Genetic screening reveals an essential role of p27kip1 in restriction of breast cancer progression.
ABSTRACT: The genetic changes and mechanisms underlying the progression of estrogen-dependent breast cancers to estrogen-independent, antiestrogen-resistant, and metastatic breast cancers are unclear despite being a major problem in endocrine therapy. To identify genes responsible for this progression, we carried out a genetic screening by an enhanced retroviral mutagen (ERM)-mediated random mutagenesis in the estrogen-dependent T47D breast cancer cells. We found that T47D cells contain only one p27kip1 (p27) allele coding for the p27 cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor. An ERM insertion into the p27 locus of T47D cells disrupted the p27 gene and created estrogen-independent and antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells that still maintained functional estrogen receptors. Disruption of p27 in T47D cells resulted in several changes, and most of these changes could be rescued by p27 restoration. First, CDK2 activity was increased in the absence of estrogen or in the presence of estrogen antagonists tamoxifen or ICI 182780; second, amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1), a cancer overexpressed transcriptional coactivator, was hyperphosphorylated, which made AIB1 a better coactivator for E2F1; and third, growth factor receptor binding protein 2-associated binder 2 (Gab2) and Akt activity were increased following E2F1 overactivation, leading to a significant enhancement of cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the p27-deficient cells, but not T47D control cells, developed lung metastasis in an ovarian hormone-independent manner when they were i.v. injected into nude mice. In sum, loss of p27 activated AIB1, E2F1, Gab2, and Akt; increased cell migration and invasion; caused antiestrogen insensitivity; and promoted metastasis of breast cancer cells. These findings suggest that p27 plays an essential role in restriction of breast cancer progression.
Project description:Transcription of the HER2 oncogene can be repressed by estrogen (E2). We now show that, a splice isoform of the nuclear receptor coactivator AIB1, AIB1-?4, is able to reverse E2 repression of HER2 gene expression in breast cancer cells. The first 224 amino acids of AIB1 that are absent in AIB1-?4, bind a co-repressor, ANCO1. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay approaches in MCF7 and BT474 cell lines, we demonstrate that AIB1 and AIB1-?4 can bind to the E2 regulatory site in the first intron of the HER2 gene, after E2 treatment, but only full-length AIB1 recruits ANCO1. Consistent with E2-induced chromatin repression, the AIB1-ANCO1 complex recruits HDAC3 and HDAC4 to the intronic estrogen response element and the proximal promoter acquires the repressive chromatin mark H3K9me3 and loses H3K4me1. In contrast, AIB1-?4 does not recruit ANCO 1, HDAC3, or HDAC4 and the proximal promoter retains activation marks of H3K4me1. In cell lines with low levels of ANCO1 (T47D), E2 does not repress HER2 gene transcription but the repressive response can be restored by overexpression of ANCO1. ANCO1 can also repress other E2-responsive genes, indicating that AIB1, AIB1-?4 and ANCO1 are important determinants of endocrine and growth factor responsiveness in breast cancer.
Project description:The oncogene nuclear receptor coactivator amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancers, including breast cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AIB1 function remain largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that AIB1 is acetylated by MOF in human breast cancer cells. Moreover, we also found that the acetylation of AIB1 enhances its function in promoting breast cancer cell proliferation. We further showed that the acetylation of AIB1 is required for its recruitment to E2F1 target genes by E2F1. More importantly, we found that the acetylation levels of AIB1 are greatly elevated in human breast cancer cells compared with that in non-cancerous cells. Collectively, our results shed light on the molecular mechanisms that regulate AIB1 function in breast cancer.
Project description:The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data indicate that high MDM2 expression correlates with all subtypes of breast cancer. Overexpression of MDM2 drives breast oncogenesis in the presence of wild-type or mutant p53 (mtp53). Importantly, estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers overexpress MDM2 and estrogen mediates this expression. We previously demonstrated that this estrogen-MDM2 axis activates the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines T47D (mtp53 L194F) and MCF7 (wild-type p53) in a manner independent of increased degradation of wild-type p53 (ie, p53-independently). Herein we present data supporting the role of the estrogen-MDM2 axis in regulating cell proliferation and mammary tissue architecture of MCF7 and T47D cells in a p53-independent manner. Inducible shRNA mediated MDM2 knockdown inhibited colony formation in soft agar, decreased mass size and induced lumen formation in matrigel and also significantly reduced mitosis as seen by decreased phospho-histone H3 positive cells. The knockdown of MDM2 in both cell lines decreased Rb phosphorylation and the level of E2F1 protein. This signaling was through the estrogen receptor because fulvestrant (a selective estrogen receptor degrader) decreased MDM2 protein levels and decreased phosphorylation of Rb. Taken together these data indicate that in some ER+ breast cancers the estrogen-MDM2-Rb-E2F1 axis is a central hub for estrogen-mediated p53-independent signal transduction. This is the first indication that estrogen signaling utilizes the estrogen-MDM2 axis to provoke phosphorylation of Rb and increase E2F1 while promoting abnormal mammary architecture.
Project description:The majority of breast cancers express estrogen receptor ? (ER?), and most patients with ER?-positive breast cancer benefit from antiestrogen therapy. The ER?-modulator tamoxifen and ER?-downregulator fulvestrant are commonly employed antiestrogens. Antiestrogen resistance remains a clinical challenge, with few effective treatments available for patients with antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer. Hypoxia, which is intrinsic to most tumors, promotes aggressive disease, with the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF1 and HIF2 regulating cellular responses to hypoxia. Here, we show that the ER?-expressing breast cancer cells MCF-7, CAMA-1, and T47D are less sensitive to antiestrogens when hypoxic. Furthermore, protein and mRNA levels of HIF2?/HIF2A were increased in a panel of antiestrogen-resistant cells, and antiestrogen-exposure further increased HIF2? expression. Ectopic expression of HIF2? in MCF-7 cells significantly decreased sensitivity to antiestrogens, further implicating HIF2? in antiestrogen resistance. EGFR is known to contribute to antiestrogen resistance: we further show that HIF2? drives hypoxic induction of EGFR and that EGFR induces HIF2? expression. Downregulation or inhibition of EGFR led to decreased HIF2? levels. This positive and bilateral HIF2-EGFR regulatory crosstalk promotes antiestrogen resistance and, where intrinsic hypoxic resistance exists, therapy itself may exacerbate the problem. Finally, inhibition of HIFs by FM19G11 restores antiestrogen sensitivity in resistant cells. Targeting HIF2 may be useful for counteracting antiestrogen resistance in the clinic.
Project description:Estrogen signaling plays a critical role in a number of normal physiological processes and has important implications in the treatment of breast cancer. The p160 nuclear receptor coactivator, AIB1 (amplified in breast cancer 1), is frequently amplified and overexpressed in human breast cancer and has been shown to enhance estrogen-dependent transactivation.To better understand the molecular and physiological consequences of AIB1 overexpression in breast cancer cells, an AIB1 cDNA was transfected into the low AIB1 expressing, estrogen-receptor (ER) negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-436. The features of a derivative cell line, designated 436.1, which expresses high levels of AIB1, are described and compared with the parental cell line.A significant increase in the levels of CREB binding protein (CBP) was observed in 436.1 cells and immunofluorescent staining revealed altered AIB1 and CBP staining patterns compared to the parental cells. Further, transient transfection assays demonstrated that the overall estrogen-dependent transactivation in 436.1 cells is approximately 20-fold higher than the parental cells and the estrogen dose-response curve is repositioned to the right. Finally, cDNA microarray analysis of approximately 7,100 cDNAs identified a number of differentially expressed genes in the 436.1 cells.These observations lend insight into downstream signaling pathways that are influenced by AIB1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Control of mRNA translation is fundamentally altered in cancer. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling regulates key translation mediators to modulate protein synthesis (e.g. eIF4E, 4E-BP1, mTOR, and S6K1). Importantly the Amplified in Breast Cancer (AIB1) oncogene regulates transcription and is also a downstream mediator of IGF-I signaling. MATERIALS AND METHODS:To determine if AIB1 also affects mRNA translation, we conducted gain and loss of AIB1 function experiments in estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)(+) (MCF-7L) and ER?(-) (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and LCC6) breast cancer cells. RESULTS:AIB1 positively regulated IGF-I-induced mRNA translation in both ER?(+) and ER?(-) cells. Formation of the eIF4E-4E-BP1 translational complex was altered in the AIB1 ER?(+) and ER?(-) knockdown cells, leading to a reduction in the eIF4E/4E-BP1 and eIF4G/4E-BP1 ratios. In basal and IGF-I stimulated MCF-7 and LCC6 cells, knockdown of AIB1 decreased the integrity of the cap-binding complex, reduced global IGF-I stimulated polyribosomal mRNA recruitment with a concomitant decrease in ten of the thirteen genes tested in polysome-bound mRNAs mapping to proliferation, cell cycle, survival, transcription, translation and ribosome biogenesis ontologies. Specifically, knockdown of AIB1 decreased ribosome-bound mRNA and steady-state protein levels of the transcription factors ER? and E2F1 in addition to reduced ribosome-bound mRNA of the ribosome biogenesis factor BYSL in a cell-line specific manner to regulate mRNA translation. CONCLUSION:The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation.
Project description:Clinical observations have revealed a strong association between estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)-positive tumors and the development of bone metastases, however, the mechanism underlying this association remains unknown. We cultured MCF-7 (ER?-positive) on different rigidity substrates. Compared with cells grown on more rigid substrates (100 kPa), cells grown on soft substrates (10 kPa) exhibited reduced spreading ability, a lower ratio of cells in the S and G2/M cell cycle phases, and a decreased proliferation rate. Using stable isotope labeling by amino acids (SILAC), we further compared the whole proteome of MCF-7 cells grown on substrates of different rigidity (10 and 100 kPa), and found that the expression of eight members of chaperonin CCT increased by at least 2-fold in the harder substrate. CCT folding activity was increased in the hard substrate compared with the soft substrates. Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1), was identified in CCT immunoprecipitates. CCT folding ability of AIB1 increased on 100-kPa substrate compared with 10- and 30-kPa substrates. Moreover, using mammalian two-hybrid protein-protein interaction assays, we found that the polyglutamine repeat sequence of the AIB1 protein was essential for interaction between CCT? and AIB1. CCT?-mediated AIB1 folding affects the cell area spreading, growth rate, and cell cycle. The expressions of the c-myc, cyclin D1, and PgR genes were higher on hard substrates than on soft substrate in both MCF-7 and T47D cells. ER? and AIB1 could up-regulate the mRNA and protein expression levels of the c-myc, cyclin D1, and PgR genes, and that 17 ?-estradiol could enhance this effects. Conversely, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, could inhibit these effects. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that some ER?-positive breast cancer cells preferentially grow on more rigid substrates. CCT-mediated AIB1 folding appears to be involved in the rigidity response of breast cancer cells, which provides novel insight into the mechanisms of bone metastasis.
Project description:Fulvestrant is a representative pure antiestrogen and a Selective Estrogen Receptor Down-regulator (SERD). In contrast to the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) such as 4-hydroxytamoxifen that bind to estrogen receptor ? (ER?) as antagonists or partial agonists, fulvestrant causes proteasomal degradation of ER? protein, shutting down the estrogen signaling to induce proliferation arrest and apoptosis of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells. We performed genome-wide RNAi knockdown screenings for protein kinases required for fulvestrant-induced apoptosis of the MCF-7 estrogen-dependent human breast caner cells and identified the c-Src tyrosine kinase (CSK), a negative regulator of the oncoprotein c-Src and related protein tyrosine kinases, as one of the necessary molecules. Whereas RNAi knockdown of CSK in MCF-7 cells by shRNA-expressing lentiviruses strongly suppressed fulvestrant-induced cell death, CSK knockdown did not affect cytocidal actions of 4-hydroxytamoxifen or paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent. In the absence of CSK, fulvestrant-induced proteasomal degradation of ER? protein was suppressed in both MCF-7 and T47D estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells whereas the TP53-mutated T47D cells were resistant to the cytocidal action of fulvestrant in the presence or absence of CSK. MCF-7 cell sensitivities to fulvestrant-induced cell death or ER? protein degradation was not affected by small-molecular-weight inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase activity of c-Src, suggesting possible involvement of other signaling molecules in CSK-dependent MCF-7 cell death induced by fulvestrant. Our observations suggest the importance of CSK in the determination of cellular sensitivity to the cytocidal action of fulvestrant.
Project description:Outgrowth of metastases expressing ER? mutations Y537S and D538G is common after endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor ? (ER?) positive breast cancer. The effect of replacing wild type ER? in breast cancer cells with these mutations was unclear. We used the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system and homology directed repair to isolate and characterize 14 T47D cell lines in which ER?Y537S or ER?D538G replace one or both wild-type ER? genes. In 2-dimensional, and in quantitative anchorage-independent 3-dimensional cell culture, ER?Y537S and ER?D538G cells exhibited estrogen-independent growth. A progestin further increased their already substantial proliferation in micromolar 4-hydroxytamoxifen and fulvestrant/ICI 182,780 (ICI). Our recently described ER? biomodulator, BHPI, which hyperactivates the unfolded protein response (UPR), completely blocked proliferation. In ER?Y537S and ER?D538G cells, estrogen-ER? target genes were constitutively active and partially antiestrogen resistant. The UPR marker sp-XBP1 was constitutively activated in ER?Y537S cells and further induced by progesterone in both cell lines. UPR-regulated genes associated with tamoxifen resistance, including the oncogenic chaperone BiP/GRP78, were upregulated. ICI displayed a greater than 2 fold reduction in its ability to induce ER?Y537S and ER?D538G degradation. Progestins, UPR activation and perhaps reduced ICI-stimulated ER? degradation likely contribute to antiestrogen resistance seen in ER?Y537S and ER?D538G cells.
Project description:Breast cancer resistance to the antiestrogens tamoxifen (OHT) and fulvestrant is accompanied by alterations in both estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent signaling pathways. Consequently, effective inhibition of both pathways may be necessary to block proliferation of antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effects of apigenin, a dietary plant flavonoid with potential anticancer properties, on estrogen-responsive, antiestrogen-sensitive MCF7 breast cancer cells and two MCF7 sublines with acquired resistance to either OHT or fulvestrant. We found that apigenin can function as both an estrogen and an antiestrogen in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations (1 mumol/L), apigenin stimulated MCF7 cell growth but had no effect on the antiestrogen-resistant MCF7 sublines. In contrast, at high concentrations (>10 mumol/L), the drug inhibited growth of MCF7 cells and the antiestrogen-resistant sublines, and the combination of apigenin with either OHT or fulvestrant showed synergistic, growth-inhibitory effects on both antiestrogen-sensitive and antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer cells. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism of apigenin as either an estrogen or an antiestrogen, effects of the drug on estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha); transactivation activity, mobility, stability, and ERalpha-coactivator interactions were investigated. Low-dose apigenin enhanced receptor transcriptional activity by promoting interaction between ERalpha and its coactivator amplified in breast cancer-1. However, higher doses (>10 mumol/L) of apigenin inhibited ERalpha mobility (as determined by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assays), down-regulated ERalpha and amplified in breast cancer-1 expression levels, and inhibited multiple protein kinases, including p38, protein kinase A, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and AKT. Collectively, these results show that apigenin can function as both an antiestrogen and a protein kinase inhibitor with activity against breast cancer cells with acquired resistance to OHT or fulvestrant. We conclude that apigenin, through its ability to target both ERalpha-dependent and ERalpha-independent pathways, holds promise as a new therapeutic agent against antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer.