinical and epidemiological data show that biological sex is one of the major determinants for the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Impaired endothelial function, characterized by an imbalance in endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) activity, precedes and accelerates the development of CVD. However, whether there is any sexual dimorphism in eNOS activity and function in endothelial cells (ECs) is still unknown. Here, by independently studying human male and female ECs, we found that female ECs expressed higher eNOS mRNA and protein levels both in vitro and ex vivo. The increased eNOS expression was associated to higher enzymatic activity and nitric oxide production. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of eNOS affected migratory properties only in female ECs. In vitro angiogenesis experiments confirmed that sprouting mostly relied on eNOS-dependent migration in female ECs. At variance, capillary outgrowth from male ECs was independent of eNOS activity but required cell proliferation. In this study, we found sex-specific differences in the EC expression, activity, and function of eNOS. This intrinsic sexual dimorphism of ECs should be further evaluated to achieve more effective and precise strategies for the prevention and therapy of diseases associated to an impaired endothelial function such as CVD and pathological angiogenesis.
Project description:Hydrocephalus is characterized by abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricular cavity. The circulation of CSF in brain ventricles is controlled by the coordinated beating of motile cilia at the surface of ependymal cells (ECs). Here, we show that MT1-MMP is highly expressed in olfactory bulb, rostral migratory stream, and the ventricular system. Mice deficient for membrane-type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) developed typical phenotypes observed in hydrocephalus, such as dome-shaped skulls, dilated ventricles, corpus callosum agenesis, and astrocyte hypertrophy, during the first 2 weeks of postnatal development. MT1-MMP-deficient mice exhibited reduced and disorganized motile cilia with the impaired maturation of ECs, leading to abnormal CSF flow. Consistent with the defects in motile cilia morphogenesis, the expression of promulticiliogenic genes was significantly decreased, with a concomitant hyperactivation of Notch signaling in the walls of lateral ventricles in Mmp14-/- brains. Inhibition of Notch signaling by ?-secretase inhibitor restored ciliogenesis in Mmp14-/- ECs. Taken together, these data suggest that MT1-MMP is required for ciliogenesis and EC maturation through suppression of Notch signaling during early brain development. Our findings indicate that MT1-MMP is critical for early brain development and loss of MT1-MMP activity gives rise to hydrocephalus.
Project description:Regulation of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) by different extracellular matrices (ECMs) on human endothelial cells (ECs) has been investigated. First, MT1-MMP is found at the intercellular contacts of confluent ECs grown on beta1 integrin-dependent matrix such as type 1 collagen (COL I), fibronectin (FN), or fibrinogen (FG), but not on gelatin (GEL) or vitronectin (VN). The novel localization of MT1-MMP at cell-cell contacts is assessed by confocal videomicroscopy of MT1-MMP-GFP-transfected ECs. Moreover, MT1-MMP colocalizes with beta1 integrins at the intercellular contacts, whereas it is preferentially found with alphavbeta3 integrin at motility-associated structures on migrating ECs. In addition, clustered integrins recruit MT1-MMP and neutralizing anti-beta1 or anti-alphav integrin mAb displace MT1-MMP from its specific sites, pointing to a biochemical association that is finally demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation assays. On the other hand, COL I, FN, or FG up-regulate cell surface MT1-MMP on confluent ECs by an impairment of its internalization, whereas expression and internalization are not modified on GEL or VN. In addition, MT1-MMP activity is diminished in confluent ECs on COL I, FN, or FG. Finally, MT1-MMP participates and cooperates with beta1 and alphavbeta3 integrins in the migration of ECs on different ECM. These data show a novel mechanism by which ECM regulates MT1-MMP association with beta1 or alphavbeta3 integrins at distinct cellular compartments, thus modulating its internalization, activity, and function on human ECs.
Project description:Mice lacking the EF-hand Ca2+ sensor S100A1 display endothelial dysfunction because of distorted Ca2+ -activated nitric oxide (NO) generation.To determine the pathophysiological role of S100A1 in endothelial cell (EC) function in experimental ischemic revascularization.Patients with chronic critical limb ischemia showed almost complete loss of S100A1 expression in hypoxic tissue. Ensuing studies in S100A1 knockout (SKO) mice subjected to femoral artery resection unveiled insufficient perfusion recovery and high rates of autoamputation. Defective in vivo angiogenesis prompted cellular studies in SKO ECs and human ECs, with small interfering RNA-mediated S100A1 knockdown demonstrating impaired in vitro and in vivo proangiogenic properties (proliferation, migration, tube formation) and attenuated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated and hypoxia-stimulated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity. Mechanistically, S100A1 deficiency compromised eNOS activity in ECs by interrupted stimulatory S100A1/eNOS interaction and protein kinase C hyperactivation that resulted in inhibitory eNOS phosphorylation and enhanced VEGF receptor-2 degradation with attenuated VEGF signaling. Ischemic SKO tissue recapitulated the same molecular abnormalities with insufficient in vivo NO generation. Unresolved ischemia entailed excessive VEGF accumulation in SKO mice with aggravated VEGF receptor-2 degradation and blunted in vivo signaling through the proangiogenic phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/eNOS cascade. The NO supplementation strategies rescued defective angiogenesis and salvaged limbs in SKO mice after femoral artery resection.Our study shows for the first time downregulation of S100A1 expression in patients with critical limb ischemia and identifies S100A1 as critical for EC function in postnatal ischemic angiogenesis. These findings link its pathological plasticity in critical limb ischemia to impaired neovascularization, prompting further studies to probe the microvascular therapeutic potential of S100A1.
Project description:The Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved proteins that control processes requiring cell movement. Specifically, they regulate epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) where an epithelial cell severs intercellular junctions, degrades basement membrane and becomes a migratory, mesenchymal-like cell. Interestingly, Slug expression has been observed in angiogenic endothelial cells (EC) in vivo, suggesting that angiogenic sprouting may share common attributes with EMT. Here, we demonstrate that sprouting EC in vitro express both Slug and Snail, and that siRNA-mediated knockdown of either inhibits sprouting and migration in multiple in vitro angiogenesis assays. We find that expression of MT1-MMP, but not of VE-Cadherin, is regulated by Slug and that loss of sprouting as a consequence of reduced Slug expression can be reversed by lentiviral-mediated re-expression of MT1-MMP. Activity of MMP2 and MMP9 are also affected by Slug expression, likely through MT1-MMP. Importantly, we find enhanced expression of Slug in EC in human colorectal cancer samples compared with normal colon tissue, suggesting a role for Slug in pathological angiogenesis. In summary, these data implicate Slug as an important regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, particularly in pathological settings.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and nitric oxide (NO) are major gasotransmitters produced in endothelial cells (ECs), contributing to the regulation of vascular contractility and structural integrity. Their interaction at different levels would have a profound impact on angiogenesis. Here, we showed that H2 S and NO stimulated the formation of new microvessels. Incubation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-926) with NaHS (a H2 S donor) stimulated the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and enhanced NO production. H2 S had little effect on eNOS protein expression in ECs. L-cysteine, a precursor of H2 S, stimulated NO production whereas blockage of the activity of H2 S-generating enzyme, cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), inhibited this action. CSE knockdown inhibited, but CSE overexpression increased, NO production as well as EC proliferation. LY294002 (Akt/PI3-K inhibitor) or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) abolished the effects of H2 S on eNOS phosphorylation, NO production, cell proliferation and tube formation. Blockade of NO production by eNOS-specific siRNA or nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reversed, but eNOS overexpression potentiated, the proliferative effect of H2 S on ECs. Our results suggest that H2 S stimulates the phosphorylation of eNOS through a p38 MAPK and Akt-dependent pathway, thus increasing NO production in ECs and vascular tissues and contributing to H2 S-induced angiogenesis.
Project description:A critical and understudied property of endothelial cells is their ability to form lumens and tube networks. Although considerable information has been obtained concerning these issues, including the role of Cdc42 and Rac1 and their effectors such as Pak2, Pak4, Par6b, and co-regulators such as integrins, MT1-MMP and Par3; many key questions remain that are necessary to elucidate molecular and signaling requirements for this fundamental process. In this work, we identify new small GTPase regulators of EC tubulogenesis including k-Ras, Rac2 and Rap1b that act in conjunction with Cdc42 as well as the key downstream effectors, IQGAP1, MRCK?, beta-Pix, GIT1, and Rasip1 (which can assemble into multiprotein complexes with key regulators including ?2?1 integrin and MT1-MMP). In addition, we identify the negative regulators, Arhgap31 (by inactivating Cdc42 and Rac) and Rasa1 (by inactivating k-Ras) and the positive regulator, Arhgap29 (by inactivating RhoA) which play a major functional role during the EC tubulogenic process. Human EC siRNA suppression or mouse knockout of Rasip1 leads to identical phenotypes where ECs form extensive cord networks, but cannot generate lumens or tubes. Essential roles for these molecules during EC tubulogenesis include; i) establishment of asymmetric EC cytoskeletal polarization (subapical distribution of acetylated tubulin and basal membrane distribution of F-actin); and ii) directed membrane trafficking of pinocytic vacuoles or other intracellular vesicles along acetylated tubulin tracks to the developing apical membrane surface. Cdc42 co-localizes subapically with acetylated tubulin, while Rac1 and k-Ras strongly label vacuole/ vesicle membranes which accumulate and fuse together in a polarized, perinuclear manner. We observe polarized apical membrane and subapical accumulation of key GTPases and effectors regulating EC lumen formation including Cdc42, Rac1, Rac2, k-Ras, Rap1b, activated c-Raf and Rasip1 to control EC tube network assembly. Overall, this work defines novel key regulators and their functional roles during human EC tubulogenesis.
Project description:Torenia concolor Lindley var. formosama Yamazaki ethanolic extract (TCEE) is reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties. However, the effects of TCEE and its underlying mechanisms in the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) have not yet been investigated. Increasing the endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) production has been known to be beneficial against the development of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of TCEE on eNOS activation and NO-related endothelial function and inflammation by using an in vitro system. In endothelial cells (ECs), TCEE increased NO production in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting the expression of eNOS. In addition, TCEE increased the phosphorylation of eNOS at serine 635 residue (Ser635) and Ser1179, Akt at Ser473, calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) at threonine residue 286 (Thr286), and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at Thr172. Moreover, TCEE-induced NO production, and EC proliferation, migration, and tube formation were diminished by pretreatment with LY294002 (an Akt inhibitor), KN62 (a CaMKII inhibitor), and compound C (an AMPK inhibitor). Additionally, TCEE attenuated the tumor necrosis factor-?-induced inflammatory response as evidenced by the expression of adhesion molecules in ECs and monocyte adhesion onto ECs. These inflammatory effects of TCEE were abolished by L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (an NOS inhibitor). Moreover, chronic treatment with TCEE attenuated hyperlipidemia, systemic and aortic inflammatory response, and the atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that TCEE may confer protection from atherosclerosis by preventing endothelial dysfunction.