Macrocyclic beta-sheet peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through intermolecular beta-sheet interactions.
ABSTRACT: This paper reports the design, synthesis, and characterization of a family of cyclic peptides that mimic protein quaternary structure through beta-sheet interactions. These peptides are 54-membered-ring macrocycles comprising an extended heptapeptide beta-strand, two Hao beta-strand mimics [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] joined by one additional alpha-amino acid, and two delta-linked ornithine beta-turn mimics [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Peptide 3a, as the representative of these cyclic peptides, contains a heptapeptide sequence (TSFTYTS) adapted from the dimerization interface of protein NuG2 [PDB ID: 1mio]. 1H NMR studies of aqueous solutions of peptide 3a show a partially folded monomer in slow exchange with a strongly folded oligomer. NOE studies clearly show that the peptide self-associates through edge-to-edge beta-sheet dimerization. Pulsed-field gradient (PFG) NMR diffusion coefficient measurements and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) studies establish that the oligomer is a tetramer. Collectively, these experiments suggest a model in which cyclic peptide 3a oligomerizes to form a dimer of beta-sheet dimers. In this tetrameric beta-sheet sandwich, the macrocyclic peptide 3a is folded to form a beta-sheet, the beta-sheet is dimerized through edge-to-edge interactions, and this dimer is further dimerized through hydrophobic face-to-face interactions involving the Phe and Tyr groups. Further studies of peptides 3b-3n, which are homologues of peptide 3a with 1-6 variations in the heptapeptide sequence, elucidate the importance of the heptapeptide sequence in the folding and oligomerization of this family of cyclic peptides. Studies of peptides 3b-3g show that aromatic residues across from Hao improve folding of the peptide, while studies of peptides 3h-3n indicate that hydrophobic residues at positions R3 and R5 of the heptapeptide sequence are important in oligomerization.
Project description:The development of peptide beta-hairpins is problematic, because folding depends on the amino acid sequence and changes to the sequence can significantly decrease folding. Robust beta-hairpins that can tolerate such changes are attractive tools for studying interactions involving protein beta-sheets and developing inhibitors of these interactions. This paper introduces a new class of peptide models of protein beta-sheets that addresses the problem of separating folding from the sequence. These model beta-sheets are macrocyclic peptides that fold in water to present a pentapeptide beta-strand along one edge; the other edge contains the tripeptide beta-strand mimic Hao [JACS 2000, 122, 7654] and two additional amino acids. The pentapeptide and Hao-containing peptide strands are connected by two delta-linked ornithine (deltaOrn) turns [JACS 2003, 125, 876]. Each deltaOrn turn contains a free alpha-amino group that permits the linking of individual modules to form divalent beta-sheets. These "cyclic modular beta-sheets" are synthesized by standard solid-phase peptide synthesis of a linear precursor followed by solution-phase cyclization. Eight cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a-1h containing sequences based on beta-amyloid and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR. Linked cyclic modular beta-sheet 2, which contains two modules of 1b, was also synthesized and characterized. 1H NMR studies show downfield alpha-proton chemical shifts, deltaOrn delta-proton magnetic anisotropy, and NOE cross-peaks that establish all compounds but 1c and 1g to be moderately or well folded into a conformation that resembles a beta-sheet. Pulsed-field gradient NMR diffusion experiments show little or no self-association at low (</=2 mM) concentrations. Changes to the residues in the Hao-containing strands of 1c and 1g improve folding and show that folding of the structures can be enhanced without altering the sequence of the pentapeptide strand. Well-folded cyclic modular beta-sheets 1a, 1b, and 1f each have a phenylalanine directly across from Hao, suggesting that cyclic modular beta-sheets containing aromatic residues across from Hao are better folded.
Project description:This paper describes the X-ray crystallographic structure of a designed cyclic beta-sheet peptide that forms a well-defined hydrogen-bonded dimer that mimics beta-sheet dimers formed by proteins. The 54-membered ring macrocyclic peptide (1a) contains molecular template and turn units that induce beta-sheet structure in a heptapeptide strand that forms the dimerization interface. The X-ray crystallographic structure reveals the structures of the two "Hao" amino acids that help template the beta-sheet structure and the two delta-linked ornithine turn units that link the Hao-containing template to the heptapeptide beta-strand. The Hao amino acids adopt a conformation that resembles a tripeptide in a beta-strand conformation, with one edge of the Hao unit presenting an alternating array of hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor groups in the same pattern as that of a tripeptide beta-strand. The delta-linked ornithines adopt a conformation that resembles a hydrogen-bonded beta-turn, in which the ornithine takes the place of the i+1 and i+2 residues. The dimers formed by macrocyclic beta-sheet 1a resemble the dimers of many proteins, such as defensin HNP-3, the lambda-Cro repressor, interleukin 8, and the ribonuclease H domain of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The dimers of 1a self-assemble in the solid state into a barrel-shaped trimer of dimers in which the three dimers are arranged in a triangular fashion. Molecular modeling in which one of the three dimers is removed and the remaining two dimers are aligned face-to-face provides a model of the dimers of dimers of closely related macrocyclic beta-sheet peptides that were observed in solution.
Project description:This paper introduces polar and hydrophobic variants of the unnatural amino acid Hao, which mimics the hydrogen-bonding functionality of one edge of a beta-strand. In these variants, the methyl side chain of Hao is replaced with acidic, basic, and hydrophobic groups. These modifications can impart improved solubility and additional side-chain interactions to peptides containing Hao.
Project description:A peptide-based hydrogel has been designed that directs the formation of hydroxyapatite. MDG1, a twenty-seven residue peptide, undergoes triggered folding to form an unsymmetrical beta-hairpin that self-assembles in response to an increase in solution ionic strength to yield a mechanically rigid, self supporting hydrogel. The C-terminal portion of MDG1 contains a heptapeptide (MLPHHGA) capable of directing the mineralization process. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that the peptide folds and assembles to form a hydrogel network rich in beta-sheet secondary structure. Oscillatory rheology indicates that the hydrogel is mechanically rigid (G' 2500Pa) before mineralization. In separate experiments, mineralization was induced both biochemically and with cementoblast cells. Mineralization-domain had little effect on the mechanical rigidity of the gel. SEM and EDXS show that MDG1 gels are capable of directing the formation of hydroxapatite. Control hydrogels, prepared by peptides either lacking the mineral-directing portion or reversing its sequence, indicated that the heptapeptide is necessary and its actions are sequence specific.
Project description:This Letter reports the use of disulfide linkages to stabilize a beta-sheet dimer with a well-defined structure in aqueous and dimethyl sulfoxide solutions. In this dimer, two cyclic beta-sheet peptides are connected by disulfide linkages at the non-hydrogen-bonded rings. The cyclic beta-sheet "domains" interact through hydrogen bonding to form a four-stranded beta-sheet structure. This interaction results in enhanced folding of the cyclic beta-sheet peptides.
Project description:In Alzheimer's disease, aggregation of the ?-amyloid peptide (A?) results in the formation of oligomers and fibrils that are associated with neurodegeneration. Aggregation of A? occurs through interactions between different regions of the peptide. This paper and the accompanying paper constitute a two-part investigation of two key regions of A?: the central region and the C-terminal region. These two regions promote aggregation and adopt ?-sheet structure in the fibrils, and may also do so in the oligomers. In this paper, we study the assembly of macrocyclic ?-sheet peptides that contain residues 17-23 (LVFFAED) from the central region and residues 30-36 (AIIGLMV) from the C-terminal region. These peptides assemble to form tetramers. Each tetramer consists of two hydrogen-bonded dimers that pack through hydrophobic interactions in a sandwich-like fashion. Incorporation of a single 15N isotopic label into each peptide provides a spectroscopic probe with which to elucidate the ?-sheet assembly and interaction: 1H,15N HSQC studies facilitate the identification of the monomers and tetramers; 15N-edited NOESY studies corroborate the pairing of the dimers within the tetramers. In the following paper, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b06001 , we will extend these studies to elucidate the coassembly of the peptides to form heterotetramers.
Project description:The system of the hypervalent iodine(III) reagent FPID and (4-MeOC6H4)3P was successfully applied to solid-phase peptide synthesis and cyclic peptide synthesis. Four peptides with biological activities were synthesized through SPPS and the bioactive cyclic heptapeptide pseudostellarin D was obtained via solution-phase peptide synthesis. It is worth noting that FPID can be readily regenerated after the peptide coupling reaction.
Project description:Tumour formation is dependent on nutrient and oxygen supply from adjacent blood vessels. Angiogenesis inhibitors can play a vital role in controlling blood vessel formation and consequently tumour progression by inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation, sprouting and migration. The primary aim of the present study was to design cyclic thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) mimetics using disulfide-rich frameworks for anti-angiogenesis therapies and to determine whether these peptides have better potency than the linear parent peptide. A short anti-angiogenic heptapeptide fragment from TSP-1 (GVITRIR) was incorporated into two cyclic disulfide-rich frameworks, namely MCoTI-II (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II) and SFTI-1 (sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1). The cyclic peptides were chemically synthesized and folded in oxidation buffers, before being tested in a series of in vitro evaluations. Incorporation of the bioactive heptapeptide fragment into the cyclic frameworks resulted in peptides that inhibited microvascular endothelial cell migration, and had no toxicity against normal primary human endothelial cells or cancer cells. Importantly, all of the designed cyclic TSP-1 mimetics were far more stable than the linear heptapeptide in human serum. The present study has demonstrated a novel approach to stabilize the active region of TSP-1. The anti-angiogenic activity of the native TSP-1 active fragment was maintained in the new TSP-1 mimetics and the results provide a new chemical approach for the design of TSP-1 mimetics.
Project description:To investigate the mechanism of interaction of gramicidin S-like antimicrobial peptides with biological membranes, a series of five decameric cyclic cationic beta-sheet-beta-turn peptides with all possible combinations of aromatic D-amino acids, Cyclo(Val-Lys-Leu-D-Ar1-Pro-Val-Lys-Leu-D-Ar2-Pro) (Ar identical with Phe, Tyr, Trp), were synthesized. Conformations of these cyclic peptides were comparable in aqueous solutions and lipid vesicles. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements revealed entropy-driven binding of cyclic peptides to POPC and POPE/POPG lipid vesicles. Binding of peptides to both vesicle systems was endothermic-exceptions were peptides containing the Trp-Trp and Tyr-Trp pairs with exothermic binding to POPC vesicles. Application of one- and two-site binding (partitioning) models to binding isotherms of exothermic and endothermic binding processes, respectively, resulted in determination of peptide-lipid membrane binding constants (K(b)). The K(b1) and K(b2) values for endothermic two-step binding processes corresponded to high and low binding affinities (K(b1) >or= 100 K(b2)). Conformational change of cyclic peptides in transferring from buffer to lipid bilayer surfaces was estimated using fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the Tyr-Trp pair in one of the peptide constructs. The cyclic peptide conformation expands upon adsorption on lipid bilayer surface and interacts more deeply with the outer monolayer causing bilayer deformation, which may lead to formation of nonspecific transient peptide-lipid porelike zones causing membrane lysis.
Project description:Replica exchange molecular dynamics and an all-atom implicit solvent model are used to probe the thermodynamics of deposition of Alzheimer's Abeta monomers on preformed amyloid fibrils. Consistent with the experiments, two deposition stages have been identified. The docking stage occurs over a wide temperature range, starting with the formation of the first peptide-fibril interactions at 500 K. Docking is completed when a peptide fully adsorbs on the fibril edge at the temperature of 380 K. The docking transition appears to be continuous, and occurs without free energy barriers or intermediates. During docking, incoming Abeta monomer adopts a disordered structure on the fibril edge. The locking stage occurs at the temperature of approximately 360 K and is characterized by the rugged free energy landscape. Locking takes place when incoming Abeta peptide forms a parallel beta-sheet structure on the fibril edge. Because the beta-sheets formed by locked Abeta peptides are typically off-registry, the structure of the locked phase differs from the structure of the fibril interior. The study also reports that binding affinities of two distinct fibril edges with respect to incoming Abeta peptides are different. The peptides bound to the concave edge have significantly lower free energy compared to those bound on the convex edge. Comparison with the available experimental data is discussed.