Child mental health differences amongst ethnic groups in Britain: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. METHODS: A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0-19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. RESULTS: 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. CONCLUSION: Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.
Project description:Previous studies document a mental health advantage in British Indian children, particularly for externalising problems. The causes of this advantage are unknown.Subjects were 13,836 White children and 361 Indian children aged 5-16 years from the English subsample of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys. The primary mental health outcome was the parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Mental health was also assessed using the teacher and child SDQs; diagnostic interviews with parents, teachers and children; and multi-informant clinician-rated diagnoses. Multiple child, family, school and area factors were examined as possible mediators or confounders in explaining observed ethnic differences.Indian children had a large advantage for externalising problems and disorders, and little or no difference for internalising problems and disorders. This was observed across all mental health outcomes, including teacher-reported and diagnostic interview measures. Detailed psychometric analyses provided no suggestion of information bias. The Indian advantage for externalising problems was partly mediated by Indian children being more likely to live in two-parent families and less likely to have academic difficulties. Yet after adjusting for these and all other covariates, the unexplained Indian advantage only reduced by about a quarter (from 1.08 to .71 parent SDQ points) and remained highly significant (p < .001). This Indian advantage was largely confined to families of low socio-economic position.The Indian mental health advantage is real and is specific to externalising problems. Family type and academic abilities mediate part of the advantage, but most is not explained by major risk factors. Likewise unexplained is the absence in Indian children of a socio-economic gradient in mental health. Further investigation of the Indian advantage may yield insights into novel ways to promote child mental health and child mental health equity in all ethnic groups.
Project description:We use the UK Household Longitudinal Study and compare pre-COVID-19 pandemic (2017-2019) and during-COVID-19 pandemic data (April 2020) for the same group of individuals to assess and quantify changes in mental health as measured by changes in the GHQ-12 (General Health Questionnaire), among ethnic groups in the UK. We confirm the previously documented average deterioration in mental health for the whole sample of individuals interviewed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, we find that the average increase in mental distress varies by ethnicity and gender. Both women -regardless of their ethnicity- and Black, Asian, and minority ethnic (BAME) men experienced a higher average increase in mental distress than White British men, so that the gender gap in mental health increases only among White British individuals. These ethnic-gender specific changes in mental health persist after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Finally, we find some evidence that, among men, Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani individuals have experienced the highest average increase in mental distress with respect to White British men.
Project description:We examined sex and ethnic differences in central fatness, as assessed by waist circumference measurements, in 13 590 Millennium Cohort Study 5-year-olds. Measurements were expressed as z-scores based on reference data from the British Standards Institute. The cohort, especially girls, had larger waist circumference measurements than the reference population. Black children had larger waist, and children from other minority ethnic groups had smaller waist than White children. Girls, and Black children, in the United Kingdom are at particular risk for central fatness. Further research is needed to clarify ethnic and other influences on fat distribution, and the health outcomes associated with central fatness.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neighbourhood social context might play a role in modifying mortality outcomes in severe mental illness, but has received little attention to date. Therefore, we aimed to assess in an ethnically diverse and urban location the association of neighbourhood-level characteristics and individual-level factors for all-cause, natural-cause, and unnatural-cause mortality in those with severe mental illness.<h4>Methods</h4>We did a retrospective cohort study using a case-registry from a large secondary mental health-care Trust in an ethnically diverse and urban location in south London, UK. Linked data for deaths and areas of residence were identified from the case-registry. We included all individuals aged 15 years or more at the time of diagnosis for a severe mental illness from Jan 1, 2007, to Dec 31, 2014. We used individual-level information in our analyses, such as gender, marital status, and the presence of current or previous substance use disorders. We assessed neighbourhood or area-level indicators at the Lower Super Output Area level. Association of neighbourhood-level characteristics, which included the interaction between ethnicity and own ethnic density, deprivation, urbanicity, and social fragmentation, alongside individual-level factors for all-cause, natural-cause, and unnatural-cause mortality in those with severe mental illness was assessed.<h4>Findings</h4>A total of 18 201 individuals were included in this cohort for analyses, with a median follow-up of 6·36 years. There were 1767 (9·7%) deaths from all causes, 1417 (7·8%) from natural causes, and 192 (1·1%) from unnatural causes. In the least ethnically dense areas, the adjusted rate ratio (aRR) for all-cause mortality in ethnic minority groups with severe mental illness compared with white British people with severe mental illness were similar (aRR 0·96, 95% CI 0·71-1·29); however in the highest ethnic density areas, ethnic minority groups with severe mental illness had a lower risk of death (aRR 0·52, 95% CI 0·38-0·71; p<0·0001), with similar trends for natural-cause mortality (p=0·071 for statistical interaction). In the cohort with severe mental illness, residency in deprived, urban, and socially fragmented neighbourhoods was not associated with higher mortality rates. Compared with the general population, age-standardised and gender-standardised mortality ratios were elevated in the cohort with severe mental illness across all neighbourhood-level characteristics assessed.<h4>Interpretation</h4>For ethnic minority groups with severe mental illness, residency in areas of higher own-group ethnic density is associated with lower mortality compared to white British groups with severe mental illness.<h4>Funding</h4>Health Foundation, National Institute for Health Research, EU Seventh Framework, and National Institute of Mental Health.
Project description:Objectives Whether racial/ethnic differences in prevalence/reporting of sleep disorders exist in pregnant women/women of child-bearing age is unknown. Study objectives were to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and to examine racial/ethnic differences in sleep disorders, reporting of sleep issues, and amount of sleep among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years) in the US. Methods Through a secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 (3175 non-pregnant, 432 pregnant women in main analysis), prevalence of sleep disorders, reporting of sleep disorders to a physician/health professional, and amount of sleep were estimated overall, by pregnancy status, and by race/ethnicity stratified by pregnancy status. Racial/ethnic differences in reporting of trouble sleeping by pregnancy status were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among women of childbearing age was 4.9 % [3.9 % pregnant; 5.1 % non-pregnant (p < 0.01)]. Significantly fewer pregnant and non-pregnant minority women reported adequate sleep (7-8 h) than non-Hispanic white (white) women (p < 0.05). Among non-pregnant women, odds of report of trouble sleeping were significantly higher for white compared to black (aOR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36, 0.61]) or Mexican-American women (aOR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.21, 0.41]); non-pregnant minority women were also significantly less likely to report trouble sleeping than white women when controlling for amount of sleep. Among pregnant women, these same trends were found. Discussion Compared to white women, minority women, despite reporting less adequate sleep, are less likely to report trouble sleeping, providing evidence of an important health disparity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Barriers to accessing mental health care during pregnancy and the first postnatal year (perinatal period) seem to be greater for ethnic minority women; however, there is no reliable large-scale data about their actual use of mental health services during this period. Our study aims to explore access rates to secondary mental health services, including involuntary admissions to psychiatric inpatient care and patterns of engagement for ethnic minority women aged 18+ who gave birth in 2017 in England, UK. METHODS:Two datasets from the National Commissioning Data Repository, the Acute Inpatient Dataset and Mental Health Services Dataset, were linked. Datasets covering the full perinatal period for each woman were included. Rates were standardised by age and deprivation. RESULTS:Out of 615,092 women who gave birth in England in 2017, 22,073 (3.5%) started a contact with mental health services during the perinatal period. In total, 713 (3.2%) were admitted to inpatient care, and 282 (39.5%) involuntarily. Ethnicity data was available for 98% of the sample. Black African, Asian and White Other women had significantly lower access to community mental health services and higher percentages of involuntary admissions than White British women. Black African, Asian and White Other women had a higher number of attended community contacts and fewer non-attendances/cancellations of appointments than White British women. CONCLUSION:Access to mental health services during the perinatal period varies significantly between women from different ethnic groups. Access to community mental health services should be facilitated for Black African, Asian and White Other women during the perinatal period, which may reduce rates of involuntary hospital admissions for these groups. The pattern of engagement with community services for women from these ethnicities indicates that access appears to be a problem rather than utilisation.
Project description:Children, particularly minority children, referred to child welfare because of suspected maltreatment are vulnerable and need many services. We sought to assess whether service use has improved over the past decade and whether racial-ethnic disparities in service use have decreased.We used 2 national data sets (the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being [NSCAW] I and II) collected a decade apart to assess changes over time in health, education, mental health (MH), and dental services and overall service use.In NSCAW II more children were young, had lower Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores, and were Hispanic. We found significant increases in dental services, a decrease in special education services, and a decrease in MH services on the bivariate level (all P < .01). A large proportion of the change in MH services occurred in school settings, but the pattern continued when examining only those services delivered outside of school. The greatest decrease occurred for children with CBCL scores <64. However, in multivariate analyses, older children, white non-Hispanic children, and children placed out of the home were significantly more likely to receive MH services. Rates of MH services controlling for CBCL scores showed no improvement over the decade, nor was there a decrease in racial and ethnic disparities.These data showed no change in MH services over time for children referred for child welfare evaluation, but improvement in dental services was noted. Racial and ethnic disparities persist. Decrease in MH services occurred predominantly among children whose MH symptoms were below the clinical range.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Few studies have examined discrimination and mental health in the UK, particularly by migrant status and in urban contexts with greater demographic diversity. This study aims to (1) describe the prevalence of discrimination experiences across multiple life domains; (2) to describe associations between discrimination experiences and common mental disorder (CMD); (3) to determine whether or not the relationship between discrimination and CMD varies by migrant status and ethnicity.<h4>Methods</h4>Data on major, anticipated and everyday discrimination and CMD symptoms were collected from an ethnically diverse prospective sample of 1052 participants followed up from 2008 to 2013 in the South East London Community Health study, a population-based household survey.<h4>Results</h4>With few exceptions, discrimination was most prevalent among those in the Black Caribbean group. However, those in the White Other ethnic group had similar or greater reporting major and anticipated discrimination to Black or mixed ethnic minority groups. The effects of discrimination on CMD were most pronounced for individuals who had recently migrated to the UK, an ethnically heterogeneous group, and for Black and Mixed ethnic minority groups in partially adjusted models. Prior CMD accounted for differences between the Mixed and White British ethnic groups, but the strength of the association for the most recent migrant group and the Black ethnic groups remained two or more times greater than the reference groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The strength of the relationship suggests a need for more consideration of migration status along with ethnicity in examining the impact of discrimination on mental disorder in community and clinical samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Women from ethnic minority groups are at greater risk of developing mental health problems. Poor perinatal mental health impacts on maternal morbidity and mortality and can have a devastating impact on child and family wellbeing. It is important to ensure that services are designed to meet the unique needs of women from diverse backgrounds. AIM:The aim of the review was to explore ethnic minority women's experiences of perinatal mental ill health, help-seeking and perinatal mental health services in Europe. DATA SOURCES:Searches included CINAHL, Maternity and Infant Care, MEDLINE and PsycINFO with no language or date restrictions. Additional literature was identified by searching reference lists of relevant studies. DESIGN:This was a mixed method systematic review. Study selection, appraisal and data extraction were conducted by two researchers independently. A convergent approach was adopted for the analysis and the data were synthesised thematically. RESULTS:The 15 eligible studies included women from a range of minority ethnic backgrounds and were all undertaken in the United Kingdom (UK). Seven overarching themes were identified; awareness and beliefs about mental health, isolation and seeking support, influence of culture, symptoms and coping strategies, accessing mental health services, experiences of mental health services and what women want. CONCLUSION:Lack of awareness about mental ill health, cultural expectations, ongoing stigma, culturally insensitive and fragmented health services and interactions with culturally incompetent and dismissive health providers all impact on ethnic minority women's ability to receive adequate perinatal mental health support in the UK. Future research should focus on in-depth exploration of the experiences of these women across multiple European settings and interventions to reduce health inequalities among vulnerable mothers and families affected by perinatal mental ill health.
Project description:Analysis of transcript abundance estimates as a function of child soldier status, PTSD symptoms, and psychological resilience. Gene expression profiling was conducted on dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected from community dwelling adolescents and young adults in Nepal. Approximatley half of the sample were former child soldiers in the Nepal People's War and the other half were demographically similiar civilian non-combatants. In addition to basic demographic characteristics (age, sex, ethnic minority status, social caste status, education level), participants were also assessed on syptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS, assessed by a culturally adapted version of The Child PTSD Symptom Scale; Kohrt BA, et al. (2011) Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal. BMC Psychiatry 11(1):e127, with higher values indicating greater PTSD symptoms) and psychological resilience (assessed by a culturally adapted version of the Resilience Scale; Wagnild GM & Young HM (1993) Development and psychometric evaluation of the Resilience Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, with higher values indicating greater resilience). Dichotomous variables were coded 0=no/absent and 1=yes/present. Valid gene expression data are available for 254 samples.