Mechanisms and consequences of small supernumerary marker chromosomes: from Barbara McClintock to modern genetic-counseling issues.
ABSTRACT: Supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) are common, but their molecular content and mechanism of origin are often not precisely characterized. We analyzed all centromere regions to identify the junction between the unique chromosome arm and the pericentromeric repeats. A molecular-ruler clone panel for each chromosome arm was developed and used for the design of a custom oligonucleotide array. Of 27 nonsatellited SMCs analyzed by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), seven (approximately 26%) were shown to be unique sequence negative. Of the 20 unique-sequence-positive SMCs, the average unique DNA content was approximately 6.5 Mb (range 0.3-22.2 Mb) and 33 known genes (range 0-149). Of the 14 informative nonacrocentric SMCs, five (approximately 36%) contained unique DNA from both the p and q arms, whereas nine (approximately 64%) contained unique DNA from only one arm. The latter cases are consistent with ring-chromosome formation by centromere misdivision, as first described by McClintock in maize. In one case, a r(4) containing approximately 4.4 Mb of unique DNA from 4p was also present in the proband's mother. However, FISH revealed a cryptic deletion in one chromosome 4 and reduced alpha satellite in the del(4) and r(4), indicating that the mother was a balanced ring and deletion carrier. Our data, and recent reports in the literature, suggest that this "McClintock mechanism" of small-ring formation might be the predominant mechanism of origin. Comprehensive analysis of SMCs by aCGH and FISH can distinguish unique-negative from unique-positive cases, determine the precise gene content, and provide information on mechanism of origin, inheritance, and recurrence risk.
Project description:Two minichromosomes (alpha and delta) in addition to two other aberrant chromosomes (beta and gamma) were found in a transgenic Arabidopsis plant produced by an in planta vacuum infiltration technique. The minichromosomes were successfully separated by successive crossing and selfing and added to wild-type Columbia (Col-0) as a supernumerary chromosome. FISH indicated that both of the two minichromosomes originated from the short arm of chromosome 2. The mini alpha chromosome contained the whole short-arm 2S and a truncated centromere (180-bp repeat cluster), whereas mini delta lacked the terminal region including telomere repeats. Pachytene FISH clearly revealed that mini delta comprised a ring chromosome carrying two copies of the region from the 180-bp repeat cluster to BAC-F3C11. Both of the 180-bp clusters (each approximately 500 kb in length) were thought to possess normal centromere functions because the centromere-specific histone H3 variant (HTR12) was detected on both clusters. Notwithstanding this dicentric and ring form, mini delta was stably transmitted to the next generations, perhaps because of its compact size (<4 Mb). Chromosome beta also comprised a dicentric-like structure, with one of the two 180-bp repeat sites derived from chromosome 1 and the other from chromosome 2. However, the latter was quite small and failed to bind HTR12. The data obtained in this study indicated that 500 kb of the 180-bp array of the chromosome 2 centromere, from the edge of the 180-bp array on the short-arm side, is sufficient to form a functional domain.
Project description:In situ detection of genomic alterations in cancer provides information at the single cell level, making it possible to investigate genomic changes in cells in a tissue context. Such topological information is important when studying intratumor heterogeneity as well as alterations related to different steps in tumor progression. We developed a quantitative multigene fluorescence in situ hybridization (QM FISH) method to detect multiple genomic regions in single cells in complex tissues. As a "proof of principle" we applied the method to breast cancer samples to identify partners in whole arm (WA) translocations. WA gain of chromosome arm 1q and loss of chromosome arm 16q are among the most frequent genomic events in breast cancer. By designing five specific FISH probes based on breakpoint information from comparative genomic hybridization array (aCGH) profiles, we visualized chromosomal translocations in clinical samples at the single cell level. By analyzing aCGH data from 295 patients with breast carcinoma with known molecular subtype, we found concurrent WA gain of 1q and loss of 16q to be more frequent in luminal A tumors compared to other molecular subtypes. QM FISH applied to a subset of samples (n = 26) identified a derivative chromosome der(1;16)(q10;p10), a result of a centromere-close translocation between chromosome arms 1q and 16p. In addition, we observed that the distribution of cells with the translocation varied from sample to sample, some had a homogenous cell population while others displayed intratumor heterogeneity with cell-to-cell variation. Finally, for one tumor with both preinvasive and invasive components, the fraction of cells with translocation was lower and more heterogeneous in the preinvasive tumor cells compared to the cells in the invasive component.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Integrated chromosome, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analyses have been effective in defining unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements. Discordant chromosome and aCGH results are rarely reported. METHODS:Routine cytogenomic analyses and literature review were performed in the study of a case from products of conception (POC). RESULTS:Chromosome and FISH analysis revealed a mosaic pattern consisting of a primary aberration of an inverted duplication of 5p and derived secondary and tertiary aberrations from sequential triplication and quintuplication of 5p, respectively. The aCGH analysis detected only a 1.521 Mb terminal deletion at 5p15.33 with no other pathogenic copy number variants in the genome. This mosaic karyotypic pattern likely resulted from chromosome instability induced by sequential breakage-fusion-bridge events during in vitro cell culture. A review of literature found heterogeneous distal deletion and inverted duplication of 5p in prenatal and pediatric cases. CONCLUSION:This is the first case reported in POC with a unique mosaic pattern and discordant chromosome and aCGH results. Caution should be applied in reporting and interpreting these discordant results and further analysis for underlying mechanism should be considered.
Project description:Background:Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes (sSMC) are rare chromosomal abnormalities, which have abnormal banding arrangement and take many shapes. Several disorders have been correlated with sSMC presence. The aim of this study is to characterize the sSMC derived from chromosome 18 by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH). Results:Nine children with dysmorphic features have been investigated. They have these features in common: a triangular face, low-set ears, a large mouth with a thin upper lip, and a horizontal palpebral fissure. Epicanthus and strabismus were present in two patients. In addition, we have noticed microcephaly and mental and/or developmental delay with low birth weight. However, two patients had standard birth weight; one patient had hypospadias; two had skin problems; and three showed different congenital heart defects. One patient had corpus callosum hypoplasia. Systematic karyotype analysis revealed a de novo supernumerary chromosome. Array CGH showed a gain in copy number on the short arm of chromosome 18 in the nine cases. In one case, the sSMC seemed to be in mosaic. The breakpoints of the marker were identified using aCGH and FISH. Thus, the sSMC led to 18p tetrasomy with approximately 14?Mb lengths, between 364344 and 14763575 based on the human genome version 18. Conclusions:These results have been completed by FISH in order to ascertain the shape of the sSMC. Our results confirm the uniqueness and particularity of the iso18p syndrome on the phenotypic as well as on the genetic level.
Project description:Three satellite DNA families are present in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10; the alpha satellite and two 5 bp satellite families defined here as satellites 2 and 3. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrates that these sequences are organised into five discrete arrays which are linked within a region of approximately 5.3 Megabases (Mb) of DNA. The alpha satellite is largely confined to a 2.2 Mb array which is flanked on its p arm side by two 100-150 kb satellite 3 arrays and on its q arm side by a 900 kb satellite 2 array and a further 320 kb satellite 3 array. This linear order is corroborated by fluorescent in situ hybridisation analyses. In total, these arrays account for 3.6 Mb of DNA in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 10. These data provide both physical information on sequences which may be involved in centromere function and a map across the centromere which has the potential to link yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contigs currently being developed on both arms of this chromosome.
Project description:As part of an international effort to completely sequence the rice genome, we have produced a fine bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map of the Oryza sativa japonica Nipponbare chromosome 4 through an integration of 114 sequenced BAC clones from a taxonomically related subspecies O. sativa indica Guangluai 4 and 182 RFLP and 407 expressed sequence tag (EST) markers with the fingerprinted data of the Nipponbare genome. The map consists of 11 contigs with a total length of 34.5 Mb covering 94% of the estimated chromosome size (36.8 Mb). BAC clones corresponding to telomeres, as well as to the centromere position, were determined by BAC-pachytene chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This gave rise to an estimated length ratio of 5.13 for the long arm and 2.9 for the short arm (on the basis of the physical map), which indicates that the short arm is a highly condensed one. The FISH analysis and physical mapping also showed that the short arm and the pericentromeric region of the long arm are rich in heterochromatin, which occupied 45% of the chromosome, indicating that this chromosome is likely very difficult to sequence. To our knowledge, this map provides the first example of a rapid and reliable physical mapping on the basis of the integration of the data from two taxonomically related subspecies.
Project description:The organization of the type I interferon (IFN) gene cluster (9p21.3) was studied in a human osteosarcoma cell line (MG63). Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) showed an amplification of approximately 6-fold which ended at both ends of the gene cluster with a deletion that extended throughout the 9p21.3 band. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) combined with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) identified an arrangement of the gene cluster in a ladder-like array of 5-7 'bands' spanning a single chromosome termed the 'IFN chromosome'. Chromosome painting revealed that the IFN chromosome is derived from components of chromosomes 4, 8 and 9. Labelling with centromeric probes demonstrated a ladder-like amplification of centromeric 4 and 9 sequences that co-localized with each other and a similar banding pattern of chromosome 4, as well as alternating with the IFN gene clusters. In contrast, centromere 8 was not detected on the IFN chromosome. One of the amplified centromeric 9 bands was identified as the functional centromere based on its location at the chromosome constriction and immunolocalization of the CENP-C protein. A model is presented for the generation of the IFN chromosome that involves breakage-fusion-bridge events.
Project description:The short arm of human chromosome 21 (21p) contains many different types of repetitive sequences and is highly homologous to the short arms of other acrocentric chromosomes. Owing to its repetitive nature and the lack of chromosome 21p-specific molecular markers, most physical maps of chromosome 21 exclude this region. We constructed a physical map of chromosome 21p using sequence tagged site (STS) content mapping of yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs). To this end, 39 STSs located on the short arm or near the centromere of chromosome 21 were constructed, including four polymorphic simple tandem repeats (STRs) and two expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Thirty YACs were selected from the St. Louis YAC library, the chromosome 21-enriched ICRF YAC library, and the CEPH YAC and megaYAC libraries. These were assembled in a YAC contig map ranging from the centromere to the rDNA gene cluster at 21p12. The total size of the region covered by YACs is estimated between 2.9 and 5 Mb. The integrity of the YAC contig was confirmed by restriction enzyme fingerprinting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). One gap with an estimated size of 400 kb remained near the telomeric end of the contig. This YAC contig map of the short arm of human chromosome 21 constitutes a basic framework for further structural and functional studies of chromosome 21p.
Project description:The variability of a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC)-related phenotype is determined by the molecular component, the size, and shape of the marker chromosome. As fluorescence in situ hybridization has limitations regarding the resolution, efficiency, and accuracy. Recently, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was used for sSMC characterization. In this study, twenty cases with sSMCs were characterized by aCGH and FISH. Chromosomal origin of the marker chromosomes were successfully identified in seventeen of them. For the three cases with negative aCGH results, two of them were more likely due to that the sSMCs only contained centromere heterochromatin, whereas the reason for the remaining case with negative aCGH finding was uncertain. In order to establish a stronger genotype-phenotype correlation for clinical service in the future and avoid miss characterization, more sSMC cases were needed to be detailed characterized. This will help to clarify the variable clinical characteristics of sSMCs and provide additional information to aid clinical service and future research.
Project description:The ability of centromeres to alternate between active and inactive states indicates significant epigenetic aspects controlling centromere assembly and function. In maize (Zea mays), misdivision of the B chromosome centromere on a translocation with the short arm of chromosome 9 (TB-9Sb) can produce many variants with varying centromere sizes and centromeric DNA sequences. In such derivatives of TB-9Sb, we found a de novo centromere on chromosome derivative 3-3, which has no canonical centromeric repeat sequences. This centromere is derived from a 288-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 9, and is 19 megabases (Mb) removed from the translocation breakpoint of chromosome 9 in TB-9Sb. The functional B centromere in progenitor telo2-2 is deleted from derivative 3-3, but some B-repeat sequences remain. The de novo centromere of derivative 3-3 becomes inactive in three further derivatives with new centromeres being formed elsewhere on each chromosome. Our results suggest that de novo centromere initiation is quite common and can persist on chromosomal fragments without a canonical centromere. However, we hypothesize that when de novo centromeres are initiated in opposition to a larger normal centromere, they are cleared from the chromosome by inactivation, thus maintaining karyotype integrity.