Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8/lactadherin plays a crucial role in maintenance and repair of murine intestinal epithelium.
ABSTRACT: Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8)/lactadherin participates in several cell surface-mediated regulatory events. Although its mRNA is present in the gut, the physiological roles of MFG-E8 in the intestinal mucosa have not been explored. Here we show that MFG-E8 was expressed in intestinal lamina propria macrophages from mice. Using a wound-healing assay, MFG-E8 was shown to promote the migration of intestinal epithelial cells through a PKCepsilon-dependent mechanism. MFG-E8 bound to phosphatidylserine and triggered reorientation of the actin cytoskeleton in intestinal epithelial cells at the wound edge. Depleting MFG-E8 in mice by administration of anti-MFG-E8 antibody or targeted deletion of the MFG-E8 gene resulted in a slowing of enterocyte migration along the crypt-villus axis and focal mucosal injury. Moreover, in septic mice, intestinal MFG-E8 expression was downregulated, which correlated with intestinal injury, interrupted enterocyte migration, and impaired restitution. Treatment with recombinant MFG-E8 restored enterocyte migration, whereas deletion of MFG-E8 impeded mucosal healing in mice with sepsis. These results suggest that a decrease in intestinal MFG-E8 impairs intestinal mucosal repair in sepsis. Together, our data indicate that MFG-E8 plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and the promotion of mucosal healing and suggest that recombinant MFG-E8 may be beneficial for the treatment of bowel injuries.
Project description:Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) maintains the intestinal homeostasis by enhancing enterocyte migration and attenuating inflammation. We previously reported that sepsis is associated with down-regulation of intestinal MFG-E8 and impairment of enterocyte migration. Here, we showed that impairment of intestinal epithelial cell migration occurred in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic mice. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells (a murine macrophage-like cell line) with LPS increased expression of miR-99b, a microRNA that is predicted to target mouse MFG-E8 3'UTR. Using a luciferase assay, we showed that miR-99b mimic suppressed the activity of a reporter containing MFG-E8 3'UTR. This suggests the role of miR-99b in inhibition of MFG-E8 gene expression. In addition, we developed an anti-miR99b spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugate (SNA-NC(anti-miR99b)). Treatment of both naïve and LPS-challenged cells with SNA-NC(anti-miR99b) enhanced MFG-E8 expression in the cells. Administration of SNA-NC(anti-miR99b) rescued intestinal MFG-E8 expression in LPS-induced septic mice and attenuated LPS inhibitory effects on intestinal epithelial cell migration along the crypt-villus axis. Collectively, our study suggests that LPS represses MFG-E8 expression and disrupts enterocyte migration via a miR-99b dependent mechanism. Furthermore, this work shows that SNA-NC(anti-miR99b) is a novel nanoparticle-conjugate capable of rescuing MFG-E8 gene expression and maintaining intestinal epithelial homeostasis in sepsis.
Project description:Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) has been shown to play an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosa and to accelerate healing of the mucosa in septic mice. Herein, we (a) analyzed the expression of MFG-E8 in the gut of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (MFG-E8(+/+)) mice with and without dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, (b) characterized the pathological changes in intestinal mucosa of MFG-E8(+/+) and MFG-E8(-/-) mice with DSS-induced colitis and (c) examined the therapeutic role of MFG-E8 in inflammatory bowel disease by using DSS-induced colitis model. Our data documented that there was an increase in colonic and rectal MFG-E8 expression in MFG-E8(+/+) mice during the development of DSS colitis. MFG-E8 levels in both tissues decreased to below baseline during the recovery phase in mice with colitis. Changes in MFG-E8 gene expression correlated to the levels of inflammatory response and crypt-epithelial injury in both colonic and rectal mucosa in MFG-E8(+/+) mice. MFG-E8(-/-)mice developed more severe crypt-epithelial injury than MFG-E8(+/+) mice during exposure to DSS with delayed healing of intestinal epithelium during the recovery phase of DSS colitis. Administration of MFG-E8 during the recovery phase ameliorated colitis and promoted mucosal repair in both MFG-E8(-/-) and MFG-E8(+/+) mice, indicating that lack of MFG-E8 causes increased susceptibility to colitis and delayed mucosal healing. These data suggest that MGF-E8 is an essential protective factor for gut epithelial homeostasis, and exogenous administration of MFG-E8 may represent a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease.
Project description:Milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is an anti-inflammatory glycoprotein that mediates a wide spectrum of pathophysiological processes. MFG-E8 has been studied as a key regulator of cancer cell invasion, migration, and proliferation in different tissues and organs. However, potential roles of MFG-E8 in the growth and progression of liver cancer have not been investigated to date. Here, we analyzed 33 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples and found that levels of MFG-E8 expression were significantly higher in HCC cells than in normal liver tissues. In addition, our in vitro gain-of-function study in three different HCC cell lines revealed that overexpression of MFG-E8 promoted the proliferation and migration of HCC cells, as determined by RT-qPCR, MTT assays, and wound healing analyses. Conversely, an MFG-E8 loss-of function study showed that proliferation capacity was significantly reduced by MFG-E8 knockdown in HCC cells. Additionally, MFG-E8 activity-neutralizing antibodies profoundly inhibited both migration and proliferation of HCC cells, attenuating their tumorigenic properties. These reductions in migration and proliferation were rescued by treatment of HCC cells with recombinant MFG-E8 protein. Furthermore, an in vivo HCC xenograft study showed that the number of proliferating HCC cells and tumor volume/weight were all significantly increased by MFG-E8 overexpression, compared to control mice. These results clearly show that MFG-E8 plays an important role in HCC progression and may provide a basis for future mechanistic studies and new strategies for the treatment of liver cancer.
Project description:Our research group recently demonstrated that pericytes are major sources of the secreted glycoprotein and integrin ligand lactadherin (MFG-E8) in B16 melanoma tumors, and that MFG-E8 promotes angiogenesis via enhanced PDGF-PDGFR? signaling mediated by integrin-growth factor receptor crosstalk. However, sources of MFG-E8 and its possible roles in skin physiology are not well characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize the involvement of MFG-E8 in skin wound healing. In the dermis of normal murine and human skin, accumulations of MFG-E8 were found around CD31(+) blood vessels, and MFG-E8 colocalized with PDGFR?(+), ?SMA(+), and NG2(+) pericytes. MFG-E8 protein and mRNA levels were elevated in the dermis during full-thickness wound healing in mice. MFG-E8 was diffusely present in granulation tissue and was localized around blood vessels. Wound healing was delayed in MFG-E8 knockout mice, compared with the wild type, and myofibroblast and vessel numbers in wound areas were significantly reduced in knockout mice. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production with siRNA attenuated the formation of capillary-like structures in vitro. Expression of MFG-E8 in fibrous human granulation tissue with scant blood vessels was less than that in granulation tissue with many blood vessels. These findings suggest that MFG-E8 promotes cutaneous wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:MFG-E8 (also called lactadherin and SED1) is a secreted glycoprotein that has been previously implicated in enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent angiogenesis. Major sources of MFG-E8 in vivo and precise mechanisms of MFG-E8 action remain undetermined. The objective of this study was to identify important sources of MFG-E8 in vivo and further elucidate the role(s) of MFG-E8 in the regulation of angiogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS:We used knockout mice and anti-MFG-E8 antibodies to study MFG-E8 function in vivo. In melanomas and in retinas of mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy, MFG-E8 colocalized with pericytes rather than endothelial cells, and platelet-derived growth factor receptor ?+ pericytes/pericyte precursors purified from tumors contained large amounts of MFG-E8 mRNA. Tumor- and retinopathy-associated angiogenesis was diminished in MFG-E8 knockout mice, and pericyte coverage of neovessels was reduced. Inhibition of MFG-E8 production by 10T1/2 cells (surrogate pericyte/pericyte precursors) using small interfering RNAs and short hairpin RNAs, or inhibition of MFG-E8 action with some anti-MFG-E8 antibodies, selectively attenuated migration in vitro. Significantly, the anti-MFG-E8 antibodies that inhibited 10T1/2 cell migration in vitro also inhibited pathological angiogenesis in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:These studies strongly implicate MFG-E8 in pericyte/pericyte precursor function and indicate that MFG-E8-directed therapeutics may merit further development.
Project description:Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8) is a secretory glycoprotein with a known role in inflammation. In sepsis, interleukin (IL)-17 acts as a proinflammatory cytokine to exaggerate systemic inflammation. We hypothesize that MFG-E8 downregulates IL-17 expression in sepsis.Sepsis was induced in 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Recombinant mouse MFG-E8 (rmMFG-E8) at a dosage of 20 ?g/kg body weight or phosphate-buffered saline was concurrently injected. After 10 hours, blood and spleen samples were harvested for analysis. For in vitro studies, splenocytes isolated from healthy mice pretreated with rmMFG-E8 and splenocytes from MFG-E8 knockout (mfge8(-/-)) mice were stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, followed by measurement of IL-17 expression with either quantitative PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.At 10 hours after CLP, rmMFG-E8 inhibited the elevated levels of IL-17 protein in serum by 31%, compared with the vehicle. In the spleen, rmMFG-E8 reduced the upregulated IL-17 mRNA and protein levels by 81% and 51%, respectively. This correlated with a significant reduction in organ injury markers AST and ALT in sepsis after administration of rmMFG-E8. In vitro treatment of splenocytes isolated from healthy mice with rmMFG-E8 showed significant downregulation in PMA/ionomycin-induced IL-17 expression. In contrast, CD4 T-cells from mfge8(-/-) mice showed significant upregulation of IL-17 compared with wild-type mice. The phosphorylated level of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was downregulated in spleen tissue of septic mice treated with rmMFG-E8. Conversely, mfge8(-/-) mice showed increased phosphorylated STAT3 compared with wild-type mice after sepsis.Our findings demonstrate MFG-E8-mediated downregulation of IL-17 expression, implicating its potential as a novel therapeutic agent against sepsis.
Project description:Milk fat globule epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8) is a peripheral glycoprotein that acts as a bridging molecule between the macrophage and apoptotic cells, thus executing a pivotal role in the scavenging of apoptotic cells from affected tissue. We have previously reported that apoptotic cell clearance activity or efferocytosis is compromised in diabetic wound macrophages. In this work, we test the hypothesis that MFG-E8 helps resolve inflammation, supports angiogenesis, and accelerates wound closure. MFG-E8(-/-) mice displayed impaired efferocytosis associated with exaggerated inflammatory response, poor angiogenesis, and wound closure. Wound macrophage-derived MFG-E8 was recognized as a critical driver of wound angiogenesis. Transplantation of MFG-E8(-/-) bone marrow to MFG-E8(+/+) mice resulted in impaired wound closure and compromised wound vascularization. In contrast, MFG-E8(-/-) mice that received wild-type bone marrow showed improved wound closure and improved wound vascularization. Hyperglycemia and exposure to advanced glycated end products inactivated MFG-E8, recognizing a key mechanism that complicates diabetic wound healing. Diabetic db/db mice suffered from impaired efferocytosis accompanied with persistent inflammation and slow wound closure. Topical recombinant MFG-E8 induced resolution of wound inflammation, improvements in angiogenesis, and acceleration of closure, upholding the potential of MFG-E8-directed therapeutics in diabetic wound care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gut integrity is compromised in abdominal sepsis with increased cellular apoptosis and altered barrier permeability. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) form a physiochemical barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the host's internal milieu and is strongly involved in the mucosal inflammatory response and immune response. Recent research indicates the involvement of the stimulator of interferons genes (STING) pathway in uncontrolled inflammation and gut mucosal immune response. METHODS:We investigated the role of STING signaling in sepsis and intestinal barrier function using intestinal biopsies from human patients with abdominal sepsis and with an established model of abdominal sepsis in mice. FINDINGS:In human abdominal sepsis, STING expression was elevated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal biopsies compared with healthy controls, and the degree of STING expression in the human intestinal lamina propria correlated with the intestinal inflammation in septic patients. Moreover, elevated STING expression was associated with high levels of serum intestinal fatty acid binding protein that served as a marker of enterocyte damage. In mice, the intestinal STING signaling pathway was markedly activated following the induction of sepsis induced by cecal ligation perforation (CLP). STING knockout mice showed an alleviated inflammatory response, attenuated gut permeability, and decreased bacterial translocation. Whereas mice treated with a STING agonist (DMXAA) following CLP developed greater intestinal apoptosis and a more severe systemic inflammatory response. We demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was released during sepsis, inducing the intestinal inflammatory response through activating the STING pathway. We finally investigated DNase I administration at 5 hours post CLP surgery, showing that it reduced systemic mtDNA and inflammatory cytokines levels, organ damage, and bacterial translocation, suggesting that inhibition of mtDNA-STING signaling pathway protects against CLP-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. INTERPRETATION:Our results indicate that the STING signaling pathway can contribute to lethal sepsis by promoting IEC apoptosis and through disrupting the intestinal barrier. Our findings suggest that regulation of the mtDNA-STING pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy to promote mucosal healing and protect the intestinal barrier in septic patients. FUND: National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Project description:Mucosal healing occurs through migration and proliferation of cells within injured epithelium, yet these processes may be inadequate for mucosal healing after significant injury where the mucosa is denuded. We hypothesize that extra-intestinal cells can contribute to mucosal healing after injury to the small and large intestine. We generated parabiotic pairs between wild-type and tdTomato mice, which were then subjected to radiation-induced enteritis and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. We now show that as compared with singleton mice, mice with a parabiotic partner were protected against intestinal damage as revealed by significantly reduced weight loss, reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced enterocyte apoptosis, and improved crypt proliferation. Donor cells expressed CD45-, Sca-1+, c-kit+, and CXCR4+ and accumulated around the injured crypts but did not transdifferentiate into epithelia, suggesting that extra-intestinal cells play a paracrine role in the healing response, while parabiotic pairings with Rag1-/- mice showed improved healing, indicating that adaptive immune cells were dispensable for mucosal healing. Strikingly, ablation of the bone marrow of the donor parabionts removed the protective effects. These findings reveal that the recruitment of extra-intestinal, bone marrow-derived cells into the injured intestinal mucosa can promote mucosal healing, suggesting novel therapeutic approaches for severe intestinal disease.
Project description:Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury causes acute renal failure, and the hallmarks of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury are inflammation, apoptosis, necrosis, and capillary dysfunction. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor VIII (MFG-E8), a membrane-associated secretory glycoprotein, is produced by immune cells and reported to participate in multiple physiologic processes associated with tissue remodeling. We have recently shown that MFG-E8 treatment attenuates organ injury, inflammatory responses, and survival after sepsis through the enhancement of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. The purpose of this study was to determine whether administration of MFG-E8 attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.Prospective, controlled, and randomized animal study.: A research institute laboratory.Male C57BL/6J mice (20-25 g).: Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury with bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 45 mins, followed by reperfusion. A recombinant murine MFG-E8 (0.4 ?g/20 g) was given intraperitoneally at the beginning of reperfusion.MFG-E8 levels, organ injury variables, inflammatory responses, histology, apoptosis, and capillary functions were assessed at 1.5 and 20 hrs after reperfusion. A 60-hr survival study was conducted in MFG-E8 and recombinant murine MFG-E8-treated wild-type mice. After renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, MFG-E8 mRNA and protein expressions were significantly decreased in the kidneys and spleen. Treatment with recombinant murine MFG-E8 recovered renal dysfunction, significantly suppressed inflammatory responses, apoptosis, necrosis, and improved capillary functions in the kidneys. In the survival study, MFG-E8 mice showed a significant deterioration and, in contrast, recombinant murine MFG-E8-treated wild-type mice showed a significant improvement of survival compared with vehicle-treated wild-type mice.MFG-E8 can be developed as novel treatment for renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. This protective effect appears to be mediated through the enhancement of apoptotic cell clearance and improvement of capillary functions in the kidneys.