The cellular proto-oncogene product Myb acts as transcriptional activator of the long terminal repeat of human T-lymphotropic virus type I.
ABSTRACT: The proto-oncogene c-myb encodes a nuclear transcription factor that binds to DNA in a sequence-specific manner and activates transcription of several viral and cellular genes. Expression of the c-myb gene is induced in mitogen- and/or antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes, which are also the preferential target cells of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in vivo and in vitro. We report here that Myb binds to the HTLV-I long terminal repeat (LTR) in four different regions in a sequence-specific manner. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay using labeled LTR fragments as well as labeled double-stranded oligonucleotides show that there are two high-affinity and two low-affinity Myb-binding sites present in the HTLV-I LTR. DNase I footprinting analysis and oligonucleotide competition experiments indicate that this binding is sequence specific. Cotransfection experiments in HeLa cells, using a Myb expression vector and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene linked to the HTLV-I LTR, show that Myb activates HTLV-I LTR-mediated transcription by a factor of four-to sixfold. Thus, in HTLV-I-infected T cells, Myb protein binding to the HTLV-I LTR may constitute one of the signal that regulate HTLV-I transcription in vivo.
Project description:We and others have recently uncovered the existence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 3 (HTLV-3), the third member of the HTLV family. We have now sequenced the full-length HTLV-3Pyl43 provirus. As expected, HTLV-3Pyl43 contains open reading frames corresponding to the gag, pol, env, tax, and rex genes. Interestingly, its long terminal repeat (LTR) includes only two Tax-responsive elements, as is the case for type 3 simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLV-3). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that HTLV-3Pyl43 is closely related to central African STLV-3. Unexpectedly, the proximal pX region of HTLV-3Pyl43 lacks 366 bp compared to its STLV-3 counterpart. Because of this deletion, the previously described RorfII sequence is lacking. At the amino acid level, Tax3Pyl43 displays strong similarities with HTLV-1 Tax, including the sequence of a PDZ class I binding motif. In transient-transfection assays, Tax3Pyl43 activates the transcriptions from HTLV-3, HTLV-1, and HTLV-2 LTRs. Mutational analysis indicates that two functional domains (M22 and M47) important for transactivation through the CREB/ATF or NF-kappaB pathway are similar but not identical in Tax1 and Tax3Pyl43. We also show that Tax3Pyl43 transactivates the human interleukin-8 and Bcl-XL promoters through the induction of the NF-kappaB pathway. On the other hand, Tax3Pyl43 represses the transcriptional activity of the p53 tumor suppressor protein as well as the c-Myb promoter. Altogether, these results demonstrate that although HTLV-3 and HTLV-1 have only 60% identity, Tax3Pyl43 is functionally closely related to the transforming protein Tax1 and suggest that HTLV-3, like HTLV-1, might be pathogenic in vivo.
Project description:Human T-lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is characterized by viral latency in the majority of infected cells and by the absence of viremia. These features are thought to be due to the repression of viral sense transcription in vivo. Here, our in silico analysis of the HTLV-1 Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) promoter nucleotide sequence revealed, in addition to the four Sp1 binding sites previously identified, the presence of two additional potential Sp1 sites within the R region. We demonstrated that the Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors bound in vitro to these two sites and compared the binding affinity for Sp1 of all six different HTLV-1 Sp1 sites. By chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed Sp1 recruitment in vivo to the newly identified Sp1 sites. We demonstrated in the nucleosomal context of an episomal reporter vector that the Sp1 sites interfered with both the sense and antisense LTR promoter activities. Interestingly, the Sp1 sites exhibited together a repressor effect on the LTR sense transcriptional activity but had no effect on the LTR antisense activity. Thus, our results demonstrate the presence of two new functional Sp1 binding sites in the HTLV-1 LTR, which act as negative cis-regulatory elements of sense viral transcription.
Project description:Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax oncoprotein is required for viral gene expression. Tax transactivates the viral promoter by recruiting specific transcription factors but also by interfering with general transcription factors involved in the preinitiation step, such as TFIIA and TFIID. However, data are lacking regarding Tax interplay with TFIIH, which intervenes during the last step of preinitiation. We previously reported that XPB, the TFIIH subunit responsible for promoter opening and promoter escape, is required for Tat-induced human-immunodeficiency virus promoter transactivation. Here, we investigated whether XPB may also play a role in HTLV-1 transcription. We report that Tax and XPB directly interact in vitro and that endogenous XPB produced by HTLV-1-infected T cells binds to Tax and is recruited on proviral LTRs. In contrast, XPB recruitment at the LTR is not detected in Tax-negative HTLV-1-infected T cells and is strongly reduced when Tax-induced HTLV-1 LTR transactivation is blocked. XPB overexpression does not affect basal HTLV-1 promoter activation but enhances Tax-mediated transactivation in T cells. Conversely, downregulating XPB strongly reduces Tax-mediated transactivation. Importantly, spironolactone (SP)-mediated inhibition of LTR activation can be rescued by overexpressing XPB but not XPD, another TFIIH subunit. Furthermore, an XPB mutant defective for the ATPase activity responsible for promoter opening does not show rescue of the effect of SP. Finally, XPB downregulation reduces viability of Tax-positive but not Tax-negative HTLV-1-transformed T cell lines. These findings reveal that XPB is a novel cellular cofactor hijacked by Tax to facilitate HTLV-1 transcription.IMPORTANCE HTLV-1 is considered the most potent human oncovirus and is also responsible for severe inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 transcription is undertaken by RNA polymerase II and is controlled by the viral oncoprotein Tax. Tax transactivates the viral promoter first via the recruitment of CREB and its cofactors to the long terminal repeat (LTR). However, how Tax controls subsequent steps of the transcription process remains unclear. In this study, we explore the link between Tax and the XPB subunit of TFIIH that governs, via its ATPase activity, the promoter-opening step of transcription. We demonstrate that XPB is a novel physical and functional partner of Tax, recruited on HTLV-1 LTR, and required for viral transcription. These findings extend the mechanism of Tax transactivation to the recruitment of TFIIH and reinforce the link between XPB and transactivator-induced viral transcription.
Project description:Expression of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) genes is transcriptionally activated by the cognate oncoprotein Tax which enhances the binding of the cyclin AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) to the Tax responsive element (TxRE) located in its long terminal repeat (LTR). TxRE is highly homologous to the cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE) except for the GC-rich sequence flanking the CRE. We cloned the cDNA for a cellular factor, TAXREB803, of which the DNA-binding domain bound to TxRE and the binding was dependent on the 3' GC-rich sequence in TxRE. TAXREB803 is an SR-related protein composed of 2,752 amino acids including numerous arginine/serine (RS) motifs. TAXREB803 enhanced both the Tax dependent transcription and the CREB binding to TxRE in cooperation with Tax. The interaction of TAXREB803 and Tax was detected by coimmunoprecipitation assays as well as by indirect immunofluorescence assays. Significantly, Tax transactivation for the HTLV-1 LTR decreased dramatically when the expression level of the endogenous TAXREB803 was suppressed by the small interfering RNA. These results suggest that TAXREB803 functions as a transcriptional coactivator for Tax and plays a critical role in the expression of HTLV-1 genes.
Project description:X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor, plays a key role in the cellular unfolded protein response (UPR). There are two XBP-1 isoforms in cells, spliced XBP-1S and unspliced XBP-1U. XBP-1U has been shown to bind to the 21-bp Tax-responsive element of the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) in vitro and transactivate HTLV-1 transcription. Here we identify XBP-1S as a transcription activator of HTLV-1. Compared to XBP-1U, XBP-1S demonstrates stronger activating effects on both basal and Tax-activated HTLV-1 transcription in cells. Our results show that both XBP-1S and XBP-1U interact with Tax and bind to the HTLV-1 LTR in vivo. In addition, elevated mRNA levels of the gene for XBP-1 and several UPR genes were detected in the HTLV-1-infected C10/MJ and MT2 T-cell lines, suggesting that HTLV-1 infection may trigger the UPR in host cells. We also identify Tax as a positive regulator of the expression of the gene for XBP-1. Activation of the UPR by tunicamycin showed no effect on the HTLV-1 LTR, suggesting that HTLV-1 transcription is specifically regulated by XBP-1. Collectively, our study demonstrates a novel host-virus interaction between a cellular factor XBP-1 and transcriptional regulation of HTLV-1.
Project description:Human T-lymphotropic virus type 4 (HTLV-4) is a new deltaretrovirus recently identified in a primate hunter in Cameroon. Limited sequence analysis previously showed that HTLV-4 may be distinct from HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and HTLV-3, and their simian counterparts, STLV-1, STLV-2, and STLV-3, respectively. Analysis of full-length genomes can provide basic information on the evolutionary history and replication and pathogenic potential of new viruses.We report here the first complete HTLV-4 sequence obtained by PCR-based genome walking using uncultured peripheral blood lymphocyte DNA from an HTLV-4-infected person. The HTLV-4(1863LE) genome is 8791-bp long and is equidistant from HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and HTLV-3 sharing only 62-71% nucleotide identity. HTLV-4 has a prototypic genomic structure with all enzymatic, regulatory, and structural proteins preserved. Like STLV-2, STLV-3, and HTLV-3, HTLV-4 is missing a third 21-bp transcription element found in the long terminal repeats of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 but instead contains unique c-Myb and pre B-cell leukemic transcription factor binding sites. Like HTLV-2, the PDZ motif important for cellular signal transduction and transformation in HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 is missing in the C-terminus of the HTLV-4 Tax protein. A basic leucine zipper (b-ZIP) region located in the antisense strand of HTLV-1 and believed to play a role in viral replication and oncogenesis, was also found in the complementary strand of HTLV-4. Detailed phylogenetic analysis shows that HTLV-4 is clearly a monophyletic viral group. Dating using a relaxed molecular clock inferred that the most recent common ancestor of HTLV-4 and HTLV-2/STLV-2 occurred 49,800 to 378,000 years ago making this the oldest known PTLV lineage. Interestingly, this period coincides with the emergence of Homo sapiens sapiens during the Middle Pleistocene suggesting that early humans may have been susceptible hosts for the ancestral HTLV-4.The inferred ancient origin of HTLV-4 coinciding with the appearance of Homo sapiens, the propensity of STLVs to cross-species into humans, the fact that HTLV-1 and -2 spread globally following migrations of ancient populations, all suggest that HTLV-4 may be prevalent. Expanded surveillance and clinical studies are needed to better define the epidemiology and public health importance of HTLV-4 infection.
Project description:A third type of primate T-lymphotropic virus, PTLV-L, with STLV-PH969 as a prototype, has recently been isolated from an African baboon (Papio hamadryas). Classification of this virus has been based on partial sequence analysis of cDNA from a virus-producing cell line, PH969. We obtained the complete nucleotide sequence of this virus with a proviral genome of 8,916 bp. All major genes, homologous in all human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-related viruses, and their corresponding mRNAs, including appropriate splicing, were identified. One additional nonhomologous open reading frame in the proximal pX region is accessible for translation through alternative splicing. Sequence comparison shows that STLV-PH969 is equidistantly related to HTLV type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2. In all coding regions, the similarity tends to be the lowest between STLV-PH969 and HTLV-1. However, in the long terminal repeat (LTR) region, the lowest similarity was found between STLV-PH969 and HTLV-2. The U3-R and R-U5 boundaries of the STLV-PH969 LTR were experimentally determined at nucleotides 268 and 524, respectively. This 695-bp LTR is 60 and 73 bp shorter than the LTRs of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, respectively, but its general organization is similar to the one found in the HTLV-bovine leukemia virus genus. In the long region between the polyadenylation signal and the poly(A) site, sequence similarity with the HTLV-1 Rex-responsive element (RexRE) core and secondary structure prediction suggest the presence of a RexRE. The presence of three 21-bp repeats is conserved within the U3 region of HTLV-1, HTLV-2, and BLV. Only two direct repeats with similarity to these Tax-responsive elements were found in the STLV-PH969 LTR, which might suggest differences in the Tax-mediated transactivation of this virus. We conclude that STLV-PH969 has all the genes and genomic regions to suggest a replication cycle comparable to that of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2.
Project description:Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) p12I localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi causing sustained release of calcium, T cell activation, and enhanced expression of several calcium-regulated genes. In recent microarray studies, p300 mRNA was increased in T cells expressing p12I. The co-activator p300 is a key regulator of cellular and viral transcription; however, factors that influence its transcriptional regulation are less well studied. We hypothesized that the transcription of p300 is calcium dependent and that sustained low magnitude increases in intracellular calcium may enhance the transcription of p300. Herein, we report enhanced expression of p300 in T cells by p12I in a calcium-dependent, but calcineurin-independent manner. Sustained low magnitude calcium release induced by ionomycin in T cells was sufficient to increased mRNA and protein levels of p300 resulting in enhanced transcription from a p300-dependent promoter. Promoter analysis of the p300 gene was used to predict calcium-responsive transcription factor binding sites. Using mutant forms of p12I, we demonstrate that ER localization of the viral protein is required to increase p300. In addition, p12I reversed the repression of HTLV-1 LTR-driven transcription by HTLV-1 p30II, a p300-binding protein. HTLV-1 p12I-mediated enhancement of p300 expression represents a novel mechanism of regulation of cellular gene expression by viral proteins. By targeting a ubiquitous second messenger such as calcium, HTLV-1 p12I may regulate the expression of the cellular transcriptional co-activator p300 to modulate viral gene expression and promote lymphocyte survival.
Project description:Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5%) has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both). Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46) of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD). LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.
Project description:The expression of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is activated by interaction of a viral transactivator protein, Tax, and cellular transcription factor, CREB (cyclic AMP response element binding protein), which bind to a 21-bp enhancer in the long terminal repeats (LTR). THP (Tax-helping protein) was previously determined to enhance the transactivation by Tax protein. Here we report novel forms of the human homolog of a member of the Gli oncogene family, Gli2 (also termed Gli2/THP), an extended form of a zinc finger protein, THP, which was described previously. Four possible isoforms (hGli2 alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) are formed by combinations of two independent alternative splicings, and all the isoforms could bind to a DNA motif, TRE2S, in the LTR. The longer isoforms, alpha and beta, were abundantly expressed in various cell lines including HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Fusion proteins of the hGli2 isoforms with the DNA-binding domain of Gal4 activated transcription when the reporter contained a Gal4-binding site and one copy of the 21-bp sequence, to which CREB binds. This activation was observed only in the presence of Tax. The 21-bp sequence in the reporter was also essential for the activation. These results suggest that simultaneous binding of hGli2 and CREB to the respective sites in the reporter seems to be critical for Tax protein to activate transcription. Consequently, it is probable that the LTR can be regulated by two independent signals through hGli2 and CREB, since the LTR contains the 21-bp and TRE2S sequences in the vicinity.