Identification of novel viral interleukin-10 isoforms of human cytomegalovirus AD169.
ABSTRACT: Two products of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL111a gene have been previously identified to resemble human IL-10 (hIL-10). These viral IL-10s (vIL-10s) are able to induce signal transduction events and biological activities in a variety of cells. In this study, five novel vIL-10 transcripts were identified from HCMV AD169 infected MRC-5 cells. Some vIL-10 isoforms were post-translationally glycosylated, depending on the existence of a predicted N-linked glycosylation site. Similar to hIL-10, four of the vIL-10 isoforms apparently formed putative dimers. Among the different vIL-10 isoforms, vIL-10A significantly induced the phosphorylation of transcription factor STAT3 in THP-1 cells. All identified vIL-10 isoforms were able to form complexes with hIL-10, and enhanced hIL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation in different degrees. Identification of diverse forms of vIL-10 suggests that HCMV has developed a sophisticated mechanism to interfere with hIL-10 signaling pathway.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma herpes virus associated with certain malignancies and autoimmune diseases. EBV maintains latency in B cells with occasional reactivation, in part by overcoming the host immune response with viral homologs of several human proteins. EBV interleukin 10 (vIL-10), a lytic phase protein, is a homolog of human IL-10 (hIL-10). The effect of vIL-10 on human monocytes, which are one of the first immune cells to respond to infection, is not known. To understand the role of vIL-10, monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with hIL-10 or vIL-10. Human IL-10 stimulated STAT3 phosphorylation, which is required for suppression of inflammatory responses. However, vIL-10 induced significantly lower phosphorylation of STAT3 compared to hIL-10, and was less efficient in downregulating inflammatory genes. vIL-10 significantly reduced the expression of scavenger receptor CD163 on monocytes, suggesting inhibition of M2 polarization. Furthermore, uptake of apoptotic cells was reduced in vIL-10-stimulated monocytes compared to hIL-10-stimulated monocytes. A neutralizing antibody to IL-10R1 inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation induced by either hIL-10 or vIL-10, suggesting that vIL-10 signals through IL-10R1. Interestingly, vIL-10 suppressed hIL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and inhibited upregulation of suppressors of inflammatory response by hIL-10. We further show that vIL-10 levels were significantly higher in plasma samples from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared to matched unaffected controls. vIL-10 levels did not correlate with hIL-10 levels, but were associated with levels of IgA antibodies to EBV viral capsid antigen, which is an indirect measure of viral reactivation. We propose that the suppression of hIL-10- induced anti-inflammatory genes by vIL-10, together with an increase in inflammatory gene expression, may overcome the anti-inflammatory effects of hIL-10 and exacerbate autoimmune responses in systemic autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause a variety of health disorders that can lead to death in immunocompromised individuals and neonates. The HCMV lifecycle comprises both a lytic (productive) and a latent (non-productive) phase. HCMV lytic infection occurs in a wide range of terminally differentiated cell types. HCMV latency has been less well-studied, but one characterized site of latency is in precursor cells of the myeloid lineage. All known viral genes are expressed during a lytic infection and a subset of these are also transcribed during latency. The UL111A gene which encodes the viral IL-10, a homolog of the human IL-10, is one of these genes. During infection, different transcript isoforms of UL111A are generated by alternative splicing. The most studied of the UL111A isoforms are cmvIL-10 (also termed the "A" transcript) and LAcmvIL-10 (also termed the "B" transcript), the latter being a well-characterized latency associated transcript. Both isoforms can downregulate MHC class II, however they differ in a number of other immunomodulatory properties, such as the ability to bind the IL10 receptor and induce signaling through STAT3. There are also a number of other isoforms which have been identified which are expressed by differential splicing during lytic infection termed C, D, E, F, and G, although these have been less extensively studied. HCMV uses the viral IL-10 proteins to manipulate the immune system during lytic and latent phases of infection. In this review, we will discuss the literature on the viral IL-10 transcripts identified to date, their encoded proteins and the structures of these proteins as well as the functional properties of all the different isoforms of viral IL-10.
Project description:We employed RNA-seq to map the transcriptome of human MRC5 fibroblasts during HCMV infection with AD169 and AD169-ΔUL26 strains. These data will highlight the ways in which the HCMV UL26 protein alters host gene transcripton during infection. Overall design: Infect quiescent MRC5 fibroblasts with HCMV AD169 and AD169-ΔUL26 strains, in 15-cm dishes at MOI = 3 and harvest samples for RNA-seq at 48 hpi.
Project description:The genomes of commonly used variants of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains Towne and AD169 each contain a substantial mutation in which a region (U(L)/b') at the right end of the long unique region has been replaced by an inverted duplication of a region from the left end of the genome. Using high-throughput technology, we have sequenced HCMV strain Towne (ATCC VR-977) and confirmed the presence of two variants, one exhibiting the replacement in U(L)/b' and the other intact in this region. Both variants are mutated in genes RL13, UL1, UL40, UL130, US1 and US9. We have also sequenced a novel AD169 variant (varUC) that is intact in U(L)/b' except for a small deletion that affects genes UL144, UL142, UL141 and UL140. Like other AD169 variants, varUC is mutated in genes RL5A, RL13, UL36 and UL131A. A subpopulation of varUC contains an additional deletion affecting genes IRS1, US1 and US2.
Project description:Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)-associated multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Human (h) IL-6 and a KSHV-encoded homolog, viral IL-6, have been hypothesized to contribute to its pathogenesis, but their relative contributions to disease activity is not well understood. We prospectively characterized KSHV viral load (VL), viral (v) and hIL-6, and other cytokines during KSHV-MCD flare and remission in 21 patients with 34 flares and 20 remissions. KSHV-VL, vIL-6, hIL-6, IL-10, and to a lesser extent TNF-?, and IL-1? were each elevated during initial flares compared with remission. Flares fell into 3 distinct IL-6 profiles: those associated with elevations of vIL6-only (2 flares, 6%), hIL-6 elevations only (17 flares, 50%), and elevations in both hIL-6 and vIL-6 (13 flares, 38%). Compared with hIL-6-only flares, flares with elevated hIL-6 plus vIL-6 exhibited higher C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = .0009); worse hyponatremia (P = .02); higher KSHV VL (P = .016), and higher IL-10 (P = .012). This analysis shows vIL-6 and hIL-6 can independently or together lead to KSHV-MCD flares, and suggests that vIL-6 and hIL-6 may jointly contribute to disease severity. These findings have implications for the development of novel KSHV-MCD therapies targeting IL-6 and its downstream signaling. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT099073.
Project description:PURPOSE:We previously found that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with gastric cancer (GC) development. UL111A plays a role during HCMV productive or latent infection. However, UL111A expression profiles in GC tissues and their relationship with this disease are unknown. METHODS:PCR and nested RT-PCR were performed to verify UL111A expression in 71 GC tissues and its transcripts in 16 UL111A-positive GC samples. UL111A expression levels in GC patients were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray for 620 GC patients. The correlations among UL111A expression levels, clinicopathological characteristics, and prognosis were analyzed. Further, the effects of overexpression of latency-associated viral interleukin-10 (LAcmvIL-10) and cmvIL-10 on GC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion were assessed. RESULTS:The UL111A detection rate in GC tissues was 32.4% (23/71) and that of its mRNA expression was 68.75% (11/16). High expression of UL111A was also related to better overall and disease-free survival in GC patients. GC patients with TNM II/III stage expressing higher UL111A levels might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) after surgery. Moreover, high UL111A expression was also associated with increased CD4+?, CD8+?T-lymphocyte and Foxp3+?T-cell infiltration. In vitro assays further demonstrated that LAcmvIL-10 and cmvIL-10 overexpression inhibits GC cell line proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. CONCLUSIONS:High UL111A expression changes the number of infiltrating T cells and is associated with favorable survival. Therefore, UL111A could be used as an independent prognostic biomarker and might be a potential therapeutic target for GC.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a viral interleukin 6 (vIL-6) that mimics many activities of human IL-6 (hIL-6). Both vIL-6 and hIL-6 play important roles in stimulating the proliferation of tumours caused by KSHV. Here, we provide evidence that a miRNA pathway is involved in regulation of vIL-6 and hIL-6 expression through binding sites in their open reading frames (ORFs). We show a direct repression of vIL-6 by hsa-miR-1293 and hIL-6 by hsa-miR-608. The repression of vIL-6 by miR-1293 was reversed by disruption of the vIL-6 miR-1293 seed match through the introduction of point mutations. In addition, expression of vIL-6 or hIL-6 in KSHV-infected cells could be enhanced by transfection of the respective miRNA inhibitors. In situ hybridization of human lymph node sections revealed that miR-1293 is primarily expressed in the germinal centre but is deficient in the mantle zone of lymph nodes, where the expression of vIL-6 is often found in patients with KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman's disease, providing evidence of an anatomical correlation. Taking these factors together, our study indicates that IL-6 expression can be regulated by miRNA interactions in its ORF and provides evidence for the role of these interactions in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated diseases.
Project description:Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpesvirus with both lytic and latent life cycles. Human cytomegalovirus encodes 2 viral cytokines that are orthologs of human cellular interleukin 10 (cIL-10). Both cytomegalovirus interleukin 10 (cmvIL-10) and Latency-associated cytomegalovirus interleukin 10 (LAcmvIL-10) (collectively vIL-10) are expressed during lytic infection and cause immunosuppressive effects that impede virus clearance. LAcmvIL-10 is also expressed during latent infection of myeloid progenitor cells and monocytes and facilitates persistence. Here, we investigated whether vIL-10 could be detected during natural infection.Plasma from healthy blood donors was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for anti-HCMV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M and for cIL-10 and vIL-10 levels using a novel vIL-10 assay that detects cmvIL-10 and LAcmvIL-10, with no cross-reactivity to cIL-10.vIL-10 was evident in HCMV+ donors (n = 19 of 26), at levels ranging 31-547 pg/mL. By comparison, cIL-10 was detected at lower levels ranging 3-69 pg/mL. There was a strong correlation between vIL-10 and cIL-10 levels (P = .01). Antibodies against vIL-10 were also detected and neutralized vIL-10 activity.vIL-10 was detected in peripheral blood of healthy blood donors. These findings suggest that vIL-10 may play a key role in sensing or modifying the host environment during latency and, therefore, may be a potential target for intervention strategies.
Project description:Several human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genes encode products that modulate cellular functions in a manner likely to enhance viral pathogenesis. This includes UL111A, which encodes homologs of human interleukin-10 (hIL-10). Depending upon signals received, monocytes and macrophages become polarized to either classically activated (M1 proinflammatory) or alternatively activated (M2 anti-inflammatory) subsets. Skewing of polarization toward an M2 subset may benefit the virus by limiting the proinflammatory responses to infection, and so we determined whether HCMV-encoded viral IL-10 influenced monocyte polarization. Recombinant viral IL-10 protein polarized CD14(+) monocytes toward an anti-inflammatory M2 subset with an M2c phenotype, as demonstrated by high expression of CD163 and CD14 and suppression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. Significantly, in the context of productive HCMV infection, viral IL-10 produced by infected cells polarized uninfected monocytes toward an M2c phenotype. We also assessed the impact of viral IL-10 on heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which is an enzyme linked with suppression of inflammatory responses. Polarization of monocytes by viral IL-10 resulted in upregulation of HO-1, and inhibition of HO-1 function resulted in a loss of capacity of viral IL-10 to suppress tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and IL-1?, implicating HO-1 in viral IL-10-induced suppression of proinflammatory cytokines by M2c monocytes. In addition, a functional consequence of monocytes polarized with viral IL-10 was a decreased capacity to activate CD4(+) T cells. This study identifies a novel role for viral IL-10 in driving M2c polarization, which may limit virus clearance by restricting proinflammatory and CD4(+) T cell responses at sites of infection.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of human Kaposi's sarcoma, a tumor that arises from endothelial cells, as well as two B cell lymphoproliferative diseases, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. KSHV utilizes a variety of mechanisms to evade host immune responses and promote cellular transformation and growth in order to persist for the life of the host. A viral homolog of human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) named viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) is encoded by KSHV and expressed in KSHV-associated cancers. Similar to hIL-6, vIL-6 is secreted, but the majority of vIL-6 is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum, where it can initiate functional signaling through part of the interleukin-6 receptor complex. We sought to determine how intracellular vIL-6 modulates the host endothelial cell environment by analyzing vIL-6's impact on the endothelial cell transcriptome. vIL-6 significantly altered the expression of many cellular genes associated with cell migration. In particular, vIL-6 upregulated the host factor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) at the protein and message levels. CEACAM1 has been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis and promotes migration and vascular remodeling in endothelial cells. We report that vIL-6 upregulates CEACAM1 by a STAT3-dependent mechanism and that CEACAM1 promotes vIL-6-mediated migration. Furthermore, latent and de novo KSHV infections of endothelial cells also induce CEACAM1 expression. Collectively, our data suggest that vIL-6 modulates endothelial cell migration by upregulating the expression of cellular factors, including CEACAM1. IMPORTANCE:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked with the development of three human malignancies, Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and primary effusion lymphoma. KSHV expresses many factors that enable the virus to manipulate the host environment in order to persist and induce disease. The viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) produced by KSHV is structurally and functionally homologous to the human cytokine interleukin-6, except that vIL-6 is secreted slowly and functions primarily from inside the host cell. To investigate the unique intracellular role of vIL-6, we analyzed the impact of vIL-6 on endothelial cell gene expression. We report that vIL-6 significantly alters the expression of genes associated with cell movement, including that for CEACAM1. The gene for CEACAM1 was upregulated by vIL-6 and by latent and primary KSHV infection and promotes vIL-6-mediated endothelial cell migration. This work advances the field's understanding of vIL-6 function and its contribution to KSHV pathogenesis.