Stereoselective glycosylations of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucosides using intermediate sulfonium ions.
ABSTRACT: TMSOTf-promoted glycosylations of 2-azido-2-deoxy-glucosyl trichloroacetimidates provide excellent alpha-anomeric selectivities when performed at a relatively high reaction temperature in the presence of PhSEt or thiophene. NMR and computation studies have shown that these glycosylations proceed through an equatorial anomeric sulfonium ion, which upon displacement by a sugar alcohol provides an axial glycoside. Computational studies have indicated that steric factors determine the selective formation of the beta-anomeric sulfonium ion.
Project description:Anomeric sulfonium ions are attractive glycosyl donors for the stereoselective installation of 1,2-cis glycosides. Although these donors are receiving increasing attention, their mechanism of glycosylation remains controversial. We have investigated the reaction mechanism of glycosylation of a donor modified at C-2 with a (1S)-phenyl-2-(phenylsulfanyl)ethyl chiral auxiliary. Preactivation of this donor results in the formation of a bicyclic ?-sulfonium ion that after addition of an alcohol undergoes 1,2-cis-glycosylation. To probe the importance of the thiophenyl moiety, analogs were prepared in which this moiety was replaced by an anisoyl or benzyl moiety. Furthermore, the auxiliaries were installed as S- and R-stereoisomers. It was found that the nature of the heteroatom and chirality of the auxiliary greatly influenced the anomeric outcome and only the one containing a thiophenyl moiety and having S-configuration gave consistently ?-anomeric products. The sulfonium ions are sufficiently stable at a temperature at which glycosylations proceed indicating that they are viable glycosylation agents. Time-course NMR experiments with the latter donor showed that the initial rates of glycosylations increase with increases in acceptor concentration and the rate curves could be fitted to a second order rate equation. Collectively, these observations support a mechanism by which a sulfonium ion intermediate is formed as a trans-decalin ring system that can undergo glycosylation through a bimolecular mechanism. DFT calculations have provided further insight into the reaction path of glycosylation and indicate that initially a hydrogen-bonded complex is formed between sulfonium ion and acceptor that undergoes SN2-like glycosylation to give an ?-anomeric product.
Project description:Activation of a glycosyl donor protected with a 2-O-(S)-(phenylthiomethyl)benzyl ether chiral auxiliary results in the formation of an anomeric ?-sulfonium ion, which can be displaced with sugar alcohols to give corresponding ?-glycosides. Sufficient deactivation of such glycosyl donors by electron-withdrawing protecting groups is, however, critical to avoid glycosylation of an oxacarbenium ion intermediate. The latter type of glycosylation pathway can also be suppressed by installing additional substituents in the chiral auxiliary.
Project description:One obstacle for practical glycosylations is the high cost of promoters and low-temperature equipment. This problem has been at least partially solved by using MeSCH2Cl/KI as a low-cost promoter system. MeSCH2Cl has an estimated cost of <$1/mol compared with $1741/mol for AgOTf and $633/mol for TMSOTf. This new promoter system is capable of activating various leaving groups including anomeric Cl, F, trichloroacetimidate, and acyloxy groups. Stable and easy-to-prepare anomeric benzoloxy carbohydrate donors were investigated in the glycosylations of carbohydrates, aliphatic alcohols, amino acids, steroids, and nucleoside acceptors. Most of these glycosylations were operationally simple with fast reaction rates and moderate yields of 35-79%. In addition, direct glycosylations of nucleosides using less than 2 equiv of anomeric benzoloxy donors and high stereoselective mannosylation have been achieved. From an economic point of view, this glycosylation method should be highly applicable to industrial processes.
Project description:The development of selectively protected monosaccharide building blocks that can reliably be glycosylated with a wide variety of acceptors is expected to make oligosaccharide synthesis a more routine operation. In particular, there is an urgent need for the development of modular building blocks that can readily be converted into glycosyl donors for glycosylations that give reliably high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity. We report here that 1,2-oxathiane ethers are stable under acidic, basic, and reductive conditions making it possible to conduct a wide range of protecting group manipulations and install selectively removable protecting groups such as levulinoyl (Lev) ester, fluorenylmethyloxy (Fmoc)- and allyloxy (Alloc)-carbonates, and 2-methyl naphthyl ethers (Nap). The 1,2-oxathiane ethers could easily be converted into bicyclic anomeric sulfonium ions by oxidization to sulfoxides and arylated with 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The resulting sulfonium ions gave high 1,2-cis-anomeric selectivity when glycosylated with a wide variety of glycosyl acceptors including properly protected amino acids, primary and secondary sugar alcohols and partially protected thioglycosides. The selective protected 1,2-oxathianes were successfully employed in the preparation of a branched glucoside derived from a glycogen-like polysaccharide isolated form the fungus Pseudallescheria boydii , which is involved in fungal phagocytosis and activation of innate immune responses. The compound was assembled by a latent-active glycosylation strategy in which an oxathiane was employed as an acceptor in a glycosylation with a sulfoxide donor. The product of such a glycosylation was oxidized to a sulfoxide for a subsequent glycosylation. The use of Nap and Fmoc as temporary protecting groups made it possible to install branching points.
Project description:Combining triflic acid-promoted glycosylations of trichloroacetimidates with reductive opening of benzylidene acetals with triflic acid and triethylsilane as one-pot procedures provides access to a wide range of disaccharides and 2,4- and 3,4-branched trisaccharides.
Project description:It is reported that stable glycosyl sulfonium salts can be generated via direct anomeric S-methylation of ethylthioglycosides. Mechanistically, this pathway represents the first step in the activation of thioglycosides for glycosidation; however, it can further allow for the synthesis and isolation of quasi-stable sulfonium ions, representing a new approach for studying these key intermediates.
Project description:This work describes the first example of using chiral catalysts to control site-selectivity for the glycosylations of complex polyols such as 6-deoxyerythronolide B and oleandomycin-derived macrolactones. The regiodivergent introduction of sugars at the C3, C5, and C11 positions of macrolactones was achieved by selecting appropriate chiral acids as catalysts or through introduction of stoichiometric boronic acid-based additives. BINOL-based chiral phosphoric acids (CPAs) were used to catalyze highly selective glycosylations at the C5 positions of macrolactones (up to 99:1 rr), whereas the use of SPINOL-based CPAs resulted in selectivity switch and glycosylation of the C3 alcohol (up to 91:9 rr). Additionally, the C11 position of macrolactones was selectively functionalized through traceless protection of the C3/C5 diol with boronic acids prior to glycosylation. Investigation of the reaction mechanism for the CPA-controlled glycosylations revealed the involvement of covalently linked anomeric phosphates rather than oxocarbenium ion pairs as the reactive intermediates.
Project description:Stereoselective glycosylation remains the main challenge in the chemical synthesis of oligosaccharides. Herein we report a simple method to convert thioglycosides into ?-sulfonium ions via an intramolecular alkylation reaction, leading to highly ?-selective glycosylations for a variety of glycosyl acceptors. The influence of the thioglycoside substituent and the protecting group pattern on the glycosyl donor was investigated and showed a clear correlation with the observed stereoselectivity.
Project description:There is an urgent need to develop reliable strategies for the rapid assembly of complex oligosaccharides. This paper presents a set of strategically selected orthogonal protecting groups, glycosyl donors modified by a (S)-phenylthiomethylbenzyl ether at C-2, and a glycosyl acceptor containing a fluorous tag, which makes it possible to rapidly prepare complex branched oligosaccharides of biological importance. The C-2 auxiliary controlled the 1,2-cis anomeric selectivity of the various galactosylations. The orthogonal protecting groups, 2-naphthylmethyl ether (Nap) and levulinic ester (Lev), made it possible to generate glycosyl acceptors and allowed the installation of a crowded branching point. After the glycosylations, the chiral auxiliary could be removed using acidic conditions, which was compatible with the presence of the orthogonal protecting groups Lev and Nap, thereby allowing the efficient installation of 1,2-linked glycosides. The light fluorous tag made it possible to purify the compounds by a simple filtration method using silica gel modified by fluorocarbons. The set of building blocks was successfully employed for the preparation of the carbohydrate moiety of the GPI anchor of Trypanosoma brucei, which is a parasite that causes sleeping sickness in humans and similar diseases in domestic animals.
Project description:Phenyl 3,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-2-O-(3-carboxypropionyl)-1-thio-?-D-galactopyranoside (1) was condensed via its pentafluorophenyl ester 2 with 5-aminopentyl (4a), 4-aminobutyl (4b), 3-aminopropyl (4c) and 2-aminoethyl 4,6-O-benzylidene-?-D-glucopyranoside (4d), prepared from the corresponding N-Cbz protected glucosides 3a-d, to give the corresponding 2-[3-(alkylcarbamoyl)propionyl] tethered saccharides 5a-d. Intramolecular, ring closing glycosylation of the saccharides with NIS and TMSOTf afforded the tethered ?(1?3) linked disaccharides 6a-c, the ?(1?3) linked disaccharides 7a-d and the ?(1?2) linked disaccharide 8d in ratios depending upon the ring size formed during glycosylation. No ?(1?2) linked disaccharides were formed. Molecular modeling of saccharides 6-8 revealed that a strong aromatic stacking interaction between the aromatic parts of the benzyl and benzylidene protecting groups in the galactosyl and glucosyl moieties was mainly responsible for the observed regioselectivity and anomeric selectivity of the ring-closing glycosylation step.