Biochemical characterization of dTDP-D-Qui4N and dTDP-D-Qui4NAc biosynthetic pathways in Shigella dysenteriae type 7 and Escherichia coli O7.
ABSTRACT: O-antigen variation due to the presence of different types of sugars and sugar linkages is important for the survival of bacteria threatened by host immune systems. The O antigens of Shigella dysenteriae type 7 and Escherichia coli O7 contain 4-(N-acetylglycyl)amino-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-Qui4NGlyAc) and 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (d-Qui4NAc), respectively, which are sugars not often found in studied polysaccharides. In this study, we characterized the biosynthetic pathways for dTDP-d-Qui4N and dTDP-d-Qui4NAc (the nucleotide-activated precursors of d-Qui4NGlyAc and d-Qui4NAc in O antigens). Predicted genes involved in the synthesis of the two sugars were cloned, and the gene products were overexpressed and purified as His-tagged fusion proteins. In vitro enzymatic reactions were carried out using the purified proteins, and the reaction products were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It is shown that in S. dysenteriae type 7 and E. coli O7, dTDP-d-Qui4N is synthesized from alpha-d-glucose-1-phosphate in three reaction steps catalyzed by glucose-1-phosphate thymidyltransferase (RmlA), dTDP-d-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB), and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-d-glucose aminotransferase (VioA). An additional acetyltransferase (VioB) catalyzes the conversion of dTDP-d-Qui4N into dTDP-d-Qui4NAc in E. coli O7. Kinetic parameters and some other properties of VioA and VioB are described and differences between VioA proteins from S. dysenteriae type 7 (VioA(D7)) and E. coli O7 (VioA(O7)) discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first time that functions of VioA and VioB have been biochemically characterized. This study provides valuable enzyme sources for the production of dTDP-d-Qui4N and dTDP-d-Qui4NAc, which are potentially useful in the pharmaceutical industry for drug development.
Project description:The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni 81116 (Penner serotype HS:6) has a class E lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis locus containing 19 genes, which encode for 11 putative glycosyltransferases, 1 lipid A acyltransferase and 7 enzymes thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of dideoxyhexosamine (ddHexN) moieties. Although the LOS outer core structure of C. jejuni 81116 is still unknown, recent mass spectrometry analyses suggest that it contains acetylated forms of two ddHexN residues. For this investigation, five of the genes encoding enzymes reportedly involved in the biosyntheses of these sugar residues were examined, rmlA, rmlB, wlaRA, wlaRB and wlaRG. Specifically, these genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding enzymes were purified and tested for biochemical activity. Here we present data demonstrating that RmlA functions as a glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and that RmlB is a thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-glucose 4,6-dehydratase. We also show, through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses, that WlaRG, when utilized in coupled assays with either WlaRA or WlaRB and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose, results in the production of either dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (dTDP-Fuc3N) or dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (dTDP-Qui3N), respectively. In addition, the X-ray crystallographic structures of the 3,4-ketoisomerases, WlaRA and WlaRB, were determined to 2.14 and 2.0 Å resolutions, respectively. Taken together, the data reported herein demonstrate that C. jejuni 81116 utilizes five enzymes to synthesize dTDP-Fuc3N or dTDP-Qui3N and that WlaRG, an aminotransferase, can function on sugars with differing stereochemistry about their C-4' carbons. Importantly, the data reveal that C. jejuni 81116 has the ability to synthesize two isomeric ddHexN forms.
Project description:Derivatives of 3-amino-3,6-dideoxyhexoses are widespread in Nature. They are part of the repeating units of lipopolysaccharide O-antigens, of the glycan moiety of S-layer (bacterial cell surface layer) glycoproteins and also of many antibiotics. In the present study, we focused on the elucidation of the biosynthesis pathway of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc (dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose) from the Gram-positive, anaerobic, thermophilic organism Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum E207-71, which carries Quip3NAc in its S-layer glycan. The biosynthesis of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc involves five enzymes, namely a transferase, a dehydratase, an isomerase, a transaminase and a transacetylase, and follows a pathway similar to that of dTDP-alpha-D-Fucp3NAc (dTDP-3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose) biosynthesis in Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus L420-91(T). The ORFs (open reading frames) of interest were cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. To elucidate the enzymatic cascade, the different products were purified by HPLC and characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The initiating reactions catalysed by the glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase RmlA and the dTDP-D-glucose-4,6-dehydratase RmlB are well established. The subsequent isomerase was shown to be capable of forming a dTDP-3-oxo-6-deoxy-D-glucose intermediate from the RmlB product dTDP-4-oxo-6-deoxy-D-glucose, whereas the isomerase involved in the dTDP-alpha-D-Fucp3NAc pathway synthesizes dTDP-3-oxo-6-deoxy-D-galactose. The subsequent reaction steps of either pathway involve a transaminase and a transacetylase, leading to the specific production of nucleotide-activated 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-galactose respectively. Sequence comparison of the ORFs responsible for the biosynthesis of dTDP-alpha-D-Quip3NAc revealed homologues in Gram-negative as well as in antibiotic-producing Gram-positive bacteria. There is strong evidence that the elucidated biosynthesis pathway may also be valid for LPS (lipopolysaccharide) O-antigen structures and antibiotic precursors.
Project description:Recent studies have demonstrated that the O-antigens of some pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella abortus, Francisella tularensis, and Campylobacter jejuni contain quite unusual N-formylated sugars (3-formamido-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose or 4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose). Typically, four enzymes are required for the formation of such sugars: a thymidylyltransferase, a 4,6-dehydratase, a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate or PLP-dependent aminotransferase, and an N-formyltransferase. To date, there have been no published reports of N-formylated sugars associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A recent investigation from our laboratories, however, has demonstrated that one gene product from M. tuberculosis, Rv3404c, functions as a sugar N-formyltransferase. Given that M. tuberculosis produces l-rhamnose, both a thymidylyltransferase (Rv0334) and a 4,6-dehydratase (Rv3464) required for its formation have been identified. Thus, there is one remaining enzyme needed for the production of an N-formylated sugar in M. tuberculosis, namely a PLP-dependent aminotransferase. Here we demonstrate that the M. tuberculosis rv3402c gene encodes such an enzyme. Our data prove that M. tuberculosis contains all of the enzymatic activities required for the formation of dTDP-4-formamido-4,6-dideoxy-d-glucose. Indeed, the rv3402c gene product likely contributes to virulence or persistence during infection, though its temporal expression and location remain to be determined.
Project description:The O-repeating unit of the Escherichia coli O7-specific lipopolysaccharide is made of galactose, mannose, rhamnose, 4-acetamido-4,6-dideoxyglucose, and N-acetyglucosamine. We have recently characterized the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the sugar precursor GDP-mannose occurring in the E. coli O7:K1 strain VW187 (C. L. Marolda and M. A. Valvano, J. Bacteriol. 175:148-158, 1993). In the present study, we identified and sequenced the rfbBDAC genes encoding the enzymes for the biosynthesis of another precursor, dTDP-rhamnose. These genes are localized on the upstream end of the rfbEcO7 region, and they are strongly conserved compared with similar genes found in various enteric and nonenteric bacteria. Upstream of rfbB we identified a DNA segment containing the rfb promoter and a highly conserved untranslated leader sequence also present in the promoter regions of other surface polysaccharide gene clusters. Also, we have determined that rfbB and rfbA have homologs, rffG (o355) and rffH (o292), respectively, located on the rff cluster, which is involved in the synthesis of enterobacterial common antigen. We provide biochemical evidence that rffG and rffH encode dTDP-glucose dehydratase and glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase activities, respectively, and we also show that rffG complemented the rfbB defect in the O7+ cosmid pJHCV32. We also demonstrate that rffG is distinct from rffE and map the rffE gene to the second gene of the rff cluster.
Project description:Many bacteria require l-rhamnose as a key cell wall component. This sugar is transferred to the cell wall using an activated donor dTDP-l-rhamnose, which is produced by the dTDP-l-rhamnose biosynthetic pathway. We determined the crystal structure of the second enzyme of this pathway dTDP-?-d-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RfbB) from Bacillus anthracis. Interestingly, RfbB only crystallized in the presence of the third enzyme of the pathway RfbC; however, RfbC was not present in the crystal. Our work represents the first complete structural characterization of the four proteins of this pathway in a single Gram-positive bacterium.
Project description:The glycan chains of the surface layer (S-layer) glycoprotein from the gram-positive, thermophilic bacterium Aneurinibacillus (formerly Bacillus) thermoaerophilus strain DSM 10155 are composed of L-rhamnose- and D-glycero-D-manno-heptose-containing disaccharide repeating units which are linked to the S-layer polypeptide via core structures that have variable lengths and novel O-glycosidic linkages. In this work we investigated the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of thymidine diphospho-L-rhamnose (dTDP-L-rhamnose) and their specific properties. Comparable to lipopolysaccharide O-antigen biosynthesis in gram-negative bacteria, dTDP-L-rhamnose is synthesized in a four-step reaction sequence from dTTP and glucose 1-phosphate by the enzymes glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase (RmlA), dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase (RmlB), dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose 3,5-epimerase (RmlC), and dTDP-4-dehydrorhamnose reductase (RmlD). The rhamnose biosynthesis operon from A. thermoaerophilus DSM 10155 was sequenced, and the genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Compared to purified enterobacterial Rml enzymes, the enzymes from the gram-positive strain show remarkably increased thermostability, a property which is particularly interesting for high-throughput screening and enzymatic synthesis. The closely related strain A. thermoaerophilus L420-91(T) produces D-rhamnose- and 3-acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-D-galactose-containing S-layer glycan chains. Comparison of the enzyme activity patterns in A. thermoaerophilus strains DSM 10155 and L420-91(T) for L-rhamnose and D-rhamnose biosynthesis indicated that the enzymes are differentially expressed during S-layer glycan biosynthesis and that A. thermoaerophilus L420-91(T) is not able to synthesize dTDP-L-rhamnose. These findings confirm that in each strain the enzymes act specifically on S-layer glycoprotein glycan formation.
Project description:3-Acetamido-3,6-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucose or Quip3NAc is an unusual dideoxy sugar found in the O-antigens of various Gram-negative bacteria and in the S-layer glycoprotein glycans of some Gram-positive bacteria. It is produced in these organisms as a dTDP-linked sugar, with five enzymes ultimately required for its biosynthesis. The focus of this investigation is on the enzyme QdtC, a CoA-dependent N-acetyltransferase that catalyzes the last step in the Quip3NAc biosynthetic pathway. For this analysis, three crystal structures were determined: the wild-type enzyme in the presence of acetyl-CoA and two ternary complexes of the enzyme with CoA and either dTDP-D-Quip3N or dTDP-3-amino-3,6-didexoy-alpha-D-galactose (dTDP-D-Fucp3N). Each subunit of the trimeric enzyme is dominated by a left-handed beta-helix motif with 11 turns. The three active sites are located at the subunit-subunit interfaces, and the two dTDP-sugar ligands employed in this study bind to the protein in nearly identical manners. Those residues responsible for anchoring the hexose moieties of the dTDP-sugars to the protein include Glu 141, Asn 159, and Asp 160 from one subunit and His 134 from another subunit. To probe the roles of various amino acid residues in the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme, 10 site-directed mutant proteins were constructed and their kinetic parameters measured. On the basis of these data, a catalytic mechanism is proposed for QdtC in which the acetylation of the sugar amino group does not require a catalytic base provided by the protein. Rather, the sulfur of CoA functions as the ultimate proton acceptor.
Project description:The existence of N-formylated sugars in the O-antigens of Gram-negative bacteria has been known since the middle 1980s, but only recently have the biosynthetic pathways for their production been reported. In these pathways, glucose-1-phosphate is first activated by attachment to a dTMP moiety. This step is followed by a dehydration reaction and an amination. The last step in these pathways is catalyzed by N-formyltransferases that utilize N(10) -formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source. Here we describe the three-dimensional structure of one of these N-formyltransferases, namely VioF from Providencia alcalifaciens O30. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the conversion of dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose (dTDP-Qui4N) to dTDP-4,6-dideoxy-4-formamido-d-glucose (dTDP-Qui4NFo). For this analysis, the structure of VioF was solved to 1.9 Å resolution in both its apoform and in complex with tetrahydrofolate and dTDP-Qui4N. The crystals used in the investigation belonged to the space group R32 and demonstrated reticular merohedral twinning. The overall catalytic core of the VioF subunit is characterized by a six stranded mixed ?-sheet flanked on one side by three ?-helices and on the other side by mostly random coil. This N-terminal domain is followed by an ?-helix and a ?-hairpin that form the subunit:subunit interface. The active site of the enzyme is shallow and solvent-exposed. Notably, the pyranosyl moiety of dTDP-Qui4N is positioned into the active site by only one hydrogen bond provided by Lys 77. Comparison of the VioF model to that of a previously determined N-formyltransferase suggests that substrate specificity is determined by interactions between the protein and the pyrophosphoryl group of the dTDP-sugar substrate.
Project description:Deoxythymidine diphospho-l-rhamnose (dTDP-l-rhamnose) is used by prokaryotic rhamnosyltransferases as the glycosyl donor for the synthesis of rhamnose-containing polysaccharides and compounds that have potential in pharmaceutical development, so its efficient synthesis has attracted much attention. In this study, we successfully cloned four putative dTDP-l-rhamnose synthesis genes Ss-rmlABCD from Saccharothrix syringae CGMCC 4.1716 and expressed them in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes, Ss-RmlA (glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase), Ss-RmlB (dTDP-d-glucose 4,6-dehydratase), Ss-RmlC (dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-glucose 3,5-epimerase), and Ss-RmlD (dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose reductase), were confirmed to catalyze the sequential formation of dTDP-l-rhamnose from deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) and glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P). Ss-RmlA showed maximal enzyme activity at 37°C and pH 9.0 with 2.5mMMg2+, and the Km and kcat values for dTTP and Glc-1-P were 49.56μM and 5.39s−1, and 117.30μM and 3.46s−1, respectively. Ss-RmlA was promiscuous in the substrate choice and it could use three nucleoside triphosphates (dTTP, dUTP, and UTP) and three sugar-1-Ps (Glc-1-P, GlcNH2-1-P, and GlcN3-1-P) to form nine sugar nucleotides (dTDP-GlcNH2, dTDP-GlcN3, UDP-Glc, UDP-GlcNH2, UDP-GlcN3, dUDP-Glc, dUDP-GlcNH2, and dUDP-GlcN3). Ss-RmlB showed maximal enzyme activity at 50°C and pH 7.5 with 0.02mM NAD+, and the Km and kcat values for dTDP-glucose were 98.60μM and 11.2s−1, respectively. A one-pot four-enzyme reaction system was developed by simultaneously mixing all of the substrates, reagents, and four enzymes Ss-RmlABCD in one pot for the synthesis of dTDP-l-rhamnose and dUDP-l-rhamnose with the maximal yield of 65% and 46%, respectively, under the optimal conditions. dUDP-l-rhamnose was a novel nucleotide-activated rhamnose reported for the first time.
Project description:N-formylated sugars are found on the lipopolysaccharides of various pathogenic Gram negative bacteria including Campylobacter jejuni 81116, Francisella tularensis, Providencia alcalifaciens O30, and Providencia alcalifaciens O40. The last step in the biosynthetic pathways for these unusual sugars is catalyzed by N-formyltransferases that utilize N10-formyltetrahydrofolate as the carbon source. The substrates are dTDP-linked amino sugars with the functional groups installed at either the C-3' or C-4' positions of the pyranosyl rings. Here we describe a structural and enzymological investigation of the putative N-formyltransferase, FdtF, from Salmonella enterica O60. In keeping with its proposed role in the organism, the kinetic data reveal that the enzyme is more active with dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose than with dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose. The structural data demonstrate that the enzyme contains, in addition to the canonical N-formyltransferase fold, an ankyrin repeat moiety that houses a second dTDP-sugar binding pocket. This is only the second time an ankyrin repeat has been shown to be involved in small molecule binding. The research described herein represents the first structural analysis of a sugar N-formyltransferase that specifically functions on dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose in vivo and thus adds to our understanding of these intriguing enzymes.