ABSTRACT: Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains different from those of an endemic healthcare-associated clone was conducted over 13 years in Geneva, Switzerland. We demonstrated strain diversity, including clones rarely found in Europe. Local epidemiology of community-associated MRSA is diverse and is evolving by importation and transmission of new strains.
Project description:The development and maintenance of an arsenal of antibiotics is a major health care challenge. Ceftaroline is a new cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); however, no reports concerning MRSA ceftaroline susceptibility have been reported in Switzerland. We tested the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against an archived set of 60 MRSA strains from the University Hospital of Geneva collected from 1994 to 2003. Our results surprisingly revealed ceftaroline-resistant strains (MIC, >1 ?g/ml in 40/60 strains; EUCAST breakpoints, susceptible [S], ?1 ?g/ml; resistant [R], >1 ?g/ml) were present from 1998 to 2003. The detected resistant strains predominantly belonged to sequence type 228 (ST228) (South German clonotype) but also to ST247 (Iberian clonotype). A sequence analysis of these strains revealed missense mutations in the penicillin-binding protein 2A (PBP2A) allosteric domain (N146K or E239K and N146K-E150K-G246E). The majority of our ST228 PBP2A mutations (N146K or E150K) were distinct from ST228 PBP2A allosteric domain mutations (primarily E239K) recently described for MRSA strains collected in Thailand and Spain during the 2010 Assessing Worldwide Antimicrobial Resistance Evaluation (AWARE) global surveillance program. We also found that similar allosteric domain PBP2A mutations (N146K) correlated with ceftaroline resistance in an independent external ST228 MRSA set obtained from the nearby University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, collected from 2003 to 2008. Thus, ceftaroline resistance was observed in our archived strains (including two examples of an MIC of 4 µg/ml for the Iberian ST247 clonotype with the triple mutation N146K/E150K/G246E), at least as far back as 1998, considerably predating the commercial introduction of ceftaroline. Our results reinforce the notion that unknown parameters can potentially exert selective pressure on PBP2A that can subsequently modulate ceftaroline resistance.
Project description:In 2009, the Usutu virus (USUV) was first reported as a cause of human neuroinvasive disorders. In Switzerland, USUV has been detected in wild birds with a seroprevalence of up to 6.59% in captive specimens sampled from zoo enclosures. This study investigates the clinical prevalence of USUV in human acute neuroinvasive disorders in Switzerland. Two hundred and fifty-eight cerebrospinal fluid samples collected between 2015 and 2017 for routine clinical care in a tertiary level hospital (Geneva) were tested for USUV by rRT-PCR. No samples were found positive, suggesting the absence, or the extremely low circulation of USUV in Western Switzerland.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is limited information regarding sleep duration and determinants in Switzerland. We aimed to assess the trends and determinants of time in bed as a proxy for sleep duration in the Swiss canton of Geneva. METHODS: Data from repeated, independent cross-sectional representative samples of adults (? 18 years) of the Geneva population were collected between 2005 and 2011. Self-reported time in bed, education, monthly income, and nationality were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Data from 3,853 participants (50% women, 51.7 ± 10.9 years) were analyzed. No significant trend was observed between 2005 and 2011 regarding time in bed or the prevalence of short (? 6 h/day) and long (> 9 h/day) time in bed. Elderly participants reported a longer time in bed (year-adjusted mean ± standard error: 7.67 ± 0.02, 7.82 ± 0.03, and 8.41 ± 0.04 h/day for 35-50, 50-65, and 65+ years, respectively, p < 0.001), while shorter time in bed was reported by non-Swiss participants (7.77 ± 0.03 vs. 7.92 ± 0.03 h/day for Swiss nationals, p < 0.001), participants with higher education (7.92 ± 0.02 for non-university vs. 7.74 ± 0.03 h/day for university, p < 0.001) or higher income (8.10 ± 0.04, 7.84 ± 0.03, and 7.70 ± 0.03 h/day for < 5,000 SFr; 5,000-9,500 SFr, and > 9,500 SFr, respectively, p < 0.001). Multivariable-adjusted polytomous logistic regression showed short and long time in bed to be positively associated with obesity and negatively associated with income. CONCLUSION: In a Swiss adult population, sleep duration as assessed by time in bed did not change significantly between 2005 and 2011. Both clinical and socioeconomic factors influence time in bed.
Project description:Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection and commonly associated with sensorineural deficit. At present, there is neither prophylaxis nor treatment during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness regarding CMV infection and its consequences in women delivering at the University of Geneva Hospitals (Geneva, Switzerland).The study consisted of a validated questionnaire completed by women in the immediate postpartum period.The questionnaire was completed by 59% (314/528) of delivering women. Only 39% (123/314) knew about CMV and 19.7% (62/314) had received information about preventive measures. Women were more aware about other congenital diseases, such as toxoplasmosis (87%); human immunodeficiency virus (99%); syphilis (85.5%); rubella (92.3%); and group B Streptococcus (63%). Factors associated with CMV awareness were Swiss nationality, high education level, employment in health care or with children, and being followed by an obstetrician. Regarding quality of information, few were aware of the main CMV complications (deafness, 25.2%; mental retardation, 34.5%). Among those informed about CMV, most (74.6%) knew about preventive measures. Among these, 82.5% thought that these were easily applicable.Most women were unaware of CMV infection and its potential risks during pregnancy. It is crucial to improve CMV information given to pregnant women to prevent the risks for the fetus/newborn.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There are no time trends in prevalence, unawareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Switzerland. The objective of this study was to analyze these trends and to determine the associated factors. METHODS/FINDINGS: Population-based study conducted in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland, between 1999 and 2009. Blood pressure was measured thrice using a standard protocol. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic or diastolic blood pressure ? 140/90 mmHg or self-reported hypertension or anti-hypertensive medication. Unawareness, untreated and uncontrolled hypertension was determined by questionnaires/blood pressure measurements. Yearly age-standardized prevalences and adjusted associations for the 1999-2003 and 2004-2009 survey periods were reported. The 10-year survey included 9,215 participants aged 35 to 74 years. Hypertension remained stable (34.4%). Hypertension unawareness decreased from 35.9% to 17.7% (P<0.001). The decrease in hypertension unawareness was not paralleled by a concomitant absolute increase in hypertension treatment, which remained low (38.2%). A larger proportion of all hypertensive participants were aware but not treated in 2004-2009 (43.7%) compared to 1999-2003 (33.1%). Uncontrolled hypertension improved from 62.2% to 40.6% between 1999 and 2009 (P = 0.02). In 1999-2003 period, factors associated with hypertension unawareness were current smoking (OR = 1.27, 95%CI, 1.02-1.59), male gender (OR = 1.56, 1.27-1.92), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.31, 1.20-1.44), and older age (OR 65-74 yrs vs 35-49 yrs = 1.56, 1.21-2.02). In 1999-2003 and 2004-2009, obesity and diabetes were negatively associated with hypertension unawareness, high education was associated with untreated hypertension (OR = 1.45, 1.12-1.88 and 1.42, 1.02-1.99, respectively), and male gender with uncontrolled hypertension (OR = 1.49, 1.03-2.17 and 1.65, 1.08-2.50, respectively). Sedentarity was associated with higher risk of hypertension and uncontrolled hypertension in 1999-2003. CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension prevalence remained stable since 1999 in the canton of Geneva. Although hypertension unawareness substantially decreased, more than half of hypertensive subjects still remained untreated or uncontrolled in 2004-2009. This study identified determinants that should guide interventions aimed at improving hypertension treatment and control.
Project description:Background:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a common healthcare-associated pathogen that remains a major public health concern. Sequence type 228 (ST228) was first described in Germany and spread to become a successful MRSA clone in several European countries. In 2000, ST228 emerged in Lausanne and has subsequently caused several large outbreaks. Here, we describe the evolutionary history of this clone and identify the genetic changes underlying its expansion in Switzerland. Materials and Methods:We aimed to understand the phylogeographic and demographic dynamics of MRSA ST228/ST111 by sequencing 530 representative isolates of this clone that were collected from 14 European countries between 1997 and 2012. Results:The phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct lineages of ST228 isolates associated with specific geographic origins. In contrast, isolates of ST111, which is a single locus variant of ST228 sharing the same spa type t041, formed a monophyletic cluster associated with multiple countries. The evidence points to a German origin of the sampled population, with the basal German lineage being characterized by spa type t001. The highly successful Swiss ST228 lineage diverged from this progenitor clone through the loss of the aminoglycoside-streptothricin resistance gene cluster and the gain of mupirocin resistance. This lineage was introduced first in Geneva and was subsequently introduced into Lausanne. Conclusion:Our results reveal the radiation of distinct lineages of MRSA ST228 from a German progenitor, as the clone spread into different European countries. In Switzerland, ST228 was introduced first in Geneva and was subsequently introduced into Lausanne.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity and obesity-related diseases represent a major public health concern. Recently, studies have substantiated the role of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption in the development of these diseases. The fine identification of populations and areas in need for public health intervention remains challenging. This study investigates the existence of spatial clustering of SSB intake frequency (SSB-IF) and body mass index (BMI), and their potential spatial overlap in a population of adults of the state of Geneva using a fine-scale geospatial approach. METHODS:We used data on self-reported SSB-IF and measured BMI from residents aged between 20 and 74 years of the state of Geneva (Switzerland) that participated in the Bus Santé cross-sectional population-based study (n?=?15,423). Getis-Ord Gi spatial indices were used to identify spatial clusters of SSB-IF and BMI in unadjusted models and models adjusted for individual covariates (education level, gender, age, nationality, and neighborhood-level median income). RESULTS:We identified a significant spatial clustering of BMI and SSB-IF. 13.2% (n?=?2034) of the participants were within clusters of higher SSB-IF and 10.7% (n?=?1651) were within clusters of lower SSB-IF. We identified overlapping clusters of SSB-IF and BMI in specific areas where 11.1% (n?=?1719) of the participants resided. After adjustment, the identified clusters persisted and were only slightly attenuated indicating that additional neighborhood-level determinants influence the spatial distribution of SSB-IF and BMI. CONCLUSIONS:Our fine-scale spatial approach allowed to identify specific populations and areas presenting higher SSB-IF and highlighted the existence of an overlap between populations and areas of higher SSB-IF associated with higher BMI. These findings could guide policymakers to develop locally tailored interventions such as targeted prevention campaigns and pave the way for precision public health delivery.
Project description:At present, very little is known about the fate and persistence of multiresistant bacteria (MRB) and their resistance genes in natural aquatic environments. Treated, but partly also untreated sewage of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland is discharged into Vidy Bay (Lake Geneva) resulting in high levels of contamination in this part of the lake. In the present work we have studied the prevalence of MRB and resistance genes in the wastewater stream of Lausanne. Samples from hospital and municipal raw sewage, treated effluent from Lausanne's wastewater treatment plant (WTP) as well as lake water and sediment samples obtained close to the WTP outlet pipe and a remote site close to a drinking water pump were evaluated for the prevalence of MRB. Selected isolates were identified (16S rRNA gene fragment sequencing) and characterized with regards to further resistances, resistance genes, and plasmids. Mostly, studies investigating this issue have relied on cultivation-based approaches. However, the limitations of these tools are well known, in particular for environmental microbial communities, and cultivation-independent molecular tools should be applied in parallel in order to take non-culturable organisms into account. Here we directly quantified the sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2 from environmental DNA extracts using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. Hospital sewage contained the highest load of MRB and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Wastewater treatment reduced the total bacterial load up to 78% but evidence for selection of extremely multiresistant strains and accumulation of resistance genes was observed. Our data clearly indicated pollution of sediments with ARGs in the vicinity of the WTP outlet. The potential of lakes as reservoirs of MRB and potential risks are discussed.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To determine the proportion of patients who received a treatment for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) among those presenting a discordant C. difficile diagnostic assay and to identify patient characteristics associated with the decision to treat CDI. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Monocentric study in a tertiary care hospital, Geneva, Switzerland. PARTICIPANTS:Among 4562 adult patients tested for C. difficile between March 2017 and March 2019, 208 patients with discordant tests' results (positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT+)/negative enzyme immunoassay (EIA-)) were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Treatment for CDI. RESULTS:CDI treatment was administered in 147 (71%) cases. In multivariate analysis, an abdominal CT scan with signs of colitis (OR 14.7; 95%?CI 1.96 to 110.8) was the only factor associated with CDI treatment. CONCLUSIONS:The proportion of NAAT+/EIA- patients who received treatment questions the contribution of the EIA for the detection of toxin A/B after NAAT to limit overtreatment. Additional studies are needed to investigate if other factors are associated with the decision to treat.
Project description:The majority of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, recovered in 2003 at the Department of Medical Microbiology in Zürich, Switzerland, belonged to major clones that are circulating worldwide. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (SCCmec-IV), harbored by half of the isolates, was found in sequence type 217 (ST 217), which is an allelic variant of epidemic MRSA-15 (designated EMRSA-15), in a new local ST 617 descending from clonal complex CC 8 and in low-level oxacillin-resistant strains of multiple genetic lineages characteristic of community-onset MRSA. SCCmec-I, SCCmec-II, and SCCmec-III were in the minority, and four MRSA isolates had complex, rearranged SCCmec elements. A novel SCCmec-N1 of approximately 30 kb, associated with a dfrA gene and a ccr 4-related recombinase complex, was identified in a large number of low-level oxacillin-resistant isolates, which descended from the successful clonal complex CC 45 and are spreading among intraveneous drug users. In contrast, the SCCmec types of oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) were of completely different composition. SCCmec type I (SCCmec-I) and SCCmec-II were more frequent than in the MRSA, while fewer contained SCCmec-IV. The other MRCNS displayed 11 different, complex patterns, suggesting frequent recombination between different SCCmec elements. With one ccr-negative exception, these strains amplified between one and three different ccr products, indicating either new varied complexes or multiple ccr loci. This suggests the presence of novel SCCmec types in MRCNS and no extensive interspecies SCCmec transfer between MRSA and MRCNS.