Beta3 integrin haplotype influences gene regulation and plasma von Willebrand factor activity.
ABSTRACT: The Leu33Pro polymorphism of the gene encoding beta(3) integrin (ITGB3) is associated with acute coronary syndromes and influences platelet aggregation. Three common promoter polymorphisms have also been identified. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the influence of the ITGB3 -400C/A, -425A/C and -468G/A promoter polymorphisms on reporter gene expression and nuclear protein binding and (2) determine genotype and haplotype associations with platelet alpha(IIb)beta(3) receptor density. Promoter haplotypes were introduced into an ITGB3 promoter-pGL3 construct by site directed mutagenesis and luciferase reporter gene expression analysed in HEL and HMEC-1 cells. Binding of nuclear proteins was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. The association of ITGB3 haplotype with platelet alpha(IIb)beta(3) receptor density was determined in 223 subjects. Species conserved motifs were identified in the ITGB3 promoter in the vicinity of the three polymorphisms. The GAA, GCC, AAC, AAA and ACC constructs induced approximately 50% increased luciferase expression relative to the GAC construct in both cell types. Haplotype analysis including Leu33Pro indicated five common haplotypes; no associations between ITGB3 haplotypes and receptor density were found. However, the GCC-Pro33 haplotype was associated with significantly higher vWF activity (128.6 [112.1-145.1]%) compared with all other haplotypes (107.1 [101.2-113.0]%, p=0.02). In conclusion, the GCC-Pro33 haplotype was associated with increased vWF activity but not with platelet alpha(IIb)beta(3) receptor density, which may indicate ITGB3 haplotype influences endothelial function.
Project description:Engagement of integrins by the extracellular matrix initiates signaling cascades that drive a variety of cellular functions, including neuronal migration and axonal pathfinding in the brain. Multiple lines of evidence link the ITGB3 gene encoding the integrin ?3 subunit with the serotonin (5-HT) system, likely via its modulation of the 5-HT transporter (SERT). The ITGB3 coding polymorphism Leu33Pro (rs5918, PlA2) produces hyperactive ?v?3 receptors that influence whole-blood 5-HT levels and may influence the risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a phenome-wide scan of psychiatric diagnoses, we found significant, male-specific associations between the Pro33 allele and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and ASDs. Here, we used knock-in (KI) mice expressing an Itgb3 variant that phenocopies the human Pro33 variant to elucidate the consequences of constitutively enhanced ?v?3 signaling to the 5-HT system in the brain. KI mice displayed deficits in multiple behaviors, including anxiety, repetitive, and social behaviors. Anatomical studies revealed a significant decrease in 5-HT synapses in the midbrain, accompanied by decreases in SERT activity and reduced localization of SERTs to integrin adhesion complexes in synapses of KI mice. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) rescued SERT function in synapses of KI mice, demonstrating that constitutive active FAK signaling downstream of the Pro32Pro33 integrin ?v?3 suppresses SERT activity. Our studies identify a complex regulation of 5-HT homeostasis and behaviors by integrin ?v?3, revealing an important role for integrins in modulating risk for neuropsychiatric disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The integrin ?3 Leu33Pro coding polymorphism has been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) within a subgroup of patients with elevated blood 5-HT levels, linking integrin ?3, 5-HT, and ASD risk. We capitalized on these interactions to demonstrate that the Pro33 coding variation in the murine integrin ?3 recapitulates the sex-dependent neurochemical and behavioral attributes of ASD. Using state-of-the-art techniques, we show that presynaptic 5-HT function is altered in these mice, and that the localization of 5-HT transporters to specific compartments within the synapse, disrupted by the integrin ?3 Pro33 mutation, is critical for appropriate reuptake of 5-HT. Our studies provide fundamental insight into the genetic network regulating 5-HT neurotransmission in the CNS that is also associated with ASD risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Defects of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) are typical of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, an inherited autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by the failure of platelets to aggregate in response to all physiological agonists, but with no abnormalities in the number or size of platelets. Although large heterogeneity has been described for Glanzmann's thrombasthenia, no family has so far been described as having an autosomal dominant form of this disease. DESIGN AND METHODS: We describe two Italian families with moderate thrombocytopenia with large platelets, defective platelet function and moderate/severe mucocutaneous bleeding, transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait and associated with a novel integrin beta(3)-gene (ITGB3) mutation. RESULTS: The characteristics of our families are moderate macrothrombocytopenia and defective platelet function associated with a mild reduction of surface alpha(Ib) beta(3), impaired platelet aggregation to physiological agonists but not to ristocetin, normal clot retraction, reduced fibrinogen binding and expression of activated alpha(IIb)beta(3) upon stimulation, normal platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen but reduced platelet spreading and tyrosine phosphorylation, indicating defective alpha(IIb)beta(3)-mediated outside-in signaling. Molecular analysis revealed a novel mutation of ITGB3 that determines an in-frame deletion producing the loss of amino acids 647-686 of the betaTD ectodomain of integrin beta(3). Haplotype analysis indicated that the two families inherited the mutation from a common ancestral chromosome. CONCLUSIONS: This novel autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia associated with platelet dysfunction raises interesting questions about the role of integrin beta(3), and its betaTD domain, in platelet formation and function.
Project description:Cells use adhesion receptor integrins to communicate with their surroundings. Integrin activation and cellular signaling are coupled with change from bent to extended conformation. ?3 integrins, including ?IIb?3, which is essential for the function of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis, and ?V?3, which plays multiple roles in diverse cell types, have been prototypes in understanding integrin structure and function. Despite extensive structural studies, a high-resolution integrin structure in an extended conformation remains to be determined. The human ?3 Leu33Pro polymorphism, located at the PSI domain, defines human platelet-specific alloantigens 1a and 1b (HPA-1a/b), immune response to which is a cause of posttransfusion purpura and fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Leu33Pro substitution has also been suggested to be a risk factor for thrombosis. Here we report the crystal structure of the ?3 headpiece in either Leu33 or Pro33 form, both of which reveal intermediate and fully extended conformations coexisting in 1 crystal. These were used to build high-resolution structures of full-length ?3 integrin in the intermediate and fully extended states, agreeing well with the corresponding conformations observed by electron microscopy. Our structures reveal how ?3 integrin becomes extended at its ?-knee region and how the flexibility of ?-leg domains is determined. In addition, our structures reveal conformational changes of the PSI and I-EGF1 domains upon ?3 extension, which may affect the binding of conformation-dependent anti-HPA-1a alloantibodies. Our structural and functional data show that Leu33Pro substitution does not directly alter the conformation or ligand binding of ?3 integrin.
Project description:Integrins are heterodimeric cell-adhesion receptors comprising ? and ? subunits that transmit signals allosterically in both directions across the membrane by binding to intra- and extracellular components. The human platelet antigen-1 (HPA-1) polymorphism in ?IIb?3 arises from a Leu ? Pro exchange at residue 33 in the genu of the ?3 subunit, resulting in Leu33 (HPA-1a) or Pro33 (HPA-1b) isoforms. Although clinical investigations have provided conflicting results, some studies have suggested that Pro33 platelets exhibit increased thrombogenicity. Under flow-dynamic conditions, the Pro33 variant displays prothrombotic properties, characterized by increased platelet adhesion, aggregate/thrombus formation, and outside-in signaling. However, the molecular events underlying this prothrombotic phenotype have remained elusive. As residue 33 is located >80 Å away from extracellular binding sites or transmembrane domains, we hypothesized that the Leu ? Pro exchange allosterically shifts the dynamic conformational equilibrium of ?IIb?3 toward an active state. Multiple microsecond-long, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the ectodomain of the Leu33 and Pro33 isoforms provided evidence that the Leu ? Pro exchange weakens interdomain interactions at the genu and alters the structural dynamics of the integrin to a more unbent and splayed state. Using FRET analysis of fluorescent proteins fused with ?IIb?3 in transfected HEK293 cells, we found that the Pro33 variant in its resting state displays a lower energy transfer than the Leu33 isoform. This finding indicated a larger spatial separation of the cytoplasmic tails in the Pro33 variant. Together, our results indicate that the Leu ? Pro exchange allosterically shifts the dynamic conformational equilibrium of ?IIb?3 to a structural state closer to the active one, promoting the fully active state and fostering the prothrombotic phenotype of Pro33 platelets.
Project description:Integrins containing the beta(3) subunit are key players in tumor growth and metastasis. A functional Leu33Pro polymorphism (rs5918) in the beta(3) subunit of the integrin gene (ITGB3) has previously been suggested to act as a modifier of ovarian cancer risk in Polish BRCA1 mutation carriers. To investigate the association further, we genotyped 9,998 BRCA1 and 5,544 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 34 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for the ITGB3 Leu33Pro polymorphism. Data were analysed within a Cox-proportional hazards framework using a retrospective likelihood approach. There was marginal evidence that the ITGB3 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.23, p-trend 0.05). However, when the original Polish study was excluded from the analysis, the polymorphism was no longer significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.19, p-trend 0.25). There was no evidence of an association with ovarian cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.89-1.32). The polymorphism was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The ITGB3 Leu33Pro polymorphism does not modify breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Platelet activation and aggregation play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. We examined the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the GPIIIa platelet glycoprotein (Leu33Pro) with carotid artery plaque morphology and with expression of platelet markers using data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Carotid MRI study. METHODS:The study sample consisted of 1202 Caucasian members of the ARIC study cohort recruited in 2004-2005 to participate in the Carotid MRI Substudy under stratified sampling based on maximum carotid artery wall thickness. The Leu33Pro polymorphism was identified as SNP rs5918 in the ITGB3 gene. Plaque visualization was accomplished with contrast enhanced MRI examination of the thickest segment of the carotid artery. Expression of platelet markers was measured using fasting whole blood flow cytometry. RESULTS:This cross-sectional analysis based on age and gender adjusted weighted linear regression models suggests that those homozygous for the Leu33Pro risk allele (C) have decreased mean and minimum fibrous cap thickness. We did not observe differences in plaque lipid volume or maximum carotid artery wall thickness across SNP rs5918 genotypes. Carriers of the Leu33Pro polymorphism, as compared to major allele homozygotes, had greater percent of platelets expressing P-selectin, a platelet glycoprotein indicating activation status. Prevalent coronary heart disease did not affect estimates of fibrous cap thickness or of platelet activation. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that individuals with Leu33Pro polymorphism of the GPIIIa glycoprotein may be predisposed to increased risk of atherosclerotic plaque rupture.
Project description:The integrin-β 3 gene (ITGB3), located on human chromosome 17q21.3, was previously identified as a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for 5-HT blood levels and has been implicated as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We performed a family-based association study in 281 simplex and 12 multiplex Caucasian families. ITGB3 haplotypes are significantly associated with autism (HBAT, global P=0.038). Haplotype H3 is largely over-transmitted to the affected offspring and doubles the risk of an ASD diagnosis (HBAT P=0.005; odds ratio (OR)=2.000), at the expense of haplotype H1, which is under-transmitted (HBAT P=0.018; OR=0.725). These two common haplotypes differ only at rs12603582 located in intron 11, which reaches a P-value of 0.072 in single-marker FBAT analyses. Interestingly, rs12603582 is strongly associated with pre-term delivery in our ASD patients (P=0.008). On the other hand, it is SNP rs2317385, located at the 5' end of the gene, that significantly affects 5-HT blood levels (Mann-Whitney U-test, P=0.001; multiple regression analysis, P=0.010). No gene-gene interaction between ITGB3 and SLC6A4 has been detected. In conclusion, we identify a significant association between a common ITGB3 haplotype and ASD. Distinct markers, located toward the 5' and 3' ends of the gene, seemingly modulate 5-HT blood levels and autism liability, respectively. Our results also raise interest into ITGB3 influences on feto-maternal immune interactions in autism.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Rare pathogenic variants in either the ITGA2B or ITGB3 genes have been linked to autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia associated with abnormal platelet production and function, deserving the designation of Glanzmann Thrombasthenia-Like Syndrome (GTLS) or ITGA2B/ITGB3-related thrombocytopenia.<br><br><b>Objectives: </b>To describe a series of patients with familial macrothrombocytopenia and decreased expression of ?IIb?3 integrin due to defects in the ITGA2B or ITGB3 genes.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We reviewed the clinical and laboratory records of 10 Portuguese families with GTLS (33 patients and 11 unaffected relatives), including the functional and genetic defects.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Patients had absent to moderate bleeding, macrothrombocytopenia, low ?IIb?3 expression, impaired platelet aggregation/ATP release to physiological agonists and low expression of activation-induced binding sites on ?IIb?3 (PAC-1) and receptor-induced binding sites on its ligand (bound fibrinogen), upon stimulation with TRAP-6 and ADP. Evidence for constitutive ?IIb?3 activation, occurred in 2 out of 9 patients from 8 families studied, but also in 2 out of 12 healthy controls. We identified 7 missense variants: 3 in ITGA2B (5 families), and 4 in ITGB3 (5 families). Three variants (?IIb: p.Arg1026Trp and p.Arg1026Gln and ?3: p.Asp749His) were previously reported. The remaining (?IIb: p.Gly1007Val and ?3: p.Thr746Pro, p.His748Pro and p.Arg760Cys) are new, expanding the ?IIb?3 defects associated with GTLS. The integration of the clinical and laboratory data allowed the identification of two GTLS subgroups, with distinct disease severity.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>Previously reported ITGA2B and ITGB3 variants related to thrombocytopenia were clustered in a confined region of the membrane-proximal cytoplasmic domains, the inner membrane clasp. For the first time, variants are reported at the outer membrane clasp, at the transmembrane domain of ?IIb, and at the membrane distal cytoplasmic domains of ?3. This is the largest single-center series of inherited macrothrombocytopenia associated with ?IIb?3 variants published to date.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate ITGA2B and ITGB3 genetic polymorphisms and to evaluate the variability in the platelet function in healthy Chinese subjects. The genetic sequence of the entire coding region of the ITGA2B and ITGB3 genes was investigated. Adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa content, bleeding time, and coagulation indexes were detected. Thirteen variants in the ITGA2B locus and 29 variants in the ITGB3 locus were identified in the Chinese population. The rs1009312 and rs2015049 were associated with the mean platelet volume. The rs70940817 was significantly correlated with the prothrombin time. The rs70940817 and rs112188890 were related with the activated partial thromboplastin time, and ITGB3 rs4642 was correlated with the thrombin time and fibrinogen. The minor alleles of rs56197296 and rs5919 were associated with decreased ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and rs55827077 was related with decreased GPIIb/IIIa per platelet. The rs1009312, rs2015049, rs3760364, rs567581451, rs7208170, and rs117052258 were related with bleeding time. Further studies are needed to explore the clinical importance of ITGA2B and ITGB3 SNPs in the platelet function.
Project description:Elevated platelet serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is found in a subset of children with autism and in some of their first-degree relatives. Indices of the platelet serotonin system, including whole blood 5-HT, 5-HT binding affinity for the serotonin transporter (K(m)), 5-HT uptake (V(max)), and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) receptor binding, were previously studied in 24 first-degree relatives of probands with autism, half of whom were selected for elevated whole blood 5-HT levels. All subjects were then genotyped for selected polymorphisms at the SLC6A4, HTR7, HTR2A, ITGB3, and TPH1 loci. Previous studies allowed an a priori prediction of SLC6A4 haplotypes that separated the subjects into three groups that showed significantly different 5-HT binding affinity (K(m), p=0.005) and 5-HT uptake rate (V(max), p=0.046). Genotypes at four individual polymorphisms in SLC6A4 were not associated with platelet 5-HT indices. Haplotypes at SLC6A4 and individual genotypes of polymorphisms at SLC6A4, HTR7, HTR2A, ITGB3, and TPH1 showed no significant association with whole blood 5-HT. Haplotype analysis of two polymorphisms in TPH1 revealed a nominally significant association with whole blood 5-HT (p=0.046). These initial studies of indices of the 5-HT system with several single-nucleotide polymorphisms at loci in this system generate hypotheses for testing in other samples.