Feedback circuit among INK4 tumor suppressors constrains human glioblastoma development.
ABSTRACT: We have developed a nonheuristic genome topography scan (GTS) algorithm to characterize the patterns of genomic alterations in human glioblastoma (GBM), identifying frequent p18(INK4C) and p16(INK4A) codeletion. Functional reconstitution of p18(INK4C) in GBM cells null for both p16(INK4A) and p18(INK4C) resulted in impaired cell-cycle progression and tumorigenic potential. Conversely, RNAi-mediated depletion of p18(INK4C) in p16(INK4A)-deficient primary astrocytes or established GBM cells enhanced tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, acute suppression of p16(INK4A) in primary astrocytes induced a concomitant increase in p18(INK4C). Together, these findings uncover a feedback regulatory circuit in the astrocytic lineage and demonstrate a bona fide tumor suppressor role for p18(INK4C) in human GBM wherein it functions cooperatively with other INK4 family members to constrain inappropriate proliferation.
Project description:The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors, p18(INK4c) and p16(INK4a), both have the credentials of tumor suppressors in human cancers and mouse models. For p16(INK4a), the underlying rationale is its role in senescence, but the selective force for inactivation of p18(INK4c) in incipient cancer cells is less clear. Here, we show that in human fibroblasts undergoing replicative or oncogene-induced senescence, there is a marked decline in the levels of p18(INK4c) protein and RNA, which mirrors the accumulation of p16(INK4a). Downregulation of INK4c is not dependent on p16(INK4a), and RAS can promote the loss of INK4c without cell-cycle arrest. Downregulation of p18(INK4c) correlates with reduced expression of menin and E2F1 but is unaffected by acute cell-cycle arrest or inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Collectively, our data question the idea that p18(INK4c) acts as a backup for loss of p16(INK4a) and suggest that the apparent activation of p18(INK4c) in some settings represents delayed senescence rather than increased expression. We propose that the contrasting behavior of the two very similar INK4 proteins could reflect their respective roles in senescence versus differentiation.
Project description:Genomic alterations leading to aberrant activation of cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) complexes drive the pathogenesis of many common human tumor types. In the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), these alterations are most commonly due to homozygous deletion of p16(INK4a) and less commonly due to genomic amplifications of individual genes encoding cyclins or cdks. Here, we describe deletion of the p18(INK4c) cdk inhibitor as a novel genetic alteration driving the pathogenesis of GBM. Deletions of p18(INK4c) often occurred in tumors also harboring homozygous deletions of p16(INK4a). Expression of p18(INK4c) was completely absent in 43% of GBM primary tumors studied by immunohistochemistry. Lentiviral reconstitution of p18(INK4c) expression at physiologic levels in p18(INK4c)-deficient but not p18(INK4c)-proficient GBM cells led to senescence-like G(1) cell cycle arrest. These studies identify p18(INK4c) as a GBM tumor suppressor gene, revealing an additional mechanism leading to aberrant activation of cyclin/cdk complexes in this terrible malignancy.
Project description:The cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (Cdk4/6) that drive progression through the G(1) phase of the cell cycle play a central role in the control of cell proliferation, and CDK deregulation is a frequent event in cancer. Cdk4/6 are regulated by the D-type cyclins, which bind to CDKs and activate the kinase, and by the INK4 family of inhibitors. INK4 proteins can bind both monomeric CDK, preventing its association with a cyclin, and also the CDK-cyclin complex, forming an inactive ternary complex. In vivo, binary INK4-Cdk4/6 complexes are more abundant than ternary INK4-Cdk4/6-cyclinD complexes, and it has been suggested that INK4 binding may lead to the eventual dissociation of the cyclin. Here we present the 2.9-A crystal structure of the inactive ternary complex between Cdk6, the INK4 inhibitor p18(INK4c), and a D-type viral cyclin. The structure reveals that p18(INK4c) inhibits the CDK-cyclin complex by distorting the ATP binding site and misaligning catalytic residues. p18(INK4c) also distorts the cyclin-binding site, with the cyclin remaining bound at an interface that is substantially reduced in size. These observations support the model that INK4 binding weakens the cyclin's affinity for the CDK. This structure also provides insights into the specificity of the D-type cyclins for Cdk4/6.
Project description:Deregulation of the p16(INK4a)-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway is commonly detected in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and is a rational therapeutic target. Here, we characterized the p16(INK4a)-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway in the Mayo panel of GBM xenografts, established from primary tissue samples from patients with GBM, and evaluated their response to PD0332991, a specific inhibitor of Cdk4/6. All GBM xenograft lines evaluated in this study had disruptions in the p16(INK4a)-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway. In vitro evaluation using short-term explant cultures from selected GBM xenograft lines showed that PD0332991 effectively arrested cell cycle in G1-phase and inhibited cell proliferation dose-dependently in lines deleted for CDKN2A/B-p16(INK4a) and either single-copy deletion of CDK4 (GBM22), high-level CDK6 amplification (GBM34), or deletion of CDKN2C/p18(INK4c) (GBM43). In contrast, 2 GBM lines with p16(INK4a) expression and either CDK4 amplification (GBM5) or RB mutation (GBM28) were completely resistant to PD0332991. Additional xenograft lines were screened, and GBM63 was identified to have p16(INK4a) expression and CDK4 amplification. Similar to the results with GBM5, GBM63 was resistant to PD0332991 treatment. In an orthotopic survival model, treatment of GBM6 xenografts (CDKN2A/B-deleted and CDK4 wild-type) with PD0332991 significantly suppressed tumor cell proliferation and prolonged survival. Collectively, these data support the concept that GBM tumors lacking p16(INK4a) expression and with nonamplified CDK4 and wild-type RB status may be more susceptible to Cdk4/6 inhibition using PD0332991.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are a leading cause of cancer death due to their capacity to metastasize and lack of effective therapies. More than half of BLBCs have a dysfunctional BRCA1. Although most BRCA1-deficient cancers respond to DNA-damaging agents, resistance and tumor recurrence remain a challenge to survival outcomes for BLBC patients. Additional therapies targeting the pathways aberrantly activated by BRCA1 deficiency are urgently needed.<h4>Methods</h4>Most BRCA1-deficient BLBCs carry a dysfunctional INK4-RB pathway. Thus, we created genetically engineered mice with Brca1 loss and deletion of p16<sup>INK4A</sup>, or separately p18<sup>INK4C</sup>, to model the deficient INK4-RB signaling in human BLBC. By using these mutant mice and human BRCA1-deficient and proficient breast cancer tissues and cells, we tested if there exists a druggable target in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers.<h4>Results</h4>Heterozygous germline or epithelium-specific deletion of Brca1 in p18<sup>INK4C</sup>- or p16<sup>INK4A</sup>-deficient mice activated Pdgfr? signaling, induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and led to BLBCs. Confirming this role, targeted deletion of Pdgfr? in Brca1-deficient tumor cells promoted cell death, induced mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, and suppressed tumorigenesis. Importantly, we also found that pharmaceutical inhibition of Pdgfr? and its downstream target Pkc? suppressed Brca1-deficient tumor initiation and progression and effectively killed BRCA1-deficient cancer cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our work offers the first genetic and biochemical evidence that PDGFR?-PKC? signaling is repressed by BRCA1, which establishes PDGFR?-PKC? signaling as a therapeutic target for BRCA1-deficient breast cancers.
Project description:We have developed a nonheuristic genome topography scan (GTS) algorithm to characterize the patterns of genomic alterations in human glioblastoma (GBM), identifying frequent p18INK4C and p16INK4A codeletion. Functional reconstitution of p18INK4C in GBM cells null for both p16INK4A and p18INK4C resulted in impaired cell-cycle progression and tumorigenic potential. Conversely, RNAi-mediated depletion of p18INK4C in p16INK4A-deficient primary astrocytes or established GBM cells enhanced tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, acute suppression of p16INK4A in primary astrocytes induced a concomitant increase in p18INK4C. Together, these findings uncover a feedback regulatory circuit in the astrocytic lineage and demonstrate a bona fide tumor suppressor role for p18INK4C in human GBM wherein it functions cooperatively with other INK4 family members to constrain inappropriate proliferation. Keywords: SuperSeries DNA copy number and mRNA transcriptome of human glioblastoma tumors were profiled using Agilent and Affymetrix microarrays. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE7602: Human GBM tumor vs Normal Human DNA GSE9171: Expression data from human GBM tumors and cell lines GSE9177: Human GBM tumor vs Normal Human DNA
Project description:We have developed a nonheuristic genome topography scan (GTS) algorithm to characterize the patterns of genomic alterations in human glioblastoma (GBM), identifying frequent p18INK4C and p16INK4A codeletion. Functional reconstitution of p18INK4C in GBM cells null for both p16INK4A and p18INK4C resulted in impaired cell-cycle progression and tumorigenic potential. Conversely, RNAi-mediated depletion of p18INK4C in p16INK4A-deficient primary astrocytes or established GBM cells enhanced tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, acute suppression of p16INK4A in primary astrocytes induced a concomitant increase in p18INK4C. Together, these findings uncover a feedback regulatory circuit in the astrocytic lineage and demonstrate a bona fide tumor suppressor role for p18INK4C in human GBM wherein it functions cooperatively with other INK4 family members to constrain inappropriate proliferation. This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. Overall design: Refer to individual Series. DNA copy number and mRNA transcriptome of human glioblastoma tumors were profiled using Agilent and Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 9p21 near the INK4/ARF (CDKN2A/B) tumor suppressor locus with risk of atherosclerotic diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To explore the mechanism of this association, we investigated whether expression of proximate transcripts (p16(INK4a), p15(INK4b), ARF, ANRIL and MTAP) correlate with genotype of representative 9p21 SNPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We analyzed expression of 9p21 transcripts in purified peripheral blood T-cells (PBTL) from 170 healthy donors. Samples were genotyped for six selected disease-related SNPs spanning the INK4/ARF locus. Correlations among these variables were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Significantly reduced expression of all INK4/ARF transcripts (p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a), ARF and ANRIL) was found in PBTL of individuals harboring a common SNP (rs10757278) associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease, stroke and aortic aneurysm. Expression of MTAP was not influenced by rs10757278 genotype. No association of any these transcripts was noted with five other tested 9p21 SNPs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Genotypes of rs10757278 linked to increased risk of atherosclerotic diseases are also associated with decreased expression in PBTL of the INK4/ARF locus, which encodes three related anti-proliferative transcripts of known importance in tumor suppression and aging.
Project description:Recent identification of an enhancer element, RD(INK4/ARF) (RD), in the prominent INK4/ARF locus provides a novel mechanism to simultaneously regulate the transcription of p15(INK4B) (p15), p14(ARF) , and p16(INK4A) (p16) tumor suppressor genes. While genetic inactivation of p15, p14(ARF) , and p16 in human tumors has been extensively studied, little is known about genetic alterations of RD and its impact on p15, p14(ARF) , and p16 in human cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential existence of genetic alterations of RD in human cancer cells. DNAs extracted from 17 different cancer cell lines and 31 primary pheochromocytoma tumors were analyzed for deletion and mutation of RD using real-time PCR and direct DNA sequencing. We found that RD was deleted in human cancer cell lines and pheochromocytoma tumors at frequencies of 41.2% (7/17) and 13.0% (4/31), respectively. While some of these RD deletion events occurred along with deletions of the entire INK4/ARF locus, other RD deletion events were independent of genetic alterations in p15, p14(ARF) , and p16. Furthermore, the status of RD was poorly associated with the expression of p15, p14(ARF) , and p16 in tested cancer cell lines and tumors. This study demonstrates for the first time that deletion of the RD enhancer is a prevalent event in human cancer cells. Its implication in carcinogenesis remains to be further explored.
Project description:The presence of RD(INK4/ARF) (RD) enhancer in the INK4-ARF locus provides a novel mechanism to simultaneously increase the transcription of p15(INK4b) (p15), p14ARF (p14), and p16(INK4a) (p16). While such upregulation can be repressed through interactions between RD and oncoproteins CDC6 and BMI1, little is known about the involvement of RD in cancer. In this study we investigated RD deletions in 30 squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and the patient-matched High At-Risk Mucosa specimens (HARM, "phenotypically normal" tissues neighboring SCCHN foci but beyond the surgical resection margin). RD was deleted (homozygously/heterozygously) in SCCHN and HARM at the incidence of 36.7% (11/30) and 13.3% (4/30), respectively. In comparison, no RD deletion was detected in 26 oral buccal brush biopsy specimens from healthy donors. Both p16 and p14 were lowly expressed in SCCHN and HARM, and their mRNA expression levels were positively associated with each other (P?<?0.01). Moreover, BMI1 was highly expressed in both SCCHN and HARM, and BMI1 overexpression was associated with p16 downregulation in SCCHN (P?<?0.05). These results indicate that RD deletion and BMI1 overexpression frequently occur in the early stage of oral carcinogenesis and BMI1 overexpression may downregulate the transcription of p16 and p14 through interfering with RD.