A Genetic linkage map of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.).
ABSTRACT: A genetic linkage map has been constructed for Atlantic halibut on the basis of 258 microsatellites and 346 AFLPs. Twenty-four linkage groups were identified, consistent with the 24 chromosomes seen in chromosome spreads. The total map distance is 1562.2 cM in the female and 1459.6 cM in the male with an average resolution of 4.3 and 3.5 cM, respectively. Using diploid gynogens, we estimated centromere locations in 19 of 24 linkage groups. Overall recombination in the female was approximately twice that of the male; however, this trend was not consistent along the linkage groups. In the centromeric regions, females had 11-17.5 times the recombination of the males, whereas this trend reversed toward the distal end with males having three times the recombination of the females. Correspondingly, in the male, markers clustered toward the centromeric region with 50% of markers within 20 cM of the putative centromere, whereas 35% of markers in the female were found between 60 and 80 cM from the putative centromere. Limited interspecies comparisons within Japanese flounder and Tetraodon nigroviridis revealed blocks of conservation in sequence and marker order, although regions of chromosomal rearrangement were also apparent.
Project description:Gene-centromere (G-C) mapping provides insights into structural and behavioural properties of chromosomes. In this study, G-C mapping using microsatellite markers and meiogynogenetic (meiotic gynogenetic) families were performed in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis, 2N?=?48), which belongs to Cyprinidae. A total of 218 microsatellites were selected across 24 linkage groups (LGs) of a recently well-defined genetic linkage map for bighead carp, with 151 being heterozygous in at least one of six dams in diploid meiogynogenetic families. After tests for Mendelian segregation in two diploid control families, 103 microsatellites were used for G-C distance calculation in 383 gynogens. The second division segregation frequency (y) was computed through half-tetrad analyses, and the values ranged from 0 to 0.97 (mean 0.40). High G-C recombination frequencies (over 0.667) were observed in 18 (17.5%) of the loci examined, which revealed a low level of chiasma interferences compared with other fishes studied previously. Distribution of G-C distances across LGs ranged from 0 cM to 48.5 cM (mean 20 cM) under the assumption of complete interference. All 24 centromeres were localized according to their closest-related microsatellites at 95% confident intervals. The average distance between centromeres and their closest-linked markers was 6.1 cM with 15 out of 24 LGs having a distance below 5 cM. Based on the centromere positions in this study, we proposed a formula of 24 m/sm+24 t/st chromosomes with 92 arms for bighead carp, which was mostly in accordance with a previously reported karyotype for bighead carp (24 m/sm+24 st). These results of centromere localization provide a basic framework and important resources for genetics and comparative genomics studies in bighead carp and its closely-related cyprinid species.
Project description:High-density linkage maps are an important tool to gain insight into the genetic architecture of traits of evolutionary and economic interest, and provide a resource to characterize variation in recombination landscapes. Here, we used information from the cattle genome and the 50 K Cervine Illumina BeadChip to inform and refine a high-density linkage map in a wild population of red deer (Cervus elaphus). We constructed a predicted linkage map of 38,038 SNPs and a skeleton map of 10,835 SNPs across 34 linkage groups. We identified several chromosomal rearrangements in the deer lineage relative to sheep and cattle, including six chromosome fissions, one fusion, and two large inversions. Otherwise, our findings showed strong concordance with map orders in the cattle genome. The sex-averaged linkage map length was 2739.7 cM and the genome-wide autosomal recombination rate was 1.04 cM/Mb. The female autosomal map length was 1.21 longer than that of males (2767.4 cM vs. 2280.8 cM, respectively). Sex differences in map length were driven by high female recombination rates in peri-centromeric regions, a pattern that is unusual relative to other mammal species. This effect was more pronounced in fission chromosomes that would have had to produce new centromeres. We propose two hypotheses to explain this effect: (1) that this mechanism may have evolved to counteract centromeric drive associated with meiotic asymmetry in oocyte production; and/or (2) that sequence and structural characteristics suppressing recombination in close proximity to the centromere may not have evolved at neo-centromeres. Our study provides insight into how recombination landscapes vary and evolve in mammals, and will provide a valuable resource for studies of evolution, genetic improvement, and population management in red deer and related species.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Atlantic salmon is a species of commercial and ecological significance. Like other salmonids, the species displays residual tetrasomy and a large difference in recombination rate between sexes. Linkage maps with full genome coverage, containing both type I and type II markers, are needed for progress in genomics. Furthermore, it is important to estimate levels of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the species. In this study, we developed several hundred single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for the Atlantic salmon, and constructed male and female linkage maps containing SNP and microsatellite markers. We also investigated further the distribution of male and female recombination events across the genome, and estimated levels of LD between pairs of markers. RESULTS: The male map had 29 linkage groups and was 390 cM long. The female map had 30 linkage groups as was 1983 cM long. In total, the maps contained 138 microsatellite markers and 304 SNPs located within genes, most of which were successfully annotated. The ratio of male to female recombination events was either close to zero or very large, indicating that there is little overlap between regions in which male and female crossovers occur. The female map is likely to have close to full genome coverage, while the majority of male linkage groups probably lack markers in telomeric regions where male recombination events occur. Levels of r2 increased with decreasing inter-marker distance in a bimodal fashion; increasing slowly from approximately 60 cM, and more rapidly more from approximately 12 cM. Long-ranging LD may be consequence of recent admixture in the population, the population being a 'synthetic' breeding population with contributions from several distinct rivers. Levels of r2 dropped to half its maximum value (above baseline) within 15 cM, and were higher than 0.2 above baseline for unlinked markers ('useful LD') at inter-marker distances less than 5 cM. CONCLUSION: The linkage map presented here is an important resource for genetic, comparative, and physical mapping of the Atlantic salmon. The female map is likely to have a map coverage that is not far from complete, whereas the male map length is likely to be significantly shorter than the true map, due to suboptimal marker coverage in the apparently small physical regions where male crossovers occur. 'Useful LD' was found at inter-marker distances less than 5 cM.
Project description:Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and hematologic and skeletal abnormalities. A genomewide scan of families with SDS was terminated at approximately 50% completion, with the identification of chromosome 7 markers that showed linkage with the disease. Finer mapping revealed significant linkage across a broad interval that included the centromere. The maximum two-point LOD score was 8.7, with D7S473, at a recombination fraction of 0. The maximum multipoint LOD score was 10, in the interval between D7S499 and D7S482 (5.4 cM on the female map and 0 cM on the male map), a region delimited by recombinant events detected in affected children. Evidence from all 15 of the multiplex families analyzed provided support for the linkage, consistent with a single locus for SDS. However, the presence of several different mutations is suggested by the heterogeneity of disease-associated haplotypes in the candidate region.
Project description:Evidence for genetic influences in epilepsy is strong, but reports identifying specific chromosomal origins of those influences conflict. One early study reported that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers were genetically linked to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME); this was confirmed in a later study. Other reports did not find linkage to HLA markers. One found evidence of linkage to markers on chromosome 15, another to markers on chromosome 6, centromeric to HLA. We identified families through a patient with JME and genotyped markers throughout chromosome 6. Linkage analysis assuming equal male-female recombination probabilities showed evidence for linkage (LOD score 2.5), but at a high recombination fraction (theta), suggesting heterogeneity. When linkage analysis was redone to allow independent male-female thetas, the LOD score was significantly higher (4.2) at a male-female theta of.5,.01. Although the overall pattern of LOD scores with respect to male-female theta could not be explained solely by heterogeneity, the presence of heterogeneity and predominantly maternal inheritance of JME might explain it. By analyzing loci between HLA-DP and HLA-DR and stratifying the families on the basis of evidence for or against linkage, we were able to show evidence of heterogeneity within JME and to propose a marker associated with the linked form. These data also suggest that JME may be predominantly maternally inherited and that the HLA-linked form is more likely to occur in families of European origin.
Project description:High-density genetic linkage maps of half-smooth tongue sole were developed with 1007 microsatellite markers, two SCAR markers and an F1 family containing 94. The female map was composed of 828 markers in 21 linkage groups, covering a total of 1447.3 cM, with an average interval 1.83 cM between markers. The male map consisted of 794 markers in 21 linkage groups, spanning 1497.5 cM, with an average interval of 1.96 cM. The female and male maps had 812 and 785 unique positions, respectively. The genome length of half-smooth tongue sole was estimated to be 1527.7 cM for the females and 1582.1 cM for the males. Based on estimations of the map lengths, the female and male maps covered 94.74 and 94.65% of the genome, respectively. The consensus map was composed of 1007 microsatellite markers and two SCAR markers in 21 linkage groups, covering a total of 1624 cM with an average interval of 1.67 cM. Furthermore, 159 sex-linked SSR markers were identified. Five sex-linked microsatellite markers were confirmed in their association with sex in a large number of individuals selected from different families. These sex-linked markers were mapped on the female map LG1f with zero recombination. Two QTLs that were identified for body weight, designated as We-1 and We-2, accounted for 26.39% and 10.60% of the phenotypic variation. Two QTLs for body width, designated Wi-1 and Wi-2, were mapped in LG4f and accounted for 14.33% and 12.83% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Seven sex-related loci were mapped in LG1f, LG14f and LG1m by CIM, accounting for 12.5-25.2% of the trait variation. The results should prove to be very useful for improving growth traits using molecular MAS.
Project description:Centromere-drive is a process where centromeres compete for transmission through asymmetric "female" meiosis for inclusion into the oocyte. In symmetric "male" meiosis, all meiotic products form viable germ cells. Therefore, the primary incentive for centromere-drive, a potential transmission bias, is believed to be missing from male meiosis. In this article, we consider whether male meiosis also bears the primary cost of centromere-drive. Because different taxa carry out different combinations of meiotic programs (symmetric + asymmetric, symmetric only, asymmetric only), it is possible to consider the evolutionary consequences of centromere-drive in the context of these differing systems. Groups with both types of meiosis have large, rapidly evolving centromeric regions, and their centromeric histones (CenH3s) have been shown to evolve under positive selection, suggesting roles as suppressors of centromere-drive. In contrast, taxa with only symmetric male meiosis have shown no evidence of positive selection in their centromeric histones. In this article, we present the first evolutionary analysis of centromeric histones in ciliated protozoans, a group that only undergoes asymmetric "female" meiosis. We find no evidence of positive selection acting on CNA1, the CenH3 of Tetrahymena species. Cytological observations of a panel of Tetrahymena species are consistent with dynamic karyotype evolution in this lineage. Our findings suggest that defects in male meiosis, and not mitosis or female meiosis, are the primary selective force behind centromere-drive suppression. Our study raises the possibility that taxa like ciliates, with only female meiosis, may therefore undergo unsuppressed centromere drive.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The availability of a high-density SNP genotyping chip and a reference genome sequence of the pig (Sus scrofa) enabled the construction of a high-density linkage map. A high-density linkage map is an essential tool for further fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for a variety of traits in the pig and for a better understanding of mechanisms underlying genome evolution.<h4>Results</h4>Four different pig pedigrees were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Recombination maps for the autosomes were computed for each individual pedigree using a common set of markers. The resulting genetic maps comprised 38,599 SNPs, including 928 SNPs not positioned on a chromosome in the current assembly of the pig genome (build 10.2). The total genetic length varied according to the pedigree, from 1797 to 2149 cM. Female maps were longer than male maps, with a notable exception for SSC1 where male maps are characterized by a higher recombination rate than females in the region between 91-250 Mb. The recombination rates varied among chromosomes and along individual chromosomes, regions with high recombination rates tending to cluster close to the chromosome ends, irrespective of the position of the centromere. Correlations between main sequence features and recombination rates were investigated and significant correlations were obtained for all the studied motifs. Regions characterized by high recombination rates were enriched for specific GC-rich sequence motifs as compared to low recombinant regions. These correlations were higher in females than in males, and females were found to be more recombinant than males at regions where the GC content was greater than 0.4.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The analysis of the recombination rate along the pig genome highlighted that the regions exhibiting higher levels of recombination tend to cluster around the ends of the chromosomes irrespective of the location of the centromere. Major sex-differences in recombination were observed: females had a higher recombination rate within GC-rich regions and exhibited a stronger correlation between recombination rates and specific sequence features.
Project description:The gray, short-tailed opossum, Monodelphis domestica, is the most extensively used, laboratory-bred marsupial resource for basic biologic and biomedical research worldwide. To enhance the research utility of this species, we are building a linkage map, using both anonymous markers and functional gene loci, that will enable the localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and provide comparative information regarding the evolution of mammalian and other vertebrate genomes. The current map is composed of 83 loci distributed among eight autosomal linkage groups and the X chromosome. The autosomal linkage groups appear to encompass a very large portion of the genome, yet span a sex-average distance of only 633.0 cM, making this the most compact linkage map known among vertebrates. Most surprising, the male map is much larger than the female map (884.6 cM vs. 443.1 cM), a pattern contrary to that in eutherian mammals and other vertebrates. The finding of genome-wide reduction in female recombination in M. domestica, coupled with recombination data from two other, distantly related marsupial species, suggests that reduced female recombination might be a widespread metatherian attribute. We discuss possible explanations for reduced female recombination in marsupials as a consequence of the metatherian characteristic of determinate paternal X chromosome inactivation.
Project description:High-density genetic linkage maps were constructed for the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A total of 1624 microsatellite markers were polymorphic in the reference family. Linkage analysis using JoinMap 4.0 resulted in the mapping of 1487 markers to 24 linkage groups, a result which was consistent with the 24 chromosomes seen in chromosome spreads. The female map was composed of 1257 markers, covering a total of 1663.8 cM with an average interval 1.35 cM between markers. The male map consisted of 1224 markers, spanning 1726.5 cM, with an average interval of 1.44 cM. The genome length in the Japanese flounder was estimated to be 1730.3 cM for the females and 1798.0 cM for the males, a coverage of 96.2% for the female and 96.0% for the male map. The mean recombination at common intervals throughout the genome revealed a slight difference between sexes, i.e. 1.07 times higher in the male than female. High-density genetic linkage maps are very useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs for economically valuable traits in this species and for further evolutionary studies in flatfish and vertebrate species. Furthermore, four quantiative trait loci (QTL) associated with growth traits were mapped on the genetic map. One QTL was identified for body weight on LG 14 f, which explained 14.85% of the total variation of the body weight. Three QTL were identified for body width on LG14f and LG14m, accounting for 16.75%, 13.62% and 13.65% of the total variation in body width, respectively. The additive effects were evident as negative values. There were four QTL for growth traits clustered on LG14, which should prove to be very useful for improving growth traits using molecular MAS.