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Unfolded protein response and cell death after depletion of brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein GBF1.

ABSTRACT: Guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs) activate ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases that recruit coat proteins to membranes to initiate transport vesicle formation. Three mammalian GEFs are inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA). GBF1, predominantly associated with cis-Golgi membranes, functions early in the secretory pathway, whereas BIG1 and BIG2 act in trans-Golgi or later sites. Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) functions can result in accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins that causes ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), with accumulation of ER stress response element (ERSE) gene products. BFA treatment of cells causes accumulation of proteins in the ER, ER stress, and ultimately apoptosis. To assess involvement of BFA-sensitive GEFs in the damage resulting from prolonged BFA treatment, HepG2 cells were selectively depleted of BIG1, BIG2, or GBF1 by using specific siRNA. Only GBF1 siRNA dramatically slowed cell growth, led to cell-cycle arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase, and caused dispersion of Golgi markers beta-COP and GM130, whereas ER structure appeared intact. GBF1 depletion also significantly increased levels of ER proteins calreticulin and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Proteomic analysis identified ER chaperones involved in the UPR that were significantly increased in amounts in GBF1-depleted cells. Upon ER stress, transcription factor ATF6 translocates from the ER to Golgi, where it is sequentially cleaved by site 1 and site 2 proteases, S1P and S2P, to a 50-kDa form that activates transcription of ERSE genes. Depletion of GBF1, but not BIG1 or BIG2, induced relocation of S2P from Golgi to ER with proteolysis of ATF6 followed by up-regulation of ER chaperones, mimicking a UPR response.

SUBMITTER: Citterio C 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC2268553 | BioStudies | 2008-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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