A yeast protein related to a mammalian Ras-binding protein, Vps9p, is required for localization of vacuolar proteins.
ABSTRACT: In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mutations in vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes result in secretion of proteins normally localized to the vacuole. Characterization of the VPS pathway has provided considerable insight into mechanisms of protein sorting and vesicle-mediated intracellular transport. We have cloned VPS9 by complementation of the vacuolar protein sorting defect of vps9 cells, characterized its gene product, and investigated its role in vacuolar protein sorting. Cells with a vps9 disruption exhibit severe vacuolar protein sorting defects and a temperature-sensitive growth defect at 38 degrees C. Electron microscopic examination of delta vps9 cells revealed the appearance of novel reticular membrane structures as well as an accumulation of 40- to 50-nm-diameter vesicles, suggesting that Vps9p may be required for the consumption of transport vesicles containing vacuolar protein precursors. A temperature-conditional allele of vps9 was constructed and used to investigate the function of Vps9p. Immediately upon shifting of temperature-conditional vps9 cells to the nonpermissive temperature, newly synthesized carboxypeptidase Y was secreted, indicating that Vps9p function is directly required in the VPS pathway. Antibodies raised against Vps9p immunoprecipitate a rare 52-kDa protein that fractionates with cytosolic proteins following cell lysis and centrifugation. Analysis of the VPS9 DNA sequence predicts that Vps9p is related to human proteins that bind Ras and negatively regulate Ras-mediated signaling. We term the related regions of Vps9p and these Ras-binding proteins a GTPase binding homology domain and suggest that it defines a family of proteins that bind monomeric GTPases. Vps9p may bind and serve as an effector of a rab GTPase, like Vps2lp, required for vacuolar protein sorting.
Project description:The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway is required for a number of biological processes, including downregulation of cell-surface proteins and protein sorting into the vacuolar lumen. The function of this pathway requires endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) composed of class E vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many of which are conserved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Of these, sst4/vps27 (homologous to VPS27) and sst6 (similar to VPS23) have been identified as suppressors of sterility in ste12Delta (sst), although their functions have not been uncovered to date. In this report, these two sst genes are shown to be required for vacuolar sorting of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) and an MVB marker, the ubiquitin-GFP-carboxypeptidase S (Ub-GFP-CPS) fusion protein, despite the lack of the ubiquitin E2 variant domain in Sst6p. Disruption mutants of a variety of other class E vps homologues also had defects in sorting of CPY and Ub-GFP-CPS. Sch. pombe has a mammalian AMSH homologue, sst2. Phenotypic analyses suggested that Sst2p is a class E Vps protein. Taken together, these results suggest that sorting into multivesicular bodies is dependent on class E Vps proteins, including Sst2p, in Sch. pombe.
Project description:The small GTPase Rab5, which cycles between GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active forms, plays essential roles in membrane budding and trafficking in the early endocytic pathway. Rab5 is activated by various vacuolar protein sorting 9 (VPS9) domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Rab21, Rab22, and Rab31 (members of the Rab5 subfamily) are also involved in the trafficking of early endosomes. Mechanisms controlling the activation Rab5 subfamily members remain unclear. RIN (Ras and Rab interactor) represents a family of multifunctional proteins that have a VPS9 domain in addition to Src homology 2 (SH2) and Ras association domains. We investigated whether RIN family members act as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the Rab5 subfamily on biochemical and cell morphological levels. RIN3 stimulated the formation of GTP-bound Rab31 in cell-free and in cell GEF activity assays. RIN3 also formed enlarged vesicles and tubular structures, where it colocalized with Rab31 in HeLa cells. In contrast, RIN3 did not exhibit any apparent effects on Rab21. We also found that serine to alanine substitutions in the sequences between SH2 and RIN family homology domain of RIN3 specifically abolished its GEF action on Rab31 but not Rab5. We examined whether RIN3 affects localization of the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR), which is transported between trans-Golgi network and endocytic compartments. We found that RIN3 partially translocates CD-MPR from the trans-Golgi network to peripheral vesicles and that this is dependent on its Rab31-GEF activity. These results indicate that RIN3 specifically acts as a GEF for Rab31.
Project description:Rab GTPases and their effectors mediate docking, the initial contact of intracellular membranes preceding bilayer fusion. However, it has been unclear whether Rab proteins and effectors are sufficient for intermembrane interactions. We have recently reported reconstituted membrane fusion that requires yeast vacuolar SNAREs, lipids, and the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS)/class C Vps complex, an effector and guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the yeast vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7p. We now report reconstitution of lysis-free membrane fusion that requires purified GTP-bound Ypt7p, HOPS complex, vacuolar SNAREs, ATP hydrolysis, and the SNARE disassembly catalysts Sec17p and Sec18p. We use this reconstituted system to show that SNAREs and Sec17p/Sec18p, and Ypt7p and the HOPS complex, are required for stable intermembrane interactions and that the three vacuolar Q-SNAREs are sufficient for these interactions.
Project description:Lysosome function is essential to many physiological processes. It has been suggested that deregulation of lysosome function could contribute to cancer. Through a genetic screen in Drosophila, we have discovered that mutations disrupting lysosomal degradation pathway components contribute to tumor development and progression. Loss-of-function mutations in the Class C vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) gene, deep orange (dor), dramatically promote tumor overgrowth and invasion of the Ras(V12) cells. Knocking down either of the two other components of the Class C VPS complex, carnation (car) and vps16A, also renders Ras(V12) cells capable for uncontrolled growth and metastatic behavior. Finally, chemical disruption of the lysosomal function by feeding animals with antimalarial drugs, chloroquine or monensin, leads to malignant tumor growth of the Ras(V12) cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence for a causative role of lysosome dysfunction in tumor growth and invasion and indicate that members of the Class C VPS complex behave as tumor suppressors.
Project description:The small GTPase rab5 has been shown to represent a key regulator in the endocytic pathway of mammalian cells. Using a PCR approach to identify rab5 homologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two genes encoding proteins with 54 and 52% identity to rab5, YPT51 and YPT53 have been identified. Sequencing of the yeast chromosome XI has revealed a third rab5-like gene, YPT52, whose protein product exhibits a similar identity to rab5 and the other two YPT gene products. In addition to the high degree of identity/homology shared between rab5 and Ypt51p, Ypt52p, and Ypt53p, evidence for functional homology between the mammalian and yeast proteins is provided by phenotypic characterization of single, double, and triple deletion mutants. Endocytic delivery to the vacuole of two markers, lucifer yellow CH (LY) and alpha-factor, was inhibited in delta ypt51 mutants and aggravated in the double ypt51ypt52 and triple ypt51ypt52ypt53 mutants, suggesting a requirement for these small GTPases in endocytic membrane traffic. In addition to these defects, the here described ypt mutants displayed a number of other phenotypes reminiscent of some vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutants, including a differential delay in growth and vacuolar protein maturation, partial missorting of a soluble vacuolar hydrolase, and alterations in vacuole acidification and morphology. In fact, vps21 represents a mutant allele of YPT51 (Emr, S., personal communication). Altogether, these data suggest that Ypt51p, Ypt52p, and Ypt53p are required for transport in the endocytic pathway and for correct sorting of vacuolar hydrolases suggesting a possible intersection of the endocytic with the vacuolar sorting pathway.
Project description:Newly synthesized vacuolar hydrolases such as carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) are sorted from the secretory pathway in the late-Golgi compartment and reach the vacuole after a distinct set of membrane-trafficking steps. Endocytosed proteins are also delivered to the vacuole. It has been proposed that these pathways converge at a "prevacuolar" step before delivery to the vacuole. One group of genes has been described that appears to control both of these pathways. Cells carrying mutations in any one of the class E VPS (vacuolar protein sorting) genes accumulate vacuolar, Golgi, and endocytosed proteins in a novel compartment adjacent to the vacuole termed the "class E" compartment, which may represent an exaggerated version of the physiological prevacuolar compartment. We have characterized one of the class E VPS genes, VPS27, in detail to address this question. Using a temperature-sensitive allele of VPS27, we find that upon rapid inactivation of Vps27p function, the Golgi protein Vps10p (the CPY-sorting receptor) and endocytosed Ste3p rapidly accumulate in a class E compartment. Upon restoration of Vps27p function, the Vps10p that had accumulated in the class E compartment could return to the Golgi apparatus and restore correct sorting of CPY. Likewise, Ste3p that had accumulated in the class E compartment en route to the vacuole could progress to the vacuole upon restoration of Vps27p function indicating that the class E compartment can act as a functional intermediate. Because both recycling Golgi proteins and endocytosed proteins rapidly accumulate in a class E compartment upon inactivation of Vps27p, we propose that Vps27p controls membrane traffic through the prevacuolar/endosomal compartment in wild-type cells.
Project description:In a late-Golgi compartment of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vacuolar proteins such as carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) are actively sorted away from the secretory pathway and transported to the vacuole via a pre-vacuolar, endosome-like intermediate. The vacuolar protein sorting (vps) mutant vps4 accumulates vacuolar, endocytic and late-Golgi markers in an aberrant multilamellar pre-vacuolar compartment. The VPS4 gene has been cloned and found to encode a 48 kDa protein which belongs to the protein family of AAA-type ATPases. The Vps4 protein was purified and shown to exhibit an N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive ATPase activity. A single amino acid change within the AAA motif of Vps4p yielded a protein that lacked ATPase activity and did not complement the protein sorting or morphological defects of the vps4 delta1 mutant. Indeed, when expressed at normal levels in wild-type cells, the mutant vps4 gene acted as a dominant-negative allele. The phenotypic characterization of a temperature-sensitive vps4 allele showed that the immediate consequence of loss of Vps4p function is a defect in vacuolar protein delivery. In this mutant, precursor CPY was not secreted but instead accumulated in an intracellular compartment, presumably the pre-vacuolar endosome. Electron microscopy revealed that upon temperature shift, exaggerated stacks of curved cisternal membranes (aberrant endosome) also accumulated in the vps4ts mutant. Based on these and other observations, we propose that Vps4p function is required for efficient transport out of the pre-vacuolar endosome.
Project description:Many Rab GTPase effectors are membrane-tethering factors, that is, they physically link two apposed membranes before intracellular membrane fusion. In this study, we investigate the distinct binding factors needed on apposed membranes for Rab effector-dependent tethering. We show that the homotypic fusion and protein-sorting/class C vacuole protein-sorting (HOPS/class C Vps) complex can tether low-curvature membranes, that is, liposomes with a diameter of ?100 nm, only when the yeast vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7p is present in both tethered membranes. When HOPS is phosphorylated by the vacuolar casein kinase I, Yck3p, tethering only takes place when GTP-bound Ypt7p is present in both tethered membranes. When HOPS is not phosphorylated, however, its tethering activity shows little specificity for the nucleotide-binding state of Ypt7p. These results suggest a model for HOPS-mediated tethering in which HOPS tethers membranes by binding to Ypt7p in each of the two tethered membranes. Moreover, because vacuole-associated HOPS is presumably phosphorylated by Yck3p, our results suggest that nucleotide exchange of Ypt7p on multivesicular bodies (MVBs)/late endosomes must take place before HOPS can mediate tethering at vacuoles.
Project description:The retromer is a multiprotein complex conserved from yeast to humans, which is involved in intracellular protein trafficking and protein recycling. Selection of cargo proteins transported by the retromer depends on the core retromer subunit composed of the three vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) proteins, namely VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35. To gain a better knowledge of the importance of the plant retromer in protein sorting, we carried out a comparative proteomic and metabolomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds from the wild-type and the null-retromer mutant vps29. Here, we report that the retromer mutant displays major alterations in the maturation of seed storage proteins and synthesis of lipid reserves, which are accompanied by severely impaired seed vigor and longevity. We also show that the lack of retromer components is counterbalanced by an increase in proteins involved in intracellular trafficking, notably members of the Ras-related proteins in brain (RAB) family proteins. Our study suggests that loss of the retromer stimulates energy metabolism, affects many metabolic pathways, including that of cell wall biogenesis, and triggers an osmotic stress response, underlining the importance of retromer function in seed biology.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains carrying vps18 mutations are defective in the sorting and transport of vacuolar enzymes. The precursor forms of these proteins are missorted and secreted from the mutant cells. Most vps18 mutants are temperature sensitive for growth and are defective in vacuole biogenesis; no structure resembling a normal vacuole is seen. A plasmid complementing the temperature-sensitive growth defect of strains carrying the vps18-4 allele was isolated from a centromere-based yeast genomic library. Integrative mapping experiments indicated that the 26-kb insert in this plasmid was derived from the VPS18 locus. A 4-kb minimal complementing fragment contains a single long open reading frame predicted to encode a 918-amino-acid hydrophilic protein. Comparison of the VPS18 sequence with the PEP3 sequence reported in the accompanying paper (R. A. Preston, H. F. Manolson, K. Becherer, E. Weidenhammer, D. Kirkpatrick, R. Wright, and E. W. Jones, Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:5801-5812, 1991) shows that the two genes are identical. Disruption of the VPS18/PEP3 gene (vps18 delta 1::TRP1) is not lethal but results in the same vacuolar protein sorting and growth defects exhibited by the original temperature-sensitive vps18 alleles. In addition, vps18 delta 1::TRP1 MAT alpha strains exhibit a defect in the Kex2p-dependent processing of the secreted pheromone alpha-factor. This finding suggests that vps18 mutations alter the function of a late Golgi compartment which contains Kex2p and in which vacuolar proteins are thought to be sorted from proteins destined for the cell surface. The Vps18p sequence contains a cysteine-rich, zinc finger-like motif at the COOH terminus. A mutant in which the first cysteine of this motif was changed to serine results in a temperature-conditional carboxypeptidase Y sorting defect shortly after a shift to nonpermissive conditions. We identified a similar cysteine-rich motif near the COOH terminus of another Vps protein, the Vps11/Pep5/End1 protein. Preston et al. (Mol. Cell. Biol. 11:5801-5812, 1991) present evidence that the Vps18/Pep3 protein colocalizes with the Vps11/Pep5 protein to the cytosolic face of the vacuolar membrane. Together with the similar phenotypes exhibited by both vps11 and vps18 mutants, this finding suggests that they may function at a common step during vacuolar protein sorting and that the integrity of their zinc finger motifs may be required for this function.