No associations of human pulmonary tuberculosis with Sp110 variants.
ABSTRACT: After a recent report on the role of the Ipr1 gene in mediating innate immunity in a mouse model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, the human Ipr1 homologue, Sp110, was considered a promising candidate for an association study in human tuberculosis.In a sample of >1000 sputum positive, HIV negative West African patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and >1000 exposed, apparently healthy controls, we have genotyped 21 Sp110 gene variants that were either available from public databases, including HapMap data, or identified by DNA re-sequencing.No significant differences in the frequencies of any of the 21 variants were observed between patients and controls. This applied also for HapMap tagging variants and the corresponding haplotypes, when including sliding window analyses with three adjacent variants, and when stratifying controls for positivity and negativity according to the results of intradermal tuberculin (purified protein derivative, PPD) skin tests. DNA re-sequencing revealed 13 novel Sp110 variants in the 5'-UTR, exons, and adjacent intronic regions.Based on the results obtained in this case-control study, the hypothesis that Sp110 variants and haplotypes might be associated with distinct phenotypes of human M tuberculosis infection is doubtful.
Project description:The sst1 locus has been identified in a mouse model to control resistance and susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Subsequent studies have now identified Ipr1 (intracellular pathogen resistance 1) to be the gene responsible. Ipr1 is encoded within the sst1 locus and is expressed in the tuberculosis lung lesions and macrophages of sst1-resistant, but not sst1-susceptible mice. We have therefore examined the closest human homologue of Ipr1, SP110, for its ability to control susceptibility to M. tuberculosis infection in humans. In a study of families from The Gambia we have identified three polymorphisms that are associated with disease. On examination of additional families from Guinea-Bissau and the Republic of Guinea, two of these associations were independently replicated. These variants are in strong linkage disequilibrium with each other and lie within a 31-kb block of low haplotypic diversity, suggesting that a polymorphism within this region has a role in genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis in humans.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results.To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam.Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451) under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860) and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244).SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection.
Project description:Infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can cause different outcomes in hosts with variant genetic backgrounds. Previously, we identified an intracellular pathogen resistance 1 (Ipr1) gene with the role of resistance of MTB infection in mice model. However, until now, its binding proteins have been little known even for its human homology, SP110. In this study, the homology for mouse Ipr1 in canines was found to have an extra domain structure, h.1.5.1. And 30 potential candidate proteins were predicted to bind canine Ipr1, which were characterized of the interacting structure with the h.1.5.1. Among them, MYBBP1A was verified to bind with both Ipr1 and eGFP-Ipr1 in mouse macrophage J774A.1 clone 21 cells using co-immunoprecipitation method. And with the constructed high-confidence Ipr1-involved network, we suggested that Ipr1 might be involved in apoptosis pathway via MYBBP1A.
Project description:One-fourth of the human population is estimated to have been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and carries the infection in its latent form. This latent infection presents a lifelong risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) disease, and persons with latent TB infection (LTBI) are significant contributors to the pool of active TB cases. Genetic polymorphisms among hosts have been shown to contribute to the outcome of Mtb infection. The SP110 gene, which encodes an interferon-induced nuclear protein, has been shown to control host innate immunity to Mtb infection. In this study, we provide experimental data demonstrating the ability of the gene to control genetic susceptibility to latent and active TB infection. Genetic variants of the SP110 gene were investigated in the Taiwanese population (including 301 pulmonary TB patients, 68 LTBI individuals, and 278 healthy household contacts of the TB patients), and their association with susceptibility to latent and active TB infection was examined by performing an association analysis in a case-control study. We identified several SNPs (rs7580900, rs7580912, rs9061, rs11556887, and rs2241525) in the SP110 gene that are associated with susceptibility to LTBI and/or TB disease. Our studies further showed that the same SNPs may have opposite effects on the control of susceptibility to LTBI versus TB. In addition, our analyses demonstrated that the SP110 rs9061 SNP was associated with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) levels in plasma in LTBI subjects. The results suggest that the polymorphisms within SP110 have a role in controlling genetic susceptibility to latent and active TB infection in humans. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SP110 variants are associated with susceptibility to LTBI. Our study also demonstrated that the identified SP110 SNPs displayed the potential to predict the risk of LTBI and subsequent TB progression in Taiwan.
Project description:Human tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains a leading global health problem, causing 1.3 million deaths each year. The nuclear body protein, Sp110, has been linked to TB resistance and previous work showed that it enhances macrophage apoptosis upon Mtb infection. Here, we report on the role of Sp110 in transcriptional regulation of macrophage responses to Mtb through integrated transcriptome and mechanistic studies. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Sp110 regulates genes involved in immune responses, apoptosis, defence responses, and inflammatory responses. Detailed investigation revealed that, in addition to apoptosis-related genes, Sp110 regulates cytokines, chemokines and genes that regulate intracellular survival of Mtb. Moreover, Sp110 regulates miRNA expression in macrophages, with immune and apoptosis-related miRNAs such as miR-125a, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-21a and miR-99b under Sp110 regulation. Additionally, our results showed that Sp110 upregulates BCL2 modifying factor (Bmf) by inhibiting miR-125a, and forced expression of Bmf induces macrophage apoptosis. These findings not only reveal the transcriptional basis of Sp110-mediated macrophage resistance to Mtb, but also suggest potential regulatory roles for Sp110 related to inflammatory responses, miRNA profiles, and the intracellular growth of Mtb.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>SP110, an interferon-induced nuclear protein, belongs to the SP100/SP140 protein family. Very recently, we showed that SP110b, an SP110 isoform, controls host innate immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by regulating nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity. However, it remains unclear how the structure of SP110 relates to its cellular functions. In this study, we provide experimental data illustrating the protein domains that are responsible for its functions.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined the effects of SP110 isoforms and a series of deletion mutants of SP110 on transcriptional regulation by luciferase reporter assays. We also employed confocal microscopy to determine the cellular distributions of enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged SP110 isoforms and SP110 mutants. In addition, we performed immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analyses to identify the regions of SP110 that are responsible for protein interactions.<h4>Results</h4>Using reporter assays, we first demonstrated that SP110 isoforms have different regulatory effects on NF-?B-mediated transcription, supporting the notion that SP110 isoforms may have distinct cellular functions. Analysis of deletion mutants of SP110 showed that the interaction of the N-terminal fragment (amino acids 1-276) of SP110 with p50, a subunit of NF-?B, in the cytoplasm plays a crucial role in the down-regulation of the p50-driven tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?) promoter activity in the nucleus, while the middle and C-terminal regions of SP110 localize it to various cellular compartments. Surprisingly, a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) that contains one monopartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) and one bipartite NLS was identified in the middle region of SP110. The identification of a cryptic NoLS in the SP110 suggests that although this protein forms nuclear speckles in the nucleoplasm, it may be directed into the nucleolus to carry out distinct functions under certain cellular conditions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The findings from this study elucidating the multidomain structure of the SP110 not only identify functional domains of SP110 that are required for transcriptional regulation, cellular translocation, and protein interactions but also implicate that SP110 has additional functions through its unexpected activity in the nucleolus.
Project description:How host genetic factors affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection outcomes remains largely unknown. SP110b, an IFN-induced nuclear protein, is the nearest human homologue to the mouse Ipr1 protein that has been shown to control host innate immunity to Mtb infection. However, the function(s) of SP110b remains unclear.To elucidate the role of SP110b in controlling host immunity and susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB), as well as to identify the fundamental immunological and molecular mechanisms affected by SP110b.Using cell-based approaches and mouse models of Mtb infection, we characterized the function(s) of SP110b/Ipr1. We also performed genetic characterization of patients with TB to investigate the role of SP110 in controlling host susceptibility to TB.SP110b modulates nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activity, resulting in downregulation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) production and concomitant upregulation of NF-?B-induced antiapoptotic gene expression, thereby suppressing IFN-?-mediated monocyte and/or macrophage cell death. After Mtb infection, TNF-? is also downregulated in Ipr1-expressing mice that have alleviated cell death, less severe necrotic lung lesions, more efficient Mtb growth control in the lungs, and longer survival. Moreover, genetic studies in patients suggest that SP110 plays a key role in modulating TB susceptibility in concert with NF?B1 and TNF? genes.These results indicate that SP110b plays a crucial role in shaping the inflammatory milieu that supports host protection during infection by fine-tuning NF-?B activity, suggesting that SP110b may serve as a potential target for host-directed therapy aimed at manipulating host immunity against TB.
Project description:Tuberculosis remains a leading health problem worldwide and still accounts for about 1.3 million deaths annually. Expression of the mouse Sp110 nuclear body protein (Sp110) upregulates the apoptotic pathway, which plays an essential role in enhancing host immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the mechanism of this upregulation is unclear. Here, we have identified 253 proteins in mouse macrophages that interact with Sp110, of which 251 proteins were previously uncharacterized. The results showed that Sp110 interacts with heat shock protein 5 (Hspa5) to activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis, and that this is essential for Sp110 enhanced macrophage resistance to Mtb. Inhibition of the ER stress pathway abolishing the Sp110-enhanced macrophage apoptosis and resulted in increased intracellular survival of Mtb in macrophages overexpressing Sp110 Further studies revealed that Sp110 also interacts with the RNA binding protein, Ncl to promote its degradation. Consequently, the expression of Bcl2, usually stabilized by Ncl, was downregulated in Sp110 overexpressing macrophages. Moreover, overexpression of Sp110 promotes degradation of ribosomal protein Rps3a, resulting in upregulation of the activity of the pro-apoptotic poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, macrophages from transgenic cattle with increased Sp110 expression confirmed that activation of the ER stress response is the main pathway through which Sp110-enhanced macrophages impart resistance to Mtb. This work has revealed the mechanism of Sp110 enhanced macrophage apoptosis in response to Mtb infection, and provides new insights into the study of host-pathogen interactions.
Project description:Susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) is partially dependent on host genetic variability. SP110 and PMP22 are candidate genes identified in this study as associated with human susceptibility to TB. Here we performed an association analysis in a case-control study of a Tibetan population (217 cases and 383 controls). Using bioinformatics methods, we identified two SNPs in SP110 that may decrease susceptibility to TB (rs4327230, p<0.001, OR: 0.37, 95%CI: 0.25-0.55; rs2114591, p<0.001, OR: 0.59, 95%CI: 0.45-0.78), whereas one SNP in PMP22 appeared to increase TB risk (rs13422, p=0.003, OR: 1.45, 95%CI: 1.14-1.84). SNPs rs4327230 and rs2114591 remained significant after Bonferroni correction (p<0.00178). We found that the "GC" haplotype in SP110 was protective against TB, with a 64% reduction in disease risk. "CA" and "CG" in PMP22 were also associated with a protective effect. Our study indicates there is an association between specific gene polymorphisms and TB risk in a Tibetan population, and may help to identify those TB-affected individuals most susceptible to disease.
Project description:Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated genome modification has been applied successfully to create transgenic animals in various species, such as mouse, pig, and even monkey. However, transgenic cattle with gene knockin have yet to be created using TALENs. Here, we report site-specific knockin of the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) nickase-mediated SP110 nuclear body protein gene (SP110) via homologous recombination to produce tuberculosis-resistant cattle. In vitro and in vivo challenge and transmission experiments proved that the transgenic cattle are able to control the growth and multiplication of Mycobacterium bovis, turn on the apoptotic pathway of cell death instead of necrosis after infection, and efficiently resist the low dose of M. bovis transmitted from tuberculous cattle in nature. In this study, we developed TALE nickases to modify the genome of Holstein-Friesian cattle, thereby engineering a heritable genome modification that facilitates resistance to tuberculosis.