Interaction of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related mutant copper-zinc superoxide dismutase with the dynein-dynactin complex contributes to inclusion formation.
ABSTRACT: An important consequence of protein misfolding related to neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is the formation of proteinaceous inclusions or aggregates within the central nervous system. We have previously shown that several familial ALS-linked copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutants (A4V, G85R, and G93A) interact and co-localize with the dynein-dynactin complex in cultured cells and affected tissues of ALS mice. In this study, we report that the interaction between mutant SOD1 and the dynein motor plays a critical role in the formation of large inclusions containing mutant SOD1. Disruption of the motor by overexpression of the p50 subunit of dynactin in neuronal and non-neuronal cell cultures abolished the association between aggregation-prone SOD1 mutants and the dynein-dynactin complex. The p50 overexpression also prevented mutant SOD1 inclusion formation and improved the survival of cells expressing A4V SOD1. Furthermore, we observed that two ALS-linked SOD1 mutants, H46R and H48Q, which showed a lower propensity to interact with the dynein motor, also produced less aggregation and fewer large inclusions. Overall, these data suggest that formation of large inclusions depends upon association of the abnormal SOD1s with the dynein motor. Whether the misfolded SOD1s directly perturb axonal transport or impair other functional properties of the dynein motor, this interaction could propagate a toxic effect that ultimately causes motor neuron death in ALS.
Project description:Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) have been reported in both familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we investigated the behavior of heteromeric combinations of wild-type (WT) and mutant Sod1 proteins A4V, L38V, G93A, and G93C in human cells. We showed that both WT and mutant Sod1 formed dimers and oligomers, but only mutant Sod1 accumulated in intracellular inclusions. Coexpression of WT and hSod1 mutants resulted in the formation of a larger number of intracellular inclusions per cell than that observed in cells coexpressing WT or mutant hSod1. The number of inclusions was greater in cells expressing A4V hSod1. To eliminate the contribution of endogenous Sod1, and better evaluate the effect of ALS-associated mutant Sod1 expression, we expressed human Sod1 WT and mutants in human cells knocked down for endogenous Sod1 (Sod1-KD), and in sod1? yeast cells. Using Sod1-KD cells we found that the WT-A4V heteromers formed higher molecular weight species compared with A4V and WT homomers. Using the yeast model, in conditions of chronological aging, we concluded that cells expressing Sod1 heterodimers showed decreased antioxidant activity, increased oxidative damage, reduced longevity, and oxidative stress-induced mutant Sod1 aggregation. In addition, we also found that ALS-associated Sod1 mutations reduced nuclear localization and, consequently, impaired the antioxidant response, suggesting this change in localization may contribute to disease in familial ALS. Overall, our study provides insight into the molecular underpinnings of ALS and may open avenues for the design of future therapeutic strategies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:A hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutations in superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) are inclusions containing SOD1 in motor neurons. Here, we searched for SOD1-positive inclusions in 29 patients carrying ALS-linked mutations in six other genes. METHODS:A panel of antibodies that specifically recognise misfolded SOD1 species were used for immunohistochemical investigations of autopsy tissue. RESULTS:The 18 patients with hexanucleotide-repeat-expansions in C9orf72 had inclusions of misfolded wild type (WT) SOD1WT in spinal motor neurons. Similar inclusions were occasionally observed in medulla oblongata and in the motor cortex and frontal lobe. Patients with mutations in FUS, KIF5A, NEK1, ALSIN or VAPB, carried similar SOD1WT inclusions. Minute amounts of misSOD1WT inclusions were detected in 2 of 20 patients deceased from non-neurological causes and in 4 of 10 patients with other neurodegenerative diseases. Comparison was made with 17 patients with 9 different SOD1 mutations. Morphologically, the inclusions in patients with mutations in C9orf72HRE, FUS, KIF5A, NEK1, VAPB and ALSIN resembled inclusions in patients carrying the wildtype-like SOD1D90A mutation, whereas patients carrying unstable SOD1 mutations (A4V, V5M, D76Y, D83G, D101G, G114A, G127X, L144F) had larger skein-like SOD1-positive inclusions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Abundant inclusions containing misfolded SOD1WT are found in spinal and cortical motor neurons in patients carrying mutations in six ALS-causing genes other than SOD1. This suggests that misfolding of SOD1WT can be part of a common downstream event that may be pathogenic. The new anti-SOD1 therapeutics in development may have applications for a broader range of patients.
Project description:Perry syndrome is a rare atypical parkinsonism with depression, apathy, weight loss, and central hypoventilation caused by mutations in dynactin p150glued (DCTN1). A rare distal hereditary motor neuropathy, HMN7B, also has mutations in DCTN1. Perry syndrome has TAR DNA-binding protein of 43?kDa (TDP-43) inclusions as a defining feature. Other TDP-43 proteinopathies include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with and without motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). TDP-43 forms aggregates in neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), neuronal intranuclear inclusions, dystrophic neurites (DNs), as well as axonal spheroids, oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions, and perivascular astrocytic inclusions (PVIs). We performed semiquantitative assessment of these lesions and presence of dynactin subunit p50 lesions in 3 cases of Perry syndrome and one of HMN7B. We compared them with 3 cases of FTLD-MND, 3 of ALS, and 3 of hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl). Perry syndrome had NCIs, DNs, and frequent PVIs and spheroids. Perry syndrome cases were similar, but different from ALS, FTLD-MND, and HpScl. TDP-43 pathology was not detected in HMN7B. Dynactin p50 inclusions were observed in both Perry syndrome and HMN7B, but not in the other conditions. These results suggest that Perry syndrome may be distinctive type of TDP-43 proteinopathy.
Project description:Dynactin is a complex motor protein involved in the retrograde axonal transport disturbances of which may lead to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Mice with hSOD1G93A mutation develop ALS-like symptoms and are used as a model for the disease studies. Similar symptoms demonstrate Cra1 mice, with Dync1h1 mutation. Dynactin heavy (DCTN1) and light (DCTN3) subunits were studied in the CNS of humans with sporadic ALS (SALS), mice with hSOD1G93A (SOD1/+), Dync1h1 (Cra1/+), and double (Cra1/SOD1) mutation at presymptomatic and symptomatic stages. In SALS subjects, in contrast to control cases, expression of DCTN1-mRNA but not DCTN3-mRNA in the motor cortex was higher than in the sensory cortex. However, the mean levels of DCTN1-mRNA and protein were lower in both SALS cortexes and in the spinal cord than in control structures. DCTN3 was unchanged in brain cortexes but decreased in the spinal cord on both mRNA and protein levels. In all SALS tissues immunohistochemical analyses revealed degeneration and loss of neuronal cells, and poor expression of dynactin subunits. In SOD1/+ mice both subunits expression was significantly lower in the frontal cortex, spinal cord and hippocampus than in wild-type controls, especially at presymptomatic stage. Fewer changes occurred in Cra1/SOD1 and Cra1/+ mice.It can be concluded that in sporadic and SOD1-related ALS the impairment of axonal retrograde transport may be due to dynactin subunits deficiency and subsequent disturbances of the whole dynein/dynactin complex structure and function. The Dync1h1 mutation itself has slight negative effect on dynactin expression and it alleviates the changes caused by SOD1G93A mutation.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), partly caused by the mutations and aggregation of human copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), is a fatal degenerative disease of motor neurons. Because SOD1 is a major copper-binding protein present at relatively high concentration in motor neurons and copper can be a harmful pro-oxidant, we want to know whether aberrant copper biochemistry could underlie ALS pathogenesis. In this study, we have investigated and compared the effects of cupric ions on the aggregation of ALS-associated SOD1 mutant A4V and oxidized wild-type SOD1.As revealed by 90° light scattering, dynamic light scattering, SDS-PAGE, and atomic force microscopy, free cupric ions in solution not only induce the oxidation of either apo A4V or Zn2-A4V and trigger the oligomerization and aggregation of oxidized A4V under copper-mediated oxidative conditions, but also trigger the aggregation of non-oxidized form of such a pathogenic mutant. As evidenced by mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE, Cys-111 is a primary target for oxidative modification of pathological human SOD1 mutant A4V by either excess Cu(2+) or hydrogen peroxide. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that A4V possesses two sets of independent binding sites for Cu(2+): a moderate-affinity site (10(6) M(-1)) and a high-affinity site (10(8) M(-1)). Furthermore, Cu(2+) binds to wild-type SOD1 oxidized by hydrogen peroxide in a way similar to A4V, triggering the aggregation of such an oxidized form.We demonstrate that excess cupric ions induce the oxidation and trigger the aggregation of A4V SOD1, and suggest that Cu(2+) plays a key role in the mechanism of aggregation of both A4V and oxidized wild-type SOD1. A plausible model for how pathological SOD1 mutants aggregate in ALS-affected motor neurons with the disruption of copper homeostasis has been provided.
Project description:Mutations in CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and are found in 6% of ALS patients. Non-native and aggregation-prone forms of mutant SOD1s are thought to trigger the disease. Two sets of novel antibodies, raised in rabbits and chicken, against peptides spaced along the human SOD1 sequence, were by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an immunocapture method shown to be specific for denatured SOD1. These were used to examine SOD1 in spinal cords of ALS patients lacking mutations in the enzyme. Small granular SOD1-immunoreactive inclusions were found in spinal motoneurons of all 37 sporadic and familial ALS patients studied, but only sparsely in 3 of 28 neurodegenerative and 2 of 19 non-neurological control patients. The granular inclusions were by confocal microscopy found to partly colocalize with markers for lysosomes but not with inclusions containing TAR DNA binding protein-43, ubiquitin or markers for endoplasmic reticulum, autophagosomes or mitochondria. Granular inclusions were also found in carriers of SOD1 mutations and in spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) patients and they were the major type of inclusion detected in ALS patients homozygous for the wild type-like D90A mutation. The findings suggest that SOD1 may be involved in ALS pathogenesis in patients lacking mutations in the enzyme.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the destruction of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. A subset of ALS cases are linked to dominant mutations in copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1). The pathogenic SOD1 variants A4V and G93A have been the foci of multiple studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis for SOD1-linked ALS. The A4V variant is responsible for the majority of familial ALS cases in North America, causing rapidly progressing paralysis once symptoms begin and the G93A SOD1 variant is overexpressed in often studied murine models of the disease. Here we report the three-dimensional structures of metal-free A4V and of metal-bound and metal-free G93A SOD1. In the metal-free structures, the metal-binding loop elements are observed to be severely disordered, suggesting that these variants may share mechanisms of aggregation proposed previously for other pathogenic SOD1 proteins.
Project description:Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a lethal paralytic disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brain stem, and motor cortex. Mutations in the gene encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are present in ~20% of familial ALS and ~2% of all ALS cases. The most common SOD1 gene mutation in North America is a missense mutation substituting valine for alanine (A4V). In this study, we analyze sodium channel currents in oocytes expressing either wild-type or mutant (A4V) SOD1 protein. We demonstrate that the A4V mutation confers a propensity to hyperexcitability on a voltage-dependent sodium channel (Nav1.3) mediated by heightened total Na(+) conductance and a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of Nav1.3 activation. To estimate the impact of these channel effects on excitability in an intact neuron, we simulated these changes in the program NEURON; this shows that the changes induced by mutant SOD1 increase the spontaneous firing frequency of the simulated neuron. These findings are consistent with the view that excessive excitability of neurons is one component in the pathogenesis of this disease.
Project description:The alanine to valine mutation at codon 4 (A4V) of SOD1 causes a rapidly progressive dominant form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with exclusively lower motor neuron disease and is responsible for 50% of SOD1 mutations associated with familial ALS in North America. This mutation is rare in Europe. The authors investigated the origin (geographic and time) of the A4V mutation.Several cohorts were genotyped: North American patients with confirmed A4V mutation (n = 54), Swedish (n = 3) and Italian (n = 6) A4V patients, patients with ALS with SOD1 non-A4V mutations (n = 66) and patients with sporadic ALS (n = 96), healthy white (n = 96), African American (n = 17), Chinese (n = 53), Amerindian (n = 11), and Hispanic (n = 12) subjects. High-throughput SNP genotyping was performed using Taqman assay in 384-well format. A novel biallelic CA repeat in exon 5 of SOD1, tightly linked to A4V, was genotyped on sequencing gels. Association statistics were estimated using Haploview. p Values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Age of A4V was estimated using a novel method based on r(2) degeneration with genetic distance and a Bayesian method incorporated in DMLE+.A single haplotype of 10 polymorphisms across a 5.86-cM region was associated with A4V (p = 3.0e-11) when white controls were used, suggesting a founder effect. The strength of association of this haplotype progressively decreased when African American, Chinese, Hispanic, and Amerindian subjects were used as controls. The associated European haplotype was different from the North American haplotype, indicating two founder effects for A4V (Amerindian and European). The estimated age of A4V with the r(2) degeneration method was 458 +/- 59 years (range 398-569) and in agreement with the Bayesian method (554-734 years with 80-90% posterior probability).North American SOD1 alanine to valine mutation at codon 4 descended from two founders (Amerindian and European) 400-500 years ago.
Project description:Aberrant accumulation of misfolded Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is a hallmark of SOD1-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an invariably fatal neurodegenerative disease. While recent discovery of nonnative trimeric SOD1-associated neurotoxicity has suggested a potential pathway for motor neuron impairment, it is yet unknown whether large, insoluble aggregates are cytotoxic. Here we designed SOD1 mutations that specifically stabilize either the fibrillar form or the trimeric state of SOD1. The designed mutants display elevated populations of fibrils or trimers correspondingly, as demonstrated by gel filtration chromatography and electron microscopy. The trimer-stabilizing mutant, G147P, promoted cell death, even more potently in comparison with the aggressive ALS-associated mutants A4V and G93A. In contrast, the fibril-stabilizing mutants, N53I and D101I, positively impacted the survival of motor neuron-like cells. Hence, we conclude the SOD1 oligomer and not the mature form of aggregated fibril is critical for the neurotoxic effects in the model of ALS. The formation of large aggregates is in competition with trimer formation, suggesting that aggregation may be a protective mechanism against formation of toxic oligomeric intermediates.