Identification of nine sequence types of the 16S rRNA genes of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated from broilers.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Campylobacter is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of enteritis in humans in the EU Member States and other industrialized countries. One significant source of infection is broilers and consumption of undercooked broiler meat. Campylobacter jejuni is the Campylobacter sp. predominantly found in infected humans and colonized broilers. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene is very useful for identification of bacteria to genus and species level. The objectives in this study were to determine the degree of intraspecific variation in the 16S rRNA genes of C. jejuni and C. coli and to determine whether the 16S rRNA sequence types correlated with genotypes generated by PFGE analysis of SmaI restricted genomic DNA of the strains. METHODS: The 16S rRNA genes of 45 strains of C. jejuni and two C. coli strains isolated from broilers were sequenced and compared with 16S rRNA sequences retrieved from the Ribosomal Database Project or GenBank. The strains were also genotyped by PFGE after digestion with SmaI. RESULTS: Sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes revealed nine sequence types of the Campylobacter strains and the similarities between the different sequence types were in the range 99.6-99.9%. The number of nucleotide substitutions varied between one and six among the nine 16S rRNA sequence types. One of the nine 16S rRNA sequence profiles was common to 12 of the strains from our study and two of these were identified as Campylobacter coli by PCR/REA. The other 10 strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni. Five of the nine sequence types were also found among the Campylobacter sequences deposited in GenBank. The three 16S rRNA genes in the analysed strains were identical within each individual strain for all 47 strains. CONCLUSION: C. jejuni and C. coli seem to lack polymorphisms in their 16S rRNA gene, but phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequences was not always sufficient for differentiation between C. jejuni and C. coli. The strains were grouped in two major clusters according to 16S rRNA, one cluster with only C. jejuni and the other with both C. jejuni and C. coli. Genotyping of the 47 strains by PFGE after digestion with SmaI resulted in 22 subtypes. A potential correlation was found between the SmaI profiles and the 16S rRNA sequences, as a certain SmaI type only appeared in one of the two major phylogenetic groups.
Project description:We describe a molecular subtyping scheme for two principal O (heat-stable [HS]) serotypes of Campylobacter jejuni, HS1 and the HS4 complex. A 16S rRNA gene-specific probe confirmed that almost all the C. jejuni strains had three copies of this gene, and strains could be assigned with complete typeability to 1 of 16 combined (Pst1 and HaeIII) 16S ribotypes. Macrorestriction profiles (mrps) consisting of up to 10 SmaI fragments from approximately 40 to approximately 480 kbp were resolved by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). There were 11 mrps among the HS1 strains and 9 mrps among HS4 strains which corresponded to valid types--they occurred in multiple isolates, hosts, places, and times. There were 14 additional single-strain mrp fingerprints in HS1 and 20 in HS4. PFGE exhibited complete typeability when formaldehyde fixation of cells was employed, and PFGE was generally more differential than ribotyping. The data presented elucidate a high-resolution genotypic subtyping scheme for these common subspecific phenotypes of C. jejuni, which is both coherent and efficient for epidemiological purposes.
Project description:To overcome some of the deficiencies with current molecular typing schema for Campylobacter spp., we developed a prototype PCR binary typing (P-BIT) approach. We investigated the distribution of 68 gene targets in 58 Campylobacter jejuni strains, one Campylobacter lari strain, and two Campylobacter coli strains for this purpose. Gene targets were selected on the basis of distribution in multiple genomes or plasmids, and known or putative status as an epidemicity factor. Strains were examined with Penner serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE; using SmaI and KpnI enzymes), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) approaches for comparison. P-BIT provided 100% typeability for strains and gave a diversity index of 98.5%, compared with 97.0% for SmaI PFGE, 99.4% for KpnI PFGE, 96.1% for MLST, and 92.8% for serotyping. Numerical analysis of the P-BIT data clearly distinguished strains of the three Campylobacter species examined and correlated somewhat with MLST clonal complex assignations and with previous classifications of "high" and "low" risk. We identified 18 gene targets that conferred the same level of discrimination as the 68 initially examined. We conclude that P-BIT is a useful approach for subtyping, offering advantages of speed, cost, and potential for strain risk ranking unavailable from current molecular typing schema for Campylobacter spp.
Project description:Campylobacter is a zoonotic pathogen that causes foodborne diarrheal illness globally. To better understand health risks in Southeastern China, Campylobacter spp. were surveyed in humans and representative poultry products over 3 years. One hundred and ninety-five representative isolates (n = 148, Campylobacter jejuni; n = 45, Campylobacter coli; n = 2 Campylobacter hyointestinalis) were examined for genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility. Nearly all Campylobacter isolates (99.0%, 193/195) were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 45.6% (89/195) of the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. Genotypic analysis revealed high diversity among tested strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) displayed 120 sequence types (STs) including 42 novel STs being added to the PubMLST international database. Sixty-two STs belonged to 16 previously characterized clonal complexes (CCs), of which CC-21, CC-45, CC-464, CC-574, CC-353, and CC-828 were most frequently identified. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting resulted in 66 PFGE SmaI patterns among the 125 isolates, with eight patterns shared between human and poultry sources. Subtyping data did not correlate with antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Taken together, this large-scale surveillance study highlights high antimicrobial resistance and molecular features of Campylobacter isolates in Southeastern China.
Project description:We present an optimized multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme with universal primer sets for amplifying and sequencing the seven target genes of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Typing was expanded by sequence determination of the genes flaA and flaB using optimized primer sets. This approach is compatible with the MLST and flaA schemes used in the PubMLST database and results in an additional typing method using the flaB gene sequence. An identification module based on the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes was included, as well as the genetic determination of macrolide and quinolone resistances based on mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes. Experimental procedures were simplified by multiplex PCR of the 13 target genes. This comprehensive approach was evaluated with C. jejuni and C. coli isolates collected in Switzerland. MLST of 329 strains resulted in 72 sequence types (STs) among the 186 C. jejuni strains and 39 STs for the 143 C. coli isolates. Fourteen (19%) of the C. jejuni and 20 (51%) of the C. coli STs had not been found previously. In total, 35% of the C. coli strains collected in Switzerland contained mutations conferring antibiotic resistance only to quinolone, 15% contained mutations conferring resistance only to macrolides, and 6% contained mutations conferring resistance to both classes of antibiotics. In C. jejuni, these values were 31% and 0% for quinolone and macrolide resistance, respectively. The rpoB sequence allowed phylogenetic differentiation between C. coli and C. jejuni, which was not possible by 16S rRNA gene analysis. An online Integrated Database Network System (SmartGene, Zug, Switzerland)-based platform for MLST data analysis specific to Campylobacter was implemented. This Web-based platform allowed automated allele and ST designation, as well as epidemiological analysis of data, thus streamlining and facilitating the analysis workflow. Data networking facilitates the exchange of information between collaborating centers. The described approach simplifies and improves the genotyping of Campylobacter, allowing cost- and time-efficient routine monitoring.
Project description:The phylogeny of 12 Campylobacter species and reference strains of Arcobacter butzleri and Helicobacter pylori was studied based on partial 593-bp groEL gene sequences. The topology of the phylogenetic neighbor-joining tree based on the groEL gene was similar to that of the tree based on the 16S rRNA gene. However, groEL was found to provide a better resolution for Campylobacter species, with lower interspecies sequence similarities (range, 65 to 94%) compared with those for the 16S rRNA gene (range, 90 to 99%) and high intraspecies sequence similarities (range, 95 to 100%; average, 99%). A new universal reverse primer that amplifies a 517-bp fragment of the groEL gene was developed and used for PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of 68 strains representing 11 Campylobacter species as well as reference strains of A. butzlerii and H. pylori. Digestion with the AluI enzyme discriminated all Campylobacter species included in the study but showed more intraspecies diversity than digestion with the ApoI enzyme. A hippurate-negative variant of Campylobacter jejuni with a high level of groEL sequence similarity to both C. jejuni (96%) and C. coli (94%) gave a unique AluI profile and an ApoI profile identical to those of other C. jejuni strains. In conclusion, groEL gene sequencing and PCR-RFLP analysis are recommended as valuable tools for the identification of Campylobacter species.
Project description:To obtain genetic information about Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from broilers and carcasses at slaughterhouses, we analyzed and compared 340 isolates that were collected in 2008 from the cecum right after slaughter or from the neck skin after processing. We performed rpoB sequence-based identification, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and flaB sequence-based typing; we additionally analyzed mutations within the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes that confer resistance to macrolide and quinolone antibiotics, respectively. The rpoB-based identification resulted in a distribution of 72.0% C. jejuni and 28.0% C. coli. The MLST analysis revealed that there were 59 known sequence types (STs) and 6 newly defined STs. Most of the STs were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CC) that are typical for poultry (CC21, CC45, CC257, and CC828), and these represented 61.8% of all of the investigated isolates. The analysis of 95 isolates from the cecum and from the corresponding carcass neck skin covered 44 different STs, and 54.7% of the pairs had matching genotypes. The data indicate that cross-contamination from various sources during slaughter may occur, although the majority of Campylobacter contamination on carcasses appeared to originate from the slaughtered flock itself. Mutations in the 23S rRNA gene were found in 3.1% of C. coli isolates, although no mutations were found in C. jejuni isolates. Mutations in the gyrA gene were observed in 18.9% of C. jejuni and 26.8% of C. coli isolates, which included two C. coli strains that carried mutations conferring resistance to both classes of antibiotics. A relationship between specific genotypes and antibiotic resistance/susceptibility was observed.
Project description:Species-specific identification of campylobacters is problematic, primarily due to the absence of suitable biochemical assays and the existence of atypical strains. 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA)-based identification of bacteria offers a possible alternative when phenotypic tests fail. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of 16S rDNA sequencing for the species-specific identification of campylobacters. Sequence analyses were performed by using almost 94% of the complete 16S rRNA genes of 135 phenotypically characterized Campylobacter strains, including all known taxa of this genus. It was shown that 16S rDNA analysis enables specific identification of most Campylobacter species. The exception was a lack of discrimination among the taxa Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli and atypical C. lari strains, which shared identical or nearly identical 16S rDNA sequences. Subsequently, it was investigated whether partial 16S rDNA sequences are sufficient to determine species identity. Sequence alignments led to the identification of four 16S rDNA regions with high degrees of interspecies variation but with highly conserved sequence patterns within the respective species. A simple protocol based on the analysis of these sequence patterns was developed, which enabled the unambiguous identification of the majority of Campylobacter species. We recommend 16S rDNA sequence analysis as an effective, rapid procedure for the specific identification of campylobacters.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence of a 23S rRNA gene of Campylobacter coli VC167 was determined. The primary sequence of the C. coli 23S rRNA was deduced, and a secondary-structure model was constructed. Comparison with Escherichia coli 23S rRNA showed a major difference in the C. coli rRNA at approximately position 1170 (E. coli numbering) in the form of an extra sequence block approximately 147 bp long. PCR analysis of 31 other strains of C. coli and C. jejuni showed that 69% carried a transcribed spacer of either ca. 147 or ca. 37 bp. Comparison of all sequenced Campylobacter transcribed spacers showed that the Campylobacter inserts were related in sequence and percent G+C content. All Campylobacter strains carrying transcribed spacers in their 23S rRNA genes produced fragmented 23S rRNAs. Other strains which produced unfragmented 23S rRNAs did not appear to carry transcribed spacers at this position in their 23S rRNA genes. At the 1850 region (E. coli numbering), Campylobacter 23S rRNA displayed a base pairing signature most like that of the beta and gamma subdivisions of the class Proteobacteria, but in the 270 region, Campylobacter 23S rRNA displayed a helix signature which distinguished it from the alpha, beta, and gamma subdivisions. Phylogenetic analysis comparing C. coli VC167 23S rRNA and a C. jejuni TGH9011 (ATCC 43431) 23S rRNA with 53 other completely sequenced (eu)bacterial 23S rRNAs showed that the two campylobacters form a sister group to the alpha, beta, and gamma proteobacterial 23S rRNAs, a positioning consistent with the idea that the genus Campylobacter belongs to the epsilon subdivision of the class Proteobacteria.
Project description:Since cattle are a major source of food and the cattle industry engages people from farms to processing plants and meat markets, it is conceivable that beef-products contaminated with Campylobacter spp. would pose a significant public health concern. To better understand the epidemiology of cattle-associated Campylobacter spp. in the USA, we characterized the prevalence, genotypic and phenotypic properties of these pathogens. Campylobacter were detected in 181 (19.2%) out of 944 fecal samples. Specifically, 71 C. jejuni, 132 C. coli, and 10 other Campylobacter spp. were identified. The prevalence of Campylobacter varied regionally and was significantly (P<0.05) higher in fecal samples collected from the South (32.8%) as compared to those from the North (14.8%), Midwest (15.83%), and East (12%). Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that C. jejuni and C. coli isolates were genotypically diverse and certain genotypes were shared across two or more of the geographic locations. In addition, 13 new C. jejuni and two C. coli sequence types (STs) were detected by Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). C. jejuni associated with clinically human health important sequence type, ST-61 which was not previously reported in the USA, was identified in the present study. Most frequently observed clonal complexes (CC) were CC ST-21, CC ST-42, and CC ST-61, which are also common in humans. Further, the cattle associated C. jejuni strains showed varying invasion and intracellular survival capacity; however, C. coli strains showed a lower invasion and intracellular survival potential compared to C. jejuni strains. Furthermore, many cattle associated Campylobacter isolates showed resistance to several antimicrobials including ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and gentamicin. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of cattle as a potential reservoir for clinically important Campylobacter.
Project description:Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has been proven useful for the study of the global population structure of Campylobacter jejuni; however, its usefulness for the investigation of outbreaks of disease caused by C. jejuni has not been proven. In this study, MLST plus sequencing of the flaA short variable region (SVR) were applied to 47 isolates from 12 outbreaks of C. jejuni infection whose relatedness has been determined previously, and the results were compared to those of serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates implicated in an outbreak were indistinguishable by all four subtyping methods, with sporadic isolates being distinguished from outbreak isolates. Two sporadic isolates from one outbreak were resistant to SmaI digestion and therefore nontypeable by PFGE but were differentiated from the outbreak strain by the other methods. PFGE and flaA SVR typing were the most discriminatory methods, with discriminatory indices (DI) of 0.930 and 0.923, respectively. However, an epidemic strain from one outbreak was distinguished from the other outbreak isolates by flaA SVR typing; its flaA allele was different at five nucleotides, suggesting that this change was possibly mediated by recombination. MLST was less discriminatory than PFGE and flaA SVR typing (DI = 0.859), and many of the epidemic strains possessed common sequence types (STs) including ST-8, -21, -22, and -42. However, further discrimination within STs was achieved by flaA SVR typing or PFGE. The results from this study demonstrate that a combined approach of MLST plus flaA SVR typing provides a level of discrimination equivalent to PFGE for outbreak investigations.