Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) binding determines substrate recognition and paralog-selective SUMO modification.
ABSTRACT: Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) regulate diverse cellular processes through their covalent attachment to target proteins. Vertebrates express three SUMO paralogs: SUMO-1, SUMO-2, and SUMO-3 (SUMO-2 and SUMO-3 are approximately 96% identical and referred to as SUMO-2/3). SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 are conjugated, at least in part, to unique subsets of proteins and thus regulate distinct cellular pathways. However, how different proteins are selectively modified by SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 is unknown. We demonstrate that BLM, the RecQ DNA helicase mutated in Bloom syndrome, is preferentially modified by SUMO-2/3 both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that non-covalent interactions between SUMO and BLM are required for modification at non-consensus sites and that preferential SUMO-2/3 modification is determined by preferential SUMO-2/3 binding. We also present evidence that sumoylation of a C-terminal fragment of HIPK2 is dependent on SUMO binding, indicating that non-covalent interactions between SUMO and target proteins provide a general mechanism for SUMO substrate selection and possible paralog-selective modification.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Conjugation of small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) is a frequent post-translational modification of proteins. SUMOs can also temporally associate with protein-targets via SUMO binding motifs (SBMs). Protein sumoylation has been identified as an important regulatory mechanism especially in the regulation of transcription and the maintenance of genome stability. The precise molecular mechanisms by which SUMO conjugation and association act are, however, not understood. FINDINGS: Using NMR spectroscopy and protein-DNA cross-linking experiments, we demonstrate here that SUMO-1 can specifically interact with dsDNA in a sequence-independent fashion. We also show that SUMO-1 binding to DNA can compete with other protein-DNA interactions at the example of the regulatory domain of Thymine-DNA Glycosylase and, based on these competition studies, estimate the DNA binding constant of SUMO1 in the range 1 mM. CONCLUSION: This finding provides an important insight into how SUMO-1 might exert its activity. SUMO-1 might play a general role in destabilizing DNA bound protein complexes thereby operating in a bottle-opener way of fashion, explaining its pivotal role in regulating the activity of many central transcription and DNA repair complexes.
Project description:Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification regulates numerous cellular processes. Unlike ubiquitin, detection of endogenous SUMOylated proteins is limited by the lack of naturally occurring protease sites in the C-terminal tail of SUMO proteins. Proteome-wide detection of SUMOylation sites on target proteins typically requires ectopic expression of mutant SUMOs with introduced tryptic sites. Here, we report a method for proteome-wide, site-level detection of endogenous SUMOylation that uses ?-lytic protease, WaLP. WaLP digestion of SUMOylated proteins generates peptides containing SUMO-remnant diglycyl-lysine (KGG) at the site of SUMO modification. Using previously developed immuno-affinity isolation of KGG-containing peptides followed by mass spectrometry, we identified 1209 unique endogenous SUMO modification sites. We also demonstrate the impact of proteasome inhibition on ubiquitin and SUMO-modified proteomes using parallel quantitation of ubiquitylated and SUMOylated peptides. This methodological advancement enables determination of endogenous SUMOylated proteins under completely native conditions.
Project description:SUMOylation, the covalent attachment of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier), is a eukaryotic post-translational event that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in several biological processes. When used as an N-terminal tag or fusion partner, SUMO has been shown to enhance functional protein production significantly by improving folding, solubility, and stability. We have engineered several SUMOs and, through their fusion, developed a system for enhancing the expression and secretion of complex proteins. To demonstrate the fidelity of this fusion technology, secreted phospholipase A(2) proteins (sPLA(2)) were produced using HEK-293T and CHO-K1 cells. Five mouse sPLA(2) homologs were expressed and secreted in mammalian cell cultures using SUMO or SUMO-derived, N-terminal fusion partners. Mean and median increases of 43- and 18-fold, respectively, were obtained using novel SUMO mutants that are resistant to digestion by endogenous deSUMOylases.
Project description:SUMO proteins are small ubiquitin-related modifiers. All SUMOs are synthesized as propeptides that are post-translationally cleaved prior to conjugation. After processing, SUMOs become covalently conjugated to cellular targets through a pathway that is similar to ubiquitination. Ubiquitin like protein proteases/Sentrin specific proteases (Ulp/SENPs) mediate both processing and deconjugation of SUMOs. The action of Ulp/SENPs makes SUMOylation a highly dynamic post-translational modification. To investigate how Ulp/SENPs are regulated in a developmental context, we isolated and characterized all Ulp/SENPs in Xenopus laevis. Xenopus possess homologues of mammalian SENP3, 5, 6 and 7. All of these enzymes reacted with HA-tagged vinyl sulfone derivatives of SUMO-2 (HA-SU2-VS) but not SUMO-1 (HA-SU1-VS), suggesting that they act primarily on SUMO-2 and -3. In contrast, Xenopus possess a single member of the SENP1/SENP2 subfamily of Ulp/SENPs, most closely related to mammalian SENP1. Xenopus SENP1 reacted with HA-SU1-VS and HA-SU2-VS, suggesting that it acts on all SUMO paralogues. We analyzed the mRNA and protein levels for each of the Ulp/SENPs through development; we found that they show distinct patterns of expression that may involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Finally, we have characterized the developmental function of the most abundant Ulp/SENP found within Xenopus eggs, SENP3. Depletion of SENP3 using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (morpholinos) caused accumulation of high molecular weight SUMO-2/3 conjugated species, defects in developing embryos and changes in the expression of some genes regulated by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) pathway. These findings collectively indicate that SUMO proteases are both highly regulated and essential for normal development.
Project description:SUMOs are small ubiquitin-related polypeptides that are reversibly conjugated to many nuclear proteins. Although the number of identified substrates has grown rapidly, relatively little is still understood about when, where, and why most proteins are modified by SUMO. Here, we demonstrate that enzymes involved in the SUMO modification and demodification of proteins are components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We show that SENP2, a SUMO protease that is able to demodify both SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 or SUMO-3 protein conjugates, localizes to the nucleoplasmic face of the NPC. The unique amino-terminal domain of SENP2 interacts with the FG repeat domain of Nup153, indicating that SENP2 associates with the nucleoplasmic basket of the NPC. We also investigated the localization of the SUMO conjugating enzyme, Ubc9. Using immunogold labeling of isolated nuclear envelopes, we found that Ubc9 localizes to both the cytoplasmic and the nucleoplasmic filaments of the NPC. In vitro binding studies revealed that Ubc9 and SUMO-1-modified RanGAP1 bind synergistically to form a trimeric complex with a component of the cytoplasmic filaments of the NPC, Nup358. Our results indicate that both SUMO modification and demodification of proteins may occur at the NPC and suggest a connection between the SUMO modification pathway and nucleocytoplasmic transport.
Project description:The gene mutated in Bloom's syndrome, BLM, is important in the repair of damaged replication forks, and it has both pro- and anti-recombinogenic roles in homologous recombination (HR). At damaged forks, BLM interacts with RAD51 recombinase, the essential enzyme in HR that catalyzes homology-dependent strand invasion. We have previously shown that defects in BLM modification by the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) cause increased gamma-H2AX foci. Because the increased gamma-H2AX could result from defective repair of spontaneous DNA damage, we hypothesized that SUMO modification regulates BLM's function in HR repair at damaged forks. To test this hypothesis, we treated cells that stably expressed a normal BLM (BLM+) or a SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM) with hydroxyurea (HU) and examined the effects of stalled replication forks on RAD51 and its DNA repair functions. HU treatment generated excess gamma-H2AX in SM-BLM compared to BLM+ cells, consistent with a defect in replication-fork repair. SM-BLM cells accumulated increased numbers of DNA breaks and were hypersensitive to DNA damage. Importantly, HU treatment failed to induce sister-chromatid exchanges in SM-BLM cells compared to BLM+ cells, indicating a specific defect in HR repair and suggesting that RAD51 function could be compromised. Consistent with this hypothesis, RAD51 localization to HU-induced repair foci was impaired in SM-BLM cells. These data suggested that RAD51 might interact noncovalently with SUMO. We found that in vitro RAD51 interacts noncovalently with SUMO and that it interacts more efficiently with SUMO-modified BLM compared to unmodified BLM. These data suggest that SUMOylation controls the switch between BLM's pro- and anti-recombinogenic roles in HR. In the absence of BLM SUMOylation, BLM perturbs RAD51 localization at damaged replication forks and inhibits fork repair by HR. Conversely, BLM SUMOylation relieves its inhibitory effects on HR, and it promotes RAD51 function.
Project description:Posttranslational modifications by small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) regulate many cellular processes, including genome integrity, gene expression, and ribosome biogenesis. The E2-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 catalyzes the conjugation of SUMOs to ?-amino groups of lysine residues in target proteins. Attachment of SUMO moieties to internal lysines in Ubc9 itself can further lead to the formation of polymeric SUMO chains. Mono- and poly-SUMOylations of target proteins provide docking sites for distinct adapter and effector proteins important for regulating discrete SUMO-regulated pathways. However, molecular tools to dissect pathways depending on either mono- or poly-SUMOylation are largely missing. Using a protein-engineering approach, we generated high-affinity SUMO2 variants by phage display that bind the back side binding site of Ubc9 and function as SUMO-based Ubc9 inhibitors (SUBINs). Importantly, we found that distinct SUBINs primarily inhibit poly-SUMO chain formation, whereas mono-SUMOylation was not impaired. Proof-of-principle experiments demonstrated that in a cellular context, SUBINs largely prevent heat shock-triggered poly-SUMOylation. Moreover, SUBINs abrogated arsenic-induced degradation of promyelocytic leukemia protein. We propose that the availability of the new chain-selective SUMO inhibitors reported here will enable a thorough investigation of poly-SUMO-mediated cellular processes, such as DNA damage responses and cell cycle progression.
Project description:Sumoylation is essential for progression through mitosis, but the specific protein targets and functions remain poorly understood. In this study, we used chromosome spreads to more precisely define the localization of SUMO-2/3 (small ubiquitin-related modifier) to the inner centromere and protein scaffold of mitotic chromosomes. We also developed methods to immunopurify proteins modified by endogenous, untagged SUMO-2/3 from mitotic chromosomes. Using these methods, we identified 149 chromosome-associated SUMO-2/3 substrates by nLC-ESI-MS/MS. Approximately one-third of the identified proteins have reported functions in mitosis. Consistent with SUMO-2/3 immunolocalization, we identified known centromere- and kinetochore-associated proteins, as well as chromosome scaffold associated proteins. Notably, >30 proteins involved in chromatin modification or remodeling were identified. Our results provide insights into the roles of sumoylation as a regulator of chromatin structure and other diverse processes in mitosis. Furthermore, our purification and fractionation methodologies represent an important compliment to existing approaches to identify sumoylated proteins using exogenously expressed and tagged SUMOs.
Project description:The availability of the complete DNA sequence of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii genome and advanced computational biology tools has allowed elucidation and study of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) system in this unicellular photosynthetic alga and model eukaryotic cell system. SUMO is a member of a ubiquitin-like protein superfamily that is covalently attached to target proteins as a post-translational modification to alter the localization, stability, and/or function of the target protein in response to changes in the cellular environment. Three SUMO homologs (CrSUMO96, CrSUMO97, and CrSUMO148) and three novel SUMO-related proteins (CrSUMO-like89A, CrSUMO-like89B, and CrSUMO-like90) were found by diverse gene predictions, hidden Markov models, and database search tools inferring from Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana SUMOs. Among them, CrSUMO96, which can be recognized by the A. thaliana anti-SUMO1 antibody, was studied in detail. Free CrSUMO96 was purified by immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry analysis. A SUMO-conjugating enzyme (SCE) (E2, Ubc9) in C. reinhardtii was shown to be functional in an Escherichia coli-based in vivo chimeric SUMOylation system. Antibodies to CrSUMO96 recognized free and conjugated forms of CrSUMO96 in Western blot analysis of whole-cell extracts and nuclear localized SUMOylated proteins with in situ immunofluorescence. Western blot analysis showed a marked increase in SUMO conjugated proteins when the cells were subjected to environmental stresses, such as heat shock and osmotic stress. Related analyses revealed multiple potential ubiquitin genes along with two Rub1 genes and one Ufm1 gene in the C. reinhardtii genome.