Diversity and succession of the intestinal bacterial community of the maturing broiler chicken.
ABSTRACT: The diversity of bacterial floras in the ilea and ceca of chickens that were fed a vegetarian corn-soy broiler diet devoid of feed additives was examined by analysis of 1,230 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Nearly 70% of sequences from the ileum were related to those of Lactobacillus, with the majority of the rest being related to Clostridiaceae (11%), Streptococcus (6.5%), and Enterococcus (6.5%). In contrast, Clostridiaceae-related sequences (65%) were the most abundant group detected in the cecum, with the other most abundant sequences being related to Fusobacterium (14%), Lactobacillus (8%), and Bacteroides (5%). Statistical analysis comparing the compositions of the different 16S rRNA libraries revealed that population succession occurred during some sampling periods. The significant differences among cecal libraries at 3 and 7 days of age, at 14 to 28 days of age, and at 49 days of age indicated that successions occurred from a transient community to one of increasing complexity as the birds aged. Similarly, the ileum had a stable bacterial community structure for birds at 7 to 21 days of age and between 21 to 28 days of age, but there was a very unique community structure at 3 and 49 days of age. It was also revealed that the composition of the ileal and cecal libraries did not significantly differ when the birds were 3 days old, and in fact during the first 14 days of age, the cecal microflora was a subset of the ileal microflora. After this time, the ileum and cecum had significantly different library compositions, suggesting that each region developed its own unique bacterial community as the bird matured.
Project description:This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with a prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on broiler performance, bacterial community structure, and phylogenetic populations of cecal contents. Bird performance data were collected, and cecal samples were extracted from randomly caught poults from each treatment group every 7 days from hatching to the age of 42 days. Weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency ratios did not differ significantly between groups. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) of the bacterial communities in birds receiving MOS-supplemented diets indicated that dietary supplementation with MOS at either of 2 levels significantly altered the bacterial community structure from that of the control group on all sample days. The phylogenetic identities of bacteria contained within the cecum were determined by constructing a 16S rRNA gene clone library. A total of 594 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the cecal contents were analyzed and compared for the three dietary treatments. The dominant bacteria of the cecum belonged to three phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria; of these, Firmicutes were the most dominant in all treatment groups. Statistical analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the compositions of the clone libraries from broilers receiving MOS-supplemented diets were, in most cases, significantly different from that of the control group. It can be concluded that in this trial MOS supplementation significantly altered the cecal bacterial community structure.
Project description:The gut microbiota play an important role in the growth and intestinal health of broilers. The present study was to investigate the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and intestinal morphology of broilers at different ages. A total of 320 one-day-old male broilers were raised in 8 replicates and fed the same corn-soybean diets for 42 D. The duodenal, jejunal, and ileal segments and their and cecal microbiota were collected on day 1, 7, 14, 21, and 42, respectively. The villous height (VH), crypt depth (CD), and their ratio of VH:CD in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum all increased (P < 0.05) with age. Caecal acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate increased (P < 0.01), but isobutyrate decreased (P < 0.001) with age. The cecum had the greatest (P < 0.001) alpha diversity of bacterial community in broilers at different ages. Beta diversities showed distinct differences in gut microbial compositions among different ages (R = 0.55, P < 0.002) and different intestinal segments (R = 0.53, P < 0.002). Lactobacillus was the most abundant genus in the duodenum (36?97%), jejunum (39?72%), and ileum (24?96%) at all ages, and in the ileum, it was positively correlated with VH (R = 0.559, P < 0.03), VH:CD (R = 0.55, P < 0.03), and acetate contents (R = 0.541, P < 0.04) but negatively correlated (R = -0.50, P < 0.05) with isobutyrate contents. Escherichia-Shigella and Salmonella dominated in the cecum of newly hatched broilers, and then the Bacteroides dominated in the cecum on day 42. In the cecum, Escherichia-Shigella was positively correlated (R = 0.577?0.662, P < 0.05) with isobutyrate contents and Salmonella negatively correlated (R = -0.539?-0.843, P < 0.05) with isovalerate, butyrate, and acetate contents. These aforementioned results indicated that the most abundant Lactobacillus from the small intestine and the most diversity of microflora community and short-chain fatty acids in the cecum might contribute to the development of intestinal structure in the whole growing period of broilers.
Project description:This study investigated the effects of xylanase supplementations with cereal-based diets on nutrient digestibility and gut microbiota of growing pigs. A total of 96 individually penned pigs (initial BW = 22.7 ± 0.65 kg) were allotted to 12 treatments and subjected to a completely randomized block design experiment. Pigs in each treatment were fed an isocaloric wheat-based or corn-based diet with or without 1 of 5 types of xylanase supplements (XA, XB, XC, XD, XE). On d 42, all piglets were euthanized to obtain ileal and cecal digesta for microbial analysis, which involved high-throughput sequencing of the V1 - V3 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Corn- and wheat-based diets differed (P < 0.05) in digestion characteristics. Dietary treatments affected the alpha- and beta-diversities of microbiota in the cecum but not in the ileum. The wheat-based diet increased (P < 0.05) alpha-diversity and clustered separately (P < 0.05) compared with the corn-based diet. Wheat-based diet also promoted the relative abundance of genus (g.) Succinivibrio while corn-based diet promoted the proportion of family (f.) Veillonellaceae in the community. Among xylanases, only XC within the wheat-based diet altered (P < 0.05) the beta-diversity of the cecal microbiota compared with control. For each cereal-based diet and compared with the controls, xylanase treatments affected (P < 0.05) the proportions of 5 bacterial taxa in the ileum (f. Peptostreptococcaceae, order [o.] Streptophyta, f. Clostridiaceae, g. Clostridium and g. Streptococcus) and 8 in the cecum (g. Lactobacillus, g. Streptococcus, class [c.] Clostridia, f. Clostridiaceae, g. Megasphaera, g. Prevotella, g. Roseburia and f. Ruminococcaceae). Network analysis showed that across diets under control treatments, Bacteroidetes was the most influential phylum promoting cooperative relationships among members of the ileum and cecum microbiota. Xylanase treatment, however, reduced the influence of Bacteroidetes and promoted a large number of hub taxa majority of which belonged to the Firmicutes phylum. To maximize the efficiency of xylanase supplementation, our data suggest that xylanase C originated from Bacillus subtilis was more effective when applied to wheat-based diets, while xylanase A originated from Fusarium verticillioides was more beneficial when applied to corn-based diets.
Project description:In poultry production, birds are raised under intensive conditions, which can enable rapid spread of infections, with Clostridium perfringens-caused necrotic enteritis (NE) being one of the most devastating for the industry. The current investigation was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Bacillus subtilis PB6 probiotic supplementation on bird's post NE recovery, based on chicken performance, cecal microbiota composition, ileum histomorphometric measurements, and short-chain fatty acid production in the cecum of the birds that were challenged with NE mid-production. Birds were split into four groups, including a negative control, positive control challenged with C. perfringens, group supplemented with B. subtilis probiotic, and NE challenged birds supplemented with B. subtilis probiotic. Following NE challenge birds were allowed to reach the end of production time at 40 days, and samples were collected to estimate if probiotic supplementation resulted in better post-NE recovery. Intestinal lesion score across the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum indicated that at the end of production timeline NE challenged birds supplemented with B. subtilis probiotic had lower intestinal lesion scores compared to NE challenged birds without probiotic supplementation implying improved recovery. Probiotic supplementation improved performance of NE challenged birds only in the post-NE recovery stage. NE challenged birds had a significant increase in cecal propionic acid, which was not observed in NE challenged birds supplemented with B.subtilus. Both B. subtilis supplemented groups (challenged and unchanged) were characterized by a significant rise in cecal acetic and butyric acid. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis supplementation can assist the birds in dealing with NE outbreak and long term recovery.
Project description:Little is known about the dynamics of early ecological succession during experimental conventionalization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract; thus, we measured changes in bacterial communities over time, at two different mucosal sites (cecum and jejunum), with germfree C57BL/6 mice as the recipients of cecal contents (input community) from a C57BL/6 donor mouse. Bacterial communities were monitored using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries from the cecum and jejunum and analyzed by a variety of ecological metrics. Bacterial communities, at day 1 postconventionalization, in the cecum and jejunum had lower diversity and were distinct from the input community (dominated by either Escherichia or Bacteroides). However, by days 7 and 21, the recipient communities had become significantly diverse and the cecal communities resembled those of the donor and donor littermates, confirming that transfer of cecal contents results in reassembly of the community in the cecum 7 to 21 days later. However, bacterial communities in the recipient jejunum displayed significant structural heterogeneity compared to each other or the donor inoculum or the donor littermates, suggesting that the bacterial community of the jejunum is more dynamic during the first 21 days of conventionalization. This report demonstrates that (i) mature input communities do not simply reassemble at mucosal sites during conventionalization (they first transform into a "pioneering" community and over time take on the appearance, in membership and structure, of the original input community) and (ii) the specific mucosal environment plays a role in shaping the community.
Project description:Gut microbiota contributes to intestinal and immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Distribution of the gut microbiota differs according to the location in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the microbiota properties change with age, evidence for the regional difference of gut microbiota has been restricted to the young. The aim of this study is to compare the gut microbiota between terminal ileum and cecum of old rats.We analyzed gut microbiome of luminal contents from ileum and cecum of 74-week-old and 2-year-old rats (corresponding to 60-year and 80-year-old of human age) by metagenome sequencing of 16S rRNA.Inter-individual variation (beta diversity) of microbiota was higher in ileum than in cecum. Conversely, alpha diversity of microbiota composition was higher in cecum than in ileum. Lactobacillaceae were more abundant in ileum compared to cecum while Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were more enriched in cecum. The proportions of Deltaproteobacteria were increased in cecal microbiota of 2-year-old rats compared to 74-week-old rats.Major regional distinctions of microbiota between ileum and cecum of old rats appear consistent with those of young rats. Age-related alterations of gut microbiota in old rats seem to occur in minor compositions.
Project description:In modern swine husbandry systems, antibiotics have been used as growth promoters for piglets during suckling or weaning period. However, while early colonization of intestinal microbiota has been regarded crucial for the host's later life performance and well-being, little is known about the impact of antibiotics on intestinal microbiota in suckling piglets. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of early antibiotics exposure on gut microbiota and microbial metabolism of suckling piglets. Sixteen litters of suckling piglets were fed a creep feed diet with (Antibiotic) or without (Control) antibiotics from postnatal days 7-23 (n = 8). The ileal and cecal digesta were obtained for microbial composition and microbial metabolites analysis. The results showed that the antibiotics significantly altered the bacterial community composition by decreasing (P < 0.05) the diversity and richness in the ileum. The antibiotics significantly reduced the abundance of Lactobacillus in both the ileum and cecum, increased the abundance of Streptococcus, unclassified Enterococcaceae, unclassified Fusobacteriales, and Corynebacterium in the ileum, and the abundance of unclassified Ruminococcaceae and unclassified Erysipelotrichaceae in the cecum. The antibiotics decreased (P < 0.05) ileal lactate concentration and cecal concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). But the antibiotics enhanced protein fermentation (P < 0.05) in the ileum and cecum, as ileal concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine, and cecal concentrations of isobutyrate, isovalerate, putrescine, cadaverine, spermine, and spermidine were significantly increased (P < 0.05). These results indicated that early antibiotics exposure significantly altered the microbial composition of suckling piglets toward a vulnerable and unhealthy gut environment. The findings provide a new insight on the antibiotics impact on neonates and may provide new framework for designing alternatives to the antibiotics toward a healthy practice for suckling piglets.
Project description:Avian ceca, a pair of blind sacs arising from the junction of the ileum and colon, are homologous to the cecum in mammals. Cecal size is hypothesized to depend on dietary proclivities and pressures, with faunivorous species having short ceca, whereas herbivorous species have long ceca. Previous tests of this hypothesis, however, did not account for phylogenetic pseudoreplication among closely related taxa. We collated published data on cecal length, dietary category, flying ability, and body mass from 155 avian taxa. Character states were mapped onto a phylogenetic framework, and the permutation tail probability test was used to detect phylogenetic signal in each character. Phylogenetic signal is significant among the characters. As with the cecoappendicular complex in mammals, closely-related birds tend to have similar cecal length. To account for phylogenetic pseudoreplication, we performed phylogenetic generalized least squares regression on cecal length and body mass with dietary category, superordinal-level clade, and flying ability as cofactors. The best-fitting regression model supports the dietary hypothesis for the avian cecum. Among sampled birds of comparable body mass, mean cecal length is significantly longer in herbivorous species than in carnivorous ones (p = 0.008), presumably allowing the extraction of nutrients without the burden of fermenting bulky masses of dietary fiber. Exceptions to this trend, however, suggest that avian ceca are functionally complex and may have additional roles in water balance and nitrogen recycling.
Project description:We investigated how the microbiota in the ileum and cecum of broiler chickens fed a diet of low calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) and prebiotic fructooligosaccharides (FOS) supplements changed over a 3 weeks period. Three dietary treatments were randomly assigned to four replicate cages of five birds each, including: positive control (PC), a wheat-corn-soybean meal-based diet; negative control (NC), as PC with 0.2% reduced Ca and aP; and NC + FOS, as NC supplemented with 0.5% of FOS. Ileal and cecal digesta were sampled from each replicate (n = 4) on d21 and processed for 16S rRNA gene amplicon (V4 region) sequencing using Illumina platform. Statistical differences were observed in the microbiome by GI location as determined by 2-way ANOVA and Permutational MANOVA. On average, 24,216 sequence reads per sample were generated resulting in 800 and 1,280 operational taxonomic units in the ileal and cecal digesta, respectively. Difference (P < 0.0001) on alpha diversity and abundances of several phyla was observed between ileal and cecal digesta. ß-diversity was different (P < 0.05) between each treatment groups in the ileum but not in the cecum. In the cecum, species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and the number of observed species were higher in PC compared to NC + FOS (P < 0.05). Several phyla, including Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, had significantly different abundance in the ileal and cecal digesta (P < 0.05). In the ileal digesta, positive correlation were observed between Salinibacterium and Lysobacter and PC diet. Blautia, Faecalibacterium and Pseudomonas and the NC diet and Lactobacillus and Escherichia and the NC + FOS diet. In the cecal digesta, Butyrivibrio, and Allobaculum were positively correlated to PC. Although, Clostridium and Anaerotruncus were positively correlated to NC + FOS, they showed negative correlation to PC and NC. The study concludes that dietary Ca and aP level and FOS supplementation alters ileal microbiota of the broiler chickens.
Project description:An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1-21 days and 61.0% during 22-42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers.