Non-canonical Wnt signaling enhances differentiation of Sca1+/c-kit+ adipose-derived murine stromal vascular cells into spontaneously beating cardiac myocytes.
ABSTRACT: Recent reports have described a stem cell population termed stromal vascular cells (SVCs) derived from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue, which are capable of intrinsic differentiation into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes in vitro. The objective of this study was to further define the cardiac lineage differentiation potential of SVCs in vitro and to establish methods for enriching SVC-derived beating cardiac myocytes. SVCs were isolated from the stromal vascular fraction of murine adipose tissue. Cells were cultured in methylcellulose-based murine stem cell media. Analysis of SVC-derived beating myocytes included Western blot and calcium imaging. Enrichment of acutely isolated SVCs was carried out using antibody-tagged magnetic nanoparticles, and pharmacologic manipulation of Wnt and cytokine signaling. Under initial media conditions, spontaneously beating SVCs expressed both cardiac developmental and adult protein isoforms. Functionally, this specialized population can spontaneously contract and pace under field stimulation and shows the presence of coordinated calcium transients. Importantly, this study provides evidence for two independent mechanisms of enriching the cardiac differentiation of SVCs. First, this study shows that differentiation of SVCs into cardiac myocytes is augmented by non-canonical Wnt agonists, canonical Wnt antagonists, and cytokines. Second, SVCs capable of cardiac lineage differentiation can be enriched by selection for stem cell-specific membrane markers Sca1 and c-kit. Adipose-derived SVCs are a unique population of stem cells that show evidence of cardiac lineage development making them a potential source for stem cell-based cardiac regeneration studies.
Project description:The number of cases of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) increased due to increased cardiac devices and central venous catheters. Management of benign SVCS is still controversial. A 51-year-old male known to have ischemic cardiomyopathy and chronic renal failure on regular hemodialysis. In the last 12 months, he had progressive shortness of breath and swelling of his upper part of the body. Examination revealed engorgement of the neck veins, facial puffiness, and pitting edema of both upper limbs. Venography showed occluded SVC. We applied a 50 Watt of energy via electrocautery pen to a Hi-Torque 0.014 Astato guidewire to cross the occluded segment retrogradely. We used 2 stents 39 mm, mounted on BIB 20/40 mm. Final angiography revealed full restoration of SVC flow. Diathermy use to cross a chronic total SVC obstruction is feasible and safe. Endovascular techniques are suitable as initial management of benign SVC syndrome.
Project description:Cardiomyocyte regeneration is limited in adults. The adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (Ad-SVF) contains pluripotent stem cells that rarely transdifferentiate into spontaneously beating cardiomyocyte-like cells (beating CMs). However, the characteristics of beating CMs and the factors that regulate the differentiation of Ad-SVF toward the cardiac lineage are unknown. We developed a simple culture protocol under which the adult murine inguinal Ad-SVF reproducibly transdifferentiates into beating CMs without induction. The beating CMs showed the striated ventricular phenotype of cardiomyocytes and synchronised oscillation of the intracellular calcium concentration among cells on day 28 of Ad-SVF primary culture. We also identified beating CM-fated progenitors (CFPs) and performed single-cell transcriptome analysis of these CFPs. Among 491 transcription factors that were differentially expressed (??1.75-fold) in CFPs and the beating CMs, myocyte-specific enhancer 2c (Mef2c) was key. Transduction of Ad-SVF cells with Mef2c using a lentiviral vector yielded CFPs and beating CMs with?~?tenfold higher cardiac troponin T expression, which was abolished by silencing of Mef2c. Thus, we identified the master gene required for transdifferentiation of Ad-SVF into beating CMs. These findings will facilitate the development of novel cardiac regeneration therapies based on gene-modified, cardiac lineage-directed Ad-SVF cells.
Project description:Heart failure often develops after acute myocardial infarction because the injured myocardial tissue fails to recover or regenerate. Stem cell transplantation using adult cell sources, such as adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF), draws extensive attention. In this study, SVF cells were isolated from rat adipose tissue and cultivated on enzyme-crosslinked gelatin hydrogels. Morphological features of cell development and spontaneous beating behavior from these cells were observed and recorded. Cardiac phenotypes were characterized via immunofluorescence staining, and the expression of cardiac-specific genes was measured via RT-PCR. The functional assessment of SVF-derived cardiomyocyte-like cells (SVF-CMs) was performed by detecting cellular calcium transient activities and pharmacological responses. Results showed that most SVF-CMs exhibited elongated myotubule shapes and expressed cardiac troponin I strongly. SVF-CMs expressed cardiac-specific RNA (including transcription factors GATA binding protein 4) and myocyte enhancer factor 2c, as well as the structural proteins, namely, sarcomere actinin alpha 2, cardiac troponin I type 3, cardiac troponin T type 2, and cardiac gap junction protein alpha 1. Their beating mode, calcium activities, and pharmacological responses were similar to those of native CMs. Spontaneously beating SVF-CMs can be derived from adipose tissue-derived SVFs, and enzyme-crosslinked gelatin hydrogel promoted the cardiac differentiation of SVF cells.
Project description:The intrinsic regenerative capacity of human fetal cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has not been fully characterized. Here we demonstrate that we can expand cells with characteristics of cardiovascular progenitor cells from the MSC population of human fetal hearts. Cells cultured on cardiac muscle laminin (LN)-based substrata in combination with stimulation of the canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway showed increased gene expression of ISL1, OCT4, KDR, and NKX2.5. The majority of cells stained positive for PDGFR-?, ISL1, and NKX2.5, and subpopulations also expressed the progenitor markers TBX18, KDR, c-KIT, and SSEA-1. Upon culture of the cardiac MSCs in differentiation media and on relevant LNs, portions of the cells differentiated into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle-like cells. Our protocol for large-scale culture of human fetal cardiac MSCs enables future exploration of the regenerative functions of these cells in the context of myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Several studies have demonstrated that miRNA are involved in cardiac development, stem cell maintenance, and differentiation. In particular, it has been shown that miRNA133, miRNA1, and miRNA499 are involved in progenitor cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes. However, it is unknown whether different miRNA may act synergistically to improve cardiac differentiation. We used mouse P19 cells as a cardiogenic differentiation model. miRNA499, miRNA1, or miRNA133 were transiently over-expressed in P19 cells individually or in different combinations. The over-expression of miRNA499 alone increased the number of beating cells and the association of miRNA499 with miRNA133 exerted a synergistic effect, further increasing the number of beating cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the combination of miRNA499?+?133 enhanced the expression of cardiac genes compared with controls. Western blot and immunocytochemistry for connexin43 and cardiac troponin T confirmed these findings. Importantly, caffeine responsiveness, a clear functional parameter of cardiac differentiation, was increased by miRNA499 in association with miRNA133 and was directly correlated with the activation of the cardiac troponin I isoform promoter. Cyclic contractions were reversibly abolished by extracellular calcium depletion, nifedipine, ryanodine, and IP3R blockade. Finally, we demonstrated that the use of miRNA499?+?133 induced cardiac differentiation even in the absence of dimethyl sulfoxide. Our results show that the areas spontaneously contracting possess electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics compatible with true cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. The translational relevance of our findings was reinforced by the demonstration that the over-expression of miRNA499 and miRNA133 was also able to induce the differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells toward the cardiac lineage.
Project description:Insulin resistance (IR) underlies metabolic disease. Visceral, but not subcutaneous, white adipose tissue (WAT) has been linked to the development of IR, potentially due to differences in regulatory protein abundance. Here we investigate how protein levels are changed in IR in different WAT depots by developing a targeted proteomics approach to quantitatively compare the abundance of 42 nuclear proteins in subcutaneous and visceral WAT from a commonly used insulin-resistant mouse model, Lepr(db/db), and from C57BL/6J control mice. The most differentially expressed proteins were important in adipogenesis, as confirmed by siRNA-mediated depletion experiments, suggesting a defect in adipogenesis in visceral, but not subcutaneous, insulin-resistant WAT. Furthermore, differentiation of visceral, but not subcutaneous, insulin-resistant stromal vascular cells (SVCs) was impaired. In an in vitro approach to understand the cause of this impaired differentiation, we compared insulin-resistant visceral SVCs to preadipocyte cell culture models made insulin resistant by different stimuli. The insulin-resistant visceral SVC protein abundance profile correlated most with preadipocyte cell culture cells treated with both palmitate and TNF?. Together, our study introduces a method to simultaneously measure and quantitatively compare nuclear protein expression patterns in primary adipose tissue and adipocyte cell cultures, which we show can reveal relationships between differentiation and disease states of different adipocyte tissue types.
Project description:Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) represent a readily available abundant supply of mesenchymal stem cells and have the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in mice and human, making ADSCs a promising source of cardiomyocytes for transplantation. However, there has been no report of differentiation of rat ADSCs into cardiomyocytes. In addition, signaling pathways in the differentiation process from ADSCs to cardiomyocytes are unknown. In this study, we first demonstrated that rat ADSCs spontaneously differentiated into cardiomyocytes in vitro, when cultured on a complete medium formulation MethoCult GF M3534. These differentiated cells possessed cardiomyocyte phenotype and expressed cardiac markers. Moreover, these cells showed open excitation-contracting coupling and Ca2+ transient and contracted spontaneously. The role of Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs) in the differentiation process was then studied by using ROCK-specific inhibitor Y-27632 and ROCK siRNAs. These agents changed the arrangement of cytoskeleton and diminished appearance of cardiomyocyte phenotype, accompanied by inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and promotion of Akt phosphorylation. Collectively, this is the first study to demonstrate that rat ADSCs could spontaneously differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and ROCKs play an important role in the differentiation of ADSCs into beating cardiomyocytes in conjunction of the PI3K/Akt pathway and the JNK pathway.
Project description:Atypically-shaped cardiomyocytes (ACMs) are beating heart cells identified in the cultures of cardiomyocyte-removed fractions obtained from adult mouse hearts. Since ACMs spontaneously develop into beating cells in the absence of hormones or chemicals, these cells are likely to be a type of cardiac progenitors rather than stem cells. "Native ACMs" are found as small interstitial cells among ventricular myocytes that co-express cellular prion protein (PrP) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) in mouse and human heart tissues. However, the endogenous behavior of human ACMs is unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that PrP+ cTnT+ cells are present in the human heart tissue with myocardial infarction (MI). These cells were mainly found in the border of necrotic cardiomyocytes caused by infarcts and also in the hibernating myocardium subjected to the chronic ischemia. The ratio of PrP+ cTnT+ cells to the total cells observed in the normal heart tissue section of mouse and human was estimated to range from 0.3-0.8%. Notably, living human PrP+ cTnT+ cells were identified in the cultures obtained at pathological autopsy despite exposure to lethal ischemic conditions for hours after death. These findings suggest that ACMs could survive in the ischemic human heart and develop into a sub-population of cardiac myocytes.
Project description:The possibility of using cell-based therapeutics to treat cardiac failure has generated significant interest since the initial introduction of stem cell-based technologies. However, the methods to quickly and robustly direct stem cell differentiation towards cardiac cell types have been limited by a reliance on recombinant growth factors to provide necessary biological cues. We report here the use of dorsomorphin homologue 1 (DMH1), a second-generation small molecule BMP inhibitor based on dorsomorphin, to efficiently induce beating cardiomyocyte formation in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and to specifically upregulate canonical transcriptional markers associated with cardiac development. DMH1 differs significantly from its predecessor by its ability to enrich for pro-cardiac progenitor cells that respond to late-stage Wnt inhibition using XAV939 and produce secondary beating cardiomyocytes. Our study demonstrates the utility of small molecules to complement existing in vitro cardiac differentiation protocols and highlights the role of transient BMP inhibition in cardiomyogenesis.
Project description:Adipose tissue pathology in obese patients often features impaired adipogenesis, angiogenesis, and chronic low-grade inflammation, all of which are regulated in large part by adipose tissue stromal vascular cells [SVC; i.e., non-adipocyte cells within adipose tissue including preadipocytes, endothelial cells (ECs), and immune cells]. Exercise is known to increase subcutaneous adipose tissue lipolysis, but the impact of exercise on SVCs in adipose tissue has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a session of exercise on preadipocyte, EC, macrophage, and T cell content in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. We collected abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue samples from 10 obese adults (BMI 33 ± 3 kg/m2, body fat 41 ± 7%) 12 h after a 60 min acute session of endurance exercise (80 ± 3%HRpeak) vs. no acute exercise session. SVCs were isolated by collagenase digestion and stained for flow cytometry. We found that acute exercise reduced preadipocyte content (38 ± 7 vs. 30 ± 13%SVC; p = 0.04). The reduction was driven by a decrease in CD34hi preadipocytes (18 ± 5 vs. 13 ± 6%SVC; p = 0.002), a subset of preadipocytes that generates high lipolytic rate adipocytes ex vivo. Acute exercise did not alter EC content. Acute exercise also did not change total immune cell, macrophage, or T cell content, and future work should assess the effects of exercise on subpopulations of these cells. We conclude that exercise may rapidly regulate the subcutaneous adipose tissue preadipocyte pool in ways that may help attenuate the high lipolytic rates that are commonly found in obesity.