Unfolded protein response and cell death after depletion of brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein GBF1.
ABSTRACT: Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) activate ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases that recruit coat proteins to membranes to initiate transport vesicle formation. Three mammalian GEFs are inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA). GBF1, predominantly associated with cis-Golgi membranes, functions early in the secretory pathway, whereas BIG1 and BIG2 act in trans-Golgi or later sites. Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions can result in accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins that causes ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), with accumulation of ER stress response element (ERSE) gene products. BFA treatment of cells causes accumulation of proteins in the ER, ER stress, and ultimately apoptosis. To assess involvement of BFA-sensitive GEFs in the damage resulting from prolonged BFA treatment, HepG2 cells were selectively depleted of BIG1, BIG2, or GBF1 by using specific siRNA. Only GBF1 siRNA dramatically slowed cell growth, led to cell-cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase, and caused dispersion of Golgi markers beta-COP and GM130, whereas ER structure appeared intact. GBF1 depletion also significantly increased levels of ER proteins calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Proteomic analysis identified ER chaperones involved in the UPR that were significantly increased in amounts in GBF1-depleted cells. Upon ER stress, transcription factor ATF6 translocates from the ER to Golgi, where it is sequentially cleaved by site 1 and site 2 proteases, S1P and S2P, to a 50-kDa form that activates transcription of ERSE genes. Depletion of GBF1, but not BIG1 or BIG2, induced relocation of S2P from Golgi to ER with proteolysis of ATF6 followed by up-regulation of ER chaperones, mimicking a UPR response.
Project description:Transport of molecules from one subcellular compartment to another involves the recruitment of cytosolic coat protein complexes to a donor membrane to concentrate cargo, deform the membrane and ultimately to form an independent carrier. Small-GTP-binding proteins of the Arf family are central to many membrane trafficking events. Arfs are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) which results in their recruitment to membranes and subsequent engagement with Arf-effectors, many of which are coat proteins. Among the human BFA-sensitive large Arf-GEFs, the function of the two closely related BIG1 and BIG2 is still not clear, and recent studies have raised the question of functional redundancy between the two proteins.Here we have used small-interfering RNA on human cells and a combination of fixed and live-cell imaging to investigate the differential functions of BIG1 and BIG2 in endomembrane organization and function. Importantly, in this direct comparative study, we show discrete functions for BIG1 and BIG2. Our results show that depletion of BIG2 but not of BIG1 induces a tubulation of the recycling endosomal compartment, consistent with a specific role for BIG2 here. In contrast, suppression of BIG1 induces the formation of Golgi mini-stacks still polarized and functional in terms of cargo export.A key finding from our work is that suppression of BIG1 expression results in a fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus. Our data indicate that the human BFA-sensitive large Arf-GEFs have non-redundant functions in cell organization and membrane trafficking. BIG1 is required to maintain the normal morphology of the Golgi; BIG2 is important for endosomal compartment integrity and cannot replace the function of BIG1 in Golgi organization.
Project description:The small G protein Arf1 regulates Golgi traffic and is activated by two related types of guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). GBF1 acts at the cis-Golgi, whereas BIG1 and its close paralog BIG2 act at the trans-Golgi. Peripheral membrane proteins such as these GEFs are often recruited to membranes by small G proteins, but the basis for specific recruitment of Arf GEFs, and hence Arfs, to Golgi membranes is not understood. In this paper, we report a liposome-based affinity purification method to identify effectors for small G proteins of the Arf family. We validate this with the Drosophila melanogaster Arf1 orthologue (Arf79F) and the related class II Arf (Arf102F), which showed a similar pattern of effector binding. Applying the method to the Arf-like G protein Arl1, we found that it binds directly to Sec71, the Drosophila ortholog of BIG1 and BIG2, via an N-terminal region. We show that in mammalian cells, Arl1 is necessary for Golgi recruitment of BIG1 and BIG2 but not GBF1. Thus, Arl1 acts to direct a trans-Golgi-specific Arf1 GEF, and hence active Arf1, to the trans side of the Golgi.
Project description:We examined the relative function of the two classes of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for ADP-ribosylation factors that regulate recruitment of coat proteins on the Golgi complex. Complementary overexpression and RNA-based knockdown approaches established that GBF1 regulates COPI recruitment on cis-Golgi compartments, whereas BIGs appear specialized for adaptor proteins on the trans-Golgi. Knockdown of GBF1 and/or COPI did not prevent export of VSVGtsO45 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but caused its accumulation into peripheral vesiculotubular clusters. In contrast, knockdown of BIG1 and BIG2 caused loss of clathrin adaptor proteins and redistribution of several TGN markers, but had no impact on COPI and several Golgi markers. Surprisingly, brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide exchange factors (BIGs) knockdown prevented neither traffic of VSVGtsO45 to the plasma membrane nor assembly of a polarized Golgi stack. Our observations indicate that COPII is the only coat required for sorting and export from the ER exit sites, whereas GBF1 but not BIGs, is required for COPI recruitment, Golgi subcompartmentalization, and cargo progression to the cell surface.
Project description:The GTPase Arf1 is the major regulator of vesicle traffic at both the cis- and trans-Golgi. Arf1 is activated at the cis-Golgi by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) GBF1 and at the trans-Golgi by the related GEF BIG1 or its paralog, BIG2. The trans-Golgi-specific targeting of BIG1 and BIG2 depends on the Arf-like GTPase Arl1. We find that Arl1 binds to the dimerization and cyclophilin binding (DCB) domain in BIG1 and report a crystal structure of human Arl1 bound to this domain. Residues in the DCB domain that bind Arl1 are required for BIG1 to locate to the Golgi in vivo. DCB domain-binding residues in Arl1 have a distinct conformation from those in known Arl1-effector complexes, and this plasticity allows Arl1 to interact with different effectors of unrelated structure. The findings provide structural insight into how Arf1 GEFs, and hence active Arf1, achieve their correct subcellular distribution.
Project description:Coronaviruses induce in infected cells the formation of double membrane vesicles, which are the sites of RNA replication. Not much is known about the formation of these vesicles, although recent observations indicate an important role for the endoplasmic reticulum in the formation of the mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) replication complexes (RCs). We now show that MHV replication is sensitive to brefeldin A (BFA). Consistently, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of ARF1, known to mimic the action of the drug, inhibited MHV infection profoundly. Immunofluorescence analysis and quantitative electron microscopy demonstrated that BFA did not block the formation of RCs per se, but rather reduced their number. MHV RNA replication was not sensitive to BFA in MDCK cells, which are known to express the BFA-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1. Accordingly, individual knockdown of the Golgi-resident targets of BFA by transfection of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) showed that GBF1, but not BIG1 or BIG2, was critically involved in MHV RNA replication. ARF1, the cellular effector of GBF1, also appeared to be involved in MHV replication, as siRNAs targeting this small GTPase inhibited MHV infection significantly. Collectively, our results demonstrate that GBF1-mediated ARF1 activation is required for efficient MHV RNA replication and reveal that the early secretory pathway and MHV replication complex formation are closely connected.
Project description:The hepatitis E virus (HEV) genome is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA that encodes three proteins including the ORF1 replicase. Mechanisms of HEV replication in host cells are unclear, and only a few cellular factors involved in this step have been identified so far. Here, we used brefeldin A (BFA) that blocks the activity of the cellular Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors GBF1, BIG1, and BIG2, which play a major role in reshuffling of cellular membranes. We showed that BFA inhibits HEV replication in a dose-dependent manner. The use of siRNA and Golgicide A identified GBF1 as a host factor critically involved in HEV replication. Experiments using cells expressing a mutation in the catalytic domain of GBF1 and overexpression of wild type GBF1 or a BFA-resistant GBF1 mutant rescuing HEV replication in BFA-treated cells, confirmed that GBF1 is the only BFA-sensitive factor required for HEV replication. We demonstrated that GBF1 is likely required for the activity of HEV replication complexes. However, GBF1 does not colocalise with the ORF1 protein, and its subcellular distribution is unmodified upon infection or overexpression of viral proteins, indicating that GBF1 is likely not recruited to replication sites. Together, our results suggest that HEV replication involves GBF1-regulated mechanisms.
Project description:BIG2 and BIG1 are closely related guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) and are involved in the regulation of membrane traffic through activating ARFs and recruiting coat protein complexes, such as the COPI complex and the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex. Although both ARF-GEFs are associated mainly with the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and BIG2 is also associated with recycling endosomes, it is unclear whether BIG2 and BIG1 share some roles in membrane traffic. We here show that knockdown of both BIG2 and BIG1 by RNAi causes mislocalization of a subset of proteins associated with the TGN and recycling endosomes and blocks retrograde transport of furin from late endosomes to the TGN. Similar mislocalization and protein transport block, including furin, were observed in cells depleted of AP-1. Taken together with previous reports, these observations indicate that BIG2 and BIG1 play redundant roles in trafficking between the TGN and endosomes that involves the AP-1 complex.
Project description:Trafficking through the Golgi apparatus requires members of the Arf family of GTPases, whose activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Once activated, Arf-GTP recruits effectors such as coat complexes and lipid-modifying enzymes to specific membrane sites, creating a domain competent for cargo concentration and transport. GBF1 is a peripherally associated Arf GEF involved in both endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport. The mechanism of GBF1 binding to membranes is unknown. As a first step to understanding the mechanism of membrane association, we constructed a yellow fluorescent protein-tagged version of GBF1 and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis to determine its residence time on Golgi membranes. We find that GBF1 molecules are not stably associated with the Golgi but rather cycle rapidly on and off membranes. The drug brefeldin A (BFA), an uncompetitive inhibitor of the exchange reaction that binds to an Arf-GDP-Arf GEF complex, stabilizes GBF1 on Golgi membranes. Using an in vivo assay to monitor Arf1-GTP levels, we show that GBF1 exchange activity on Arf1 is inhibited by BFA in mammalian cells. These results suggest that an Arf1-GBF1-BFA complex is formed and has a longer residence time on Golgi membranes than GBF1 or Arf1 alone.
Project description:Arf GTPases assemble protein complexes on membranes to carry out major functions in cellular traffic. An essential step is their activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), whose Sec7 domain stimulates GDP/GTP exchange. ArfGEFs form 2 major families: ArfGEFs with DCB, HUS and HDS domains (GBF1 and BIG1/BIG2 in humans), which act at the Golgi; and ArfGEFs with a C-terminal PH domain (cytohesin, EFA6 and BRAG), which function at the plasma membrane and endosomes. In addition, pathogenic bacteria encode an ArfGEF with a unique membrane-binding domain. Here we review the allosteric regulation of Arf GTPases and their GEFs at the membrane interface. Membranes contribute several regulatory layers: at the GTPase level, where activation by GTP is coupled to membrane recruitment by a built-in structural device; at the Sec7 domain, which manipulates this device to ensure that Arf-GTP is attached to membranes; and at the level of non-catalytic ArfGEF domains, which form direct or GTPase-mediated interactions with membranes that enable a spectacular diversity of regulatory regimes. Notably, we show here that membranes increase the efficiency of a large ArfGEF (human BIG1) by 32-fold by interacting directly with its N-terminal DCB and HUS domains. The diversity of allosteric regulatory regimes suggests that ArfGEFs can function in cascades and circuits to modulate the shape, amplitude and duration of Arf signals in cells. Because Arf-like GTPases feature autoinhibitory elements similar to those of Arf GTPases, we propose that their activation also requires allosteric interactions of these elements with membranes or other proteins.
Project description:Despite extensive work on ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) 1 at the Golgi complex, the functions of Arf2-5 in the secretory pathway, or for that of any Arf at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) remain uncharacterized. Here, we examined the recruitment of fluorescently tagged Arf1, -3, -4, and -5 onto peripheral ERGIC. Live cell imaging detected Arfs on peripheral puncta that also contained Golgi-specific brefeldin A (BFA) resistance factor (GBF) 1 and the ERGIC marker p58. Unexpectedly, BFA did not promote corecruitment of Arfs with GBF1 either at the Golgi complex or the ERGIC, but it uncovered striking differences between Arf1,3 and Arf4,5. Although Arf1,3 quickly dissociated from all endomembranes after BFA addition, Arf4,5 persisted on ERGIC structures, even after redistribution of GBF1 to separate compartments. The GDP-arrested Arf4(T31N) mutant localized to the ERGIC, even with BFA and Exo1 present. In addition, loss of Arf x GTP after treatment with Exo1 caused rapid release of all Arfs from the Golgi complex and led to GBF1 accumulation on both Golgi and ERGIC membranes. Our results demonstrate that GDP-bound Arf4,5 associate with ERGIC membranes through binding sites distinct from those responsible for GBF1 recruitment. Furthermore, they provide the first evidence that GBF1 accumulation on membranes may be caused by loss of Arf x GTP, rather than the formation of an Arf x GDP x BFA x GBF1 complex.