Endogenous DNA double-strand breaks: production, fidelity of repair, and induction of cancer.
ABSTRACT: This article extends our previous quantitative analysis of the relationship between the dynamics of the primary structure of DNA and mutagenesis associated with single-strand lesions to an analysis of the production and processing of endogenous double-strand breaks (EDSBs) and to their implications for oncogenesis. We estimate that in normal human cells approximately 1% of single-strand lesions are converted to approximately 50 EDSBs per cell per cell cycle. This number is similar to that for EDSBs produced by 1.5-2.0 Gy of sparsely ionizing radiation. Although EDSBs are usually repaired with high fidelity, errors in their repair contribute significantly to the rate of cancer in humans. The doubling dose for induced DSBs is similar to doubling doses for mutation and for the induction of carcinomas by ionizing radiation. We conclude that rates of production of EDSBs and of ensuing spontaneous mitotic recombination events can account for a substantial fraction of the earliest oncogenic events in human carcinomas.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks are particularly deleterious lesions that can lead to genomic instability and cell death. We investigated the SOS response to double-strand breaks in both Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. In E. coli, double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation resulted in SOS induction in virtually every cell. E. coli strains incapable of SOS induction were sensitive to ionizing radiation. In striking contrast, we found that in B. subtilis both ionizing radiation and a site-specific double-strand break causes induction of prophage PBSX and SOS gene expression in only a small subpopulation of cells. These results show that double-strand breaks provoke global SOS induction in E. coli but not in B. subtilis. Remarkably, RecA-GFP focus formation was nearly identical following ionizing radiation challenge in both E. coli and B. subtilis, demonstrating that formation of RecA-GFP foci occurs in response to double-strand breaks but does not require or result in SOS induction in B. subtilis. Furthermore, we found that B. subtilis cells incapable of inducing SOS had near wild-type levels of survival in response to ionizing radiation. Moreover, B. subtilis RecN contributes to maintaining low levels of SOS induction during double-strand break repair. Thus, we found that the contribution of SOS induction to double-strand break repair differs substantially between E. coli and B. subtilis.
Project description:Without exposure to any DNA-damaging agents, non-dividing eukaryotic cells carry endogenous DNA double-strand breaks (EDSBs), or Replication-Independent (RIND)-EDSBs. In human cells, RIND-EDSBs are enriched in the methylated heterochromatic areas of the genome and are repaired by an ATM-dependent non-homologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ). Here, we showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae similarly possess RIND-EDSBs. Various levels of EDSBs were detected during different phases of the cell cycle, including G0. Using a collection of mutant yeast strains, we investigated various DNA metabolic and DNA repair pathways that might be involved in the maintenance of RIND-EDSB levels. We found that the RIND-EDSB levels increased significantly in yeast strains lacking proteins involved in NHEJ DNA repair and in suppression of heterochromatin formation. RIND-EDSB levels were also upregulated when genes encoding histone deacetylase, endonucleases, topoisomerase, and DNA repair regulators were deleted. In contrast, RIND-EDSB levels were downregulated in the mutants that lack chromatin-condensing proteins, such as the high-mobility group box proteins, and Sir2. Likewise, RIND-EDSB levels were also decreased in human cells lacking HMGB1. Therefore, we conclude that the genomic levels of RIND-EDSBs are evolutionally conserved, dynamically regulated, and may be influenced by genome topology, chromatin structure, and the efficiency of DNA repair systems.
Project description:Reduction of physiologic replication-independent endogenous DNA double strand breaks (Phy-RIND-EDSBs) in chronological aging yeast increases pathologic RIND-EDSBs (Path-RIND-EDSBs). Path-RIND-EDSBs can occur spontaneously in non-dividing cells without any inductive agents, and they must be repaired immediately otherwise their accumulation can lead to senescence. If yeasts have DSB repair defect, retention of Path-RIND-EDSBs can be found. Previously, we found that Path-RIND-EDSBs are not only produced but also retained in chronological aging yeast. Here, we evaluated if chronological aging yeasts have a DSB repair defect. We found a significant accumulation of Path-RIND-EDSBs around the same level in aging cells and caffeine treated cells and at a much higher level in the DSB repair mutant cells. Especially in the mutant, some unknown sequence was found inserted at the breaks. In addition, % difference of cell viability between HO induced and non-induced cells was significantly greater in aging cells. Our results suggested that RIND-EDSBs repair efficiency declines, but is not absent, in chronological aging yeast which might promote senescence phenotype. When a repair protein is deficient, an alternative pathway might be employed or an end modification process might occur as inserted sequences at the breaks were observed. Restoring repair defects might slow down the deterioration of cells from chronological aging.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Replication-independent endogenous double-strand breaks (RIND-EDSBs) occur in both humans and yeast in the absence of inductive agents and DNA replication. In human cells, RIND-EDSBs are hypermethylated, preferentially retained in the heterochromatin and unbound by ?-H2AX. In single gene deletion yeast strains, the RIND-EDSB levels are altered; the number of RIND-EDSBs is higher in strains with deletions of histone deacetylase, endonucleases, topoisomerase, or DNA repair regulators, but lower in strains with deletions of the high-mobility group box proteins or Sir2. In summary, RIND-EDSBs are different from pathologic DSBs in terms of their causes and consequences. In this study, we identified the nucleotide sequences surrounding RIND-EDSBs and investigated the features of these sequences as well as their break locations. RESULTS: In recent work, we detected RIND-EDSBs using ligation mediated PCR. In this study, we sequenced RIND-EDSB PCR products of resting state Saccharomyces cerevisiae using next-generation sequencing to analyze RIND-EDSB sequences. We found that the break locations are scattered across a number of chromosomes. The number of breaks correlated with the size of the chromosomes. Most importantly, the break occurrences had sequence pattern specificity. Specifically, the majority of the breaks occurred immediately after the sequence "ACGT" (P = 2.2E-156). Because the "ACGT" sequence does not occur primarily in the yeast genome, this specificity of the "ACGT" sequence cannot be attributed to chance. CONCLUSIONS: RIND-EDSBs occur non-randomly; that is, they are produced and retained by specific mechanisms. Because these particular mechanisms regulate their generation and they possess potentially specific functions, RIND-EDSBs could be epigenetic marks.
Project description:Clustered DNA damage sites, in which two or more lesions are formed within a few helical turns of the DNA after passage of a single radiation track, are signatures of DNA modifications induced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. Mutant hamster cells (xrs-5), deficient in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), were irradiated at 37 degrees C to determine whether any additional double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed during processing of gamma-radiation-induced DNA clustered damage sites. A class of non-DSB clustered DNA damage, corresponding to approximately 30% of the initial yield of DSBs, is converted into DSBs reflecting an artefact of preparation of genomic DNA for pulsed field gel electrophoresis. These clusters are removed within 4 min in both NHEJ-deficient and wild-type CHO cells. In xrs-5 cells, a proportion of non-DSB clustered DNA damage, representing approximately 10% of the total yield of non-DSB clustered DNA damage sites, are also converted into DSBs within approximately 30 min post-gamma but not post-alpha irradiation through cellular processing at 37 degrees C. That the majority of radiation-induced non-DSB clustered DNA damage sites are resistant to conversion into DSBs may be biologically significant at environmental levels of radiation exposure, as a non-DSB clustered damage site rather than a DSB, which only constitutes a minor proportion, is more likely to be induced in irradiated cells.
Project description:DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are highly cytotoxic lesions that are generated by ionizing radiation and various DNA-damaging chemicals. Following DSB formation, cells activate the DNA-damage response (DDR) protein kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK (also known as PRKDC). These then trigger histone H2AX (also known as H2AFX) phosphorylation and the accumulation of proteins such as MDC1, 53BP1 (also known as TP53BP1), BRCA1, CtIP (also known as RBBP8), RNF8 and RNF168/RIDDLIN into ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) that amplify DSB signalling and promote DSB repair. Attachment of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) to target proteins controls diverse cellular functions. Here, we show that SUMO1, SUMO2 and SUMO3 accumulate at DSB sites in mammalian cells, with SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 accrual requiring the E3 ligase enzymes PIAS4 and PIAS1. We also establish that PIAS1 and PIAS4 are recruited to damage sites via mechanisms requiring their SAP domains, and are needed for the productive association of 53BP1, BRCA1 and RNF168 with such regions. Furthermore, we show that PIAS1 and PIAS4 promote DSB repair and confer ionizing radiation resistance. Finally, we establish that PIAS1 and PIAS4 are required for effective ubiquitin-adduct formation mediated by RNF8, RNF168 and BRCA1 at sites of DNA damage. These findings thus identify PIAS1 and PIAS4 as components of the DDR and reveal how protein recruitment to DSB sites is controlled by coordinated SUMOylation and ubiquitylation.
Project description:The RNA-guided DNA endonuclease Cas9 is a powerful tool for genome editing. Little is known about the kinetics and fidelity of the double-strand break (DSB) repair process that follows a Cas9 cutting event in living cells. Here, we developed a strategy to measure the kinetics of DSB repair for single loci in human cells. Quantitative modeling of repaired DNA in time series after Cas9 activation reveals variable and often slow repair rates, with half-life times up to ?10 hr. Furthermore, repair of the DSBs tends to be error prone. Both classical and microhomology-mediated end joining pathways contribute to the erroneous repair. Estimation of their individual rate constants indicates that the balance between these two pathways changes over time and can be altered by additional ionizing radiation. Our approach provides quantitative insights into DSB repair kinetics and fidelity in single loci and indicates that Cas9-induced DSBs are repaired in an unusual manner.
Project description:The global use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is constantly growing and the field strengths increasing. Yet, only little data about harmful biological effects caused by MRI exposure are available and published research analyzing the impact of MRI on DNA integrity reported controversial results. This in vitro study aimed to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of 7 T ultra-high-field MRI on isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hence, unstimulated mononuclear blood cells were exposed to 7 T static magnetic field alone or in combination with maximum permissible imaging gradients and radiofrequency pulses as well as to ionizing radiation during computed tomography and ?-ray exposure. DNA double-strand breaks were quantified by flow cytometry and automated microscopy analysis of immunofluorescence stained ?H2AX. Cytotoxicity was studied by CellTiter-Blue viability assay and [3H]-thymidine proliferation assay. Exposure of unstimulated mononuclear blood cells to 7 T static magnetic field alone or combined with varying gradient magnetic fields and pulsed radiofrequency fields did not induce DNA double-strand breaks, whereas irradiation with X- and ?-rays led to a dose-dependent induction of ?H2AX foci. The viability assay revealed a time- and dose-dependent decrease in metabolic activity only among samples exposed to ?-radiation. Further, there was no evidence for altered proliferation response after cells were exposed to 7 T MRI or low doses of ionizing radiation (? 0.2 Gy). These findings confirm the acceptance of MRI as a safe non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool, but whether MRI can induce other types of DNA lesions or DNA double-strand breaks during altered conditions still needs to be investigated.
Project description:Double-strand breaks (DSBs) in heterochromatic repetitive DNAs pose significant threats to genome integrity, but information about how such lesions are processed and repaired is sparse. We observe dramatic expansion and dynamic protrusions of the heterochromatin domain in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in Drosophila cells. We also find that heterochromatic DSBs are repaired by homologous recombination (HR) but with striking differences from euchromatin. Proteins involved in early HR events (resection) are rapidly recruited to DSBs within heterochromatin. In contrast, Rad51, which mediates strand invasion, only associates with DSBs that relocalize outside of the domain. Heterochromatin expansion and relocalization of foci require checkpoint and resection proteins. Finally, the Smc5/6 complex is enriched in heterochromatin and is required to exclude Rad51 from the domain and prevent abnormal recombination. We propose that the spatial and temporal control of DSB repair in heterochromatin safeguards genome stability by preventing aberrant exchanges between repeats.
Project description:Exposure to ionizing radiation can produce multiple, clustered oxidative lesions in DNA. The near simultaneous excision of nearby lesions in opposing DNA strands by the base excision repair (BER) enzymes can produce double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). This attempted BER accounts for many of the potentially lethal or mutagenic DSBs that occur in vivo. To assess the impact of nucleosomes on the frequency and pattern of BER-dependent DSB formation, we incubated nucleosomes containing oxidative damages in opposing DNA strands with selected DNA glycosylases and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1. Overall, nucleosomes substantially suppressed DSB formation. However, the degree of suppression varied as a function of (i) the lesion type and DNA glycosylase tested, (ii) local sequence context and the stagger between opposing strand lesions, (iii) the helical orientation of oxidative lesions relative to the underlying histone octamer, and (iv) the distance between the lesion cluster and the nucleosome edge. In some instances the binding of a BER factor to one nucleosomal lesion appeared to facilitate binding to the opposing strand lesion. DSB formation did not invariably lead to nucleosome dissolution, and in some cases, free DNA ends resulting from DSB formation remained associated with the histone octamer. These observations explain how specific structural and dynamic properties of nucleosomes contribute to the suppression of BER-generated DSBs. These studies also suggest that most BER-generated DSBs will occur in linker DNA and in genomic regions associated with elevated rates of nucleosome turnover or remodeling.