The nuclear orphan receptor COUP-TFII plays an essential role in adipogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and energy metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue development and function play a central role in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of metabolic syndromes. Here, we show that chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) plays a pivotal role in adipogenesis and energy homeostasis. COUP-TFII is expressed in the early stages of white adipocyte development. COUP-TFII heterozygous mice (COUP-TFII(+/-)) have much less white adipose tissue (WAT) than wild-type mice (COUP-TFII(+/+)). COUP-TFII(+/-) mice display a decreased expression of key regulators for WAT development. Knockdown COUP-TFII in 3T3-L1 cells resulted in an increased expression of Wnt10b, while chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Wnt10b is a direct target of COUP-TFII. Moreover, COUP-TFII(+/-) mice have increased mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT, and COUP-TFII(+/-) mice have improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. Thus, COUP-TFII regulates adipogenesis by regulating the key molecules in adipocyte development and can serve as a target for regulating energy metabolism.
Project description:The orphan nuclear receptor chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII; Nr2f2) is expressed in adipose tissue in vivo and declines during differentiation. Overexpression of COUP-TFII prevents adipogenesis, whereas shRNA-mediated reduction of COUP-TFII promotes differentiation, as shown by increased lipid accumulation and elevated expression of fat cell marker proteins. Furthermore, reduction of COUP-TFII allows uncommitted fibroblasts to be differentiated into fat cells. COUP-TFII represses the expression of a number of proadipogenic factors in adipocytes, with direct action noted at the CAAT enhancer-binding protein alpha promoter. We show that COUP-TFII acts downstream of hedgehog signaling and is required for the full antiadipogenic effect of this pathway. This effect is mediated in part by interaction with GATA factors. COUP-TFII and GATA2 are physically associated and repress target gene expression in an additive manner. Taken together, our data demonstrate that COUP-TFII represents an endogenous suppressor of adipogenesis, linking antiadipogenic extracellular signals to the core transcriptional cascade.
Project description:The in vivo role of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the development and function of adipose tissue, especially brown adipose tissue (BAT), is not well understood. Here, we aimed to assess the effect of mTOR (also known as Mtor) knockout on adipose tissues and systemic energy metabolism.We generated adipocyte-specific mTOR-knockout mice (Adipoq-mTOR) by crossing adiponectin-Cre (Adipoq-Cre) mice with mTOR (flox/flox) mice. The mice were then subjected to morphological, physiological (indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests) and gene expression analyses to determine the role of mTOR in adipose tissues.We provide in vivo evidence that mTOR is essential for adipose tissue development and growth. Deletion of mTOR decreased the mass of both BAT and white adipose tissues (WAT) and induced browning of WAT. In addition, ablation of mTOR in adipose tissues caused insulin resistance and fatty liver in the Adipoq-mTOR mice. Furthermore, mTOR was required for adipocyte differentiation in vivo and activation of PPAR? ameliorated the differentiation deficiency of the mTOR-null adipocytes.Our findings demonstrate that mTOR is a critical regulator of adipogenesis and systemic energy metabolism. Our study provides key insights into the role of mTOR in adipose tissues; such knowledge may facilitate the development of novel strategies with which to treat obesity and related metabolic diseases.
Project description:The nuclear receptor Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII) is an important coordinator of glucose homeostasis through its function in different organs such as the endocrine pancreas, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver. Recently we have demonstrated that COUP-TFII expression in the hypothalamus is restricted to a subpopulation of neurons expressing the steroidogenic factor 1 transcription factor, known to play a crucial role in glucose homeostasis. To understand the functional significance of COUP-TFII expression in the steroidogenic factor 1 neurons, we generated hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus-specific COUP-TFII KO mice using the cyclization recombination/locus of X-overP1 technology. The heterozygous mutant mice display insulin hypersensitivity and a leaner phenotype associated with increased energy expenditure and similar food intake. These mutant mice also present a defective counterregulation to hypoglycemia with altered glucagon secretion. Moreover, the mutant mice are more likely to develop hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in response to recurrent hypoglycemic or glucopenic events. Therefore, COUP-TFII expression levels in the ventromedial nucleus are keys in the ability to resist the onset of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure.
Project description:Objective:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have multilineage differentiation potential, which allows them to progress to osteogenesis, adipogenesis, and chondrogenesis. An imbalance of differentiation between osteogenesis and adipogenesis will result in pathologic conditions inside the bone. This type of imbalance is also one of the pathological findings in osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) was previously reported to mediate the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. This study investigated the expression of the osteogenesis regulator Runx2, osteocalcin, the adipogenesis regulator PPAR?, and COUP-TFII in the femoral head tissue harvested from ONFH patients, and characterized the effect of COUP-TFII on the differentiation of primary BMSCs. Methods:Thirty patients with ONFH were recruited and separated into 3 groups: the trauma-, steroid- and alcohol-induced ONFH groups (10 patients each). Bone specimens were harvested from patients who underwent hip arthroplasty, and another 10 specimens were harvested from femoral neck fracture patients as the control group. Expression of the osteogenesis regulator Runx2, osteocalcin, the adipogenesis regulator PPAR?, C/EBP-?, and COUP-TFII was analyzed by Western blotting. Primary bone marrow mesenchymal cells were harvested from ONFH cells treated with COUP-TFII RNA interference to evaluate the effect of COUP-TFII on MSCs. Results:ONFH patients had significantly increased expression of the adipogenesis regulator PPAR? and C/EBP-? and decreased expression of the osteogenesis regulator osteocalcin. ONFH bone tissue also revealed higher COUP-TFII expression. Immunohistochemical staining displayed strong COUP-TFII immunoreactivity adjacent to osteonecrotic trabecular bone. Increased COUP-TFII expression in the bone tissue correlated with increased PPAR? and decreased osteocalcin expression. Knockdown of COUP-TFII with siRNA in BMSCs reduced adipogenesis and increased osteogenesis in mesenchymal cells. Conclusion:Increased COUP-TFII expression mediates the imbalance of BMSC differentiation and progression to ONFH in patients. This study might reveal a new target in the treatment of ONFH.
Project description:Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of the cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress. Our previous studies showed that Nrf2 plays a critical role in adipogenesis by regulating expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. To determine the role of Nrf2 in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, the incidence of metabolic syndrome was assessed in whole-body or adipocyte-specific Nrf2-knockout mice on a leptin-deficient ob/ob background, a model with an extremely positive energy balance. On the ob/ob background, ablation of Nrf2, globally or specifically in adipocytes, led to reduced white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, but resulted in an even more severe metabolic syndrome with aggravated insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Compared with wild-type mice, WAT of ob/ob mice expressed substantially higher levels of many genes related to antioxidant response, inflammation, adipogenesis, lipogenesis, glucose uptake, and lipid transport. Absence of Nrf2 in WAT resulted in reduced expression of most of these factors at mRNA or protein levels. Our findings support a novel role for Nrf2 in regulating adipose development and function, by which Nrf2 controls the capacity of WAT expansion and insulin sensitivity and maintains glucose and lipid homeostasis.
Project description:Beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have thermogenic capacity to orchestrate substantial energy metabolism and counteract obesity. However, adipocyte-derived signals that act on progenitor cells to control beige adipogenesis remain poorly defined. Here, we show that adipose-specific depletion of Raptor, a key component of mTORC1, promoted beige adipogenesis through prostaglandins (PGs) synthesized by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, Raptor-deficient mice were resistant to diet-induced obesity and COX-2 downregulation. Mechanistically, mTORC1 suppressed COX-2 by phosphorylation of CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) and subsequent dissociation of CREB to cox-2 promoter in adipocytes. PG treatment stimulated PKA and promoted differentiation of progenitor cells to beige adipocytes in culture. Ultimately, we show that pharmacological inhibition or suppression of COX-2 attenuated mTORC1 inhibition-induced thermogenic gene expression in inguinal WAT in vivo and in vitro. Our study identifies adipocyte-derived PGs as key regulators of white adipocyte browning, which occurs through mTORC1 and CRTC2.
Project description:White adipose tissue (WAT) expansion in obesity occurs through enlargement of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and through formation of new adipocytes (adipogenesis). Adipogenesis results in WAT hyperplasia, smaller adipocytes and a metabolically more favourable form of obesity. How obesogenic WAT hyperplasia is induced remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we show that the mechanosensitive cationic channel Piezo1 mediates diet-induced adipogenesis. Mice lacking Piezo1 in mature adipocytes demonstrated defective differentiation of preadipocyte into mature adipocytes when fed a high fat diet (HFD) resulting in larger adipocytes, increased WAT inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity. Opening of Piezo1 in mature adipocytes causes the release of the adipogenic fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1), which induces adipocyte precursor differentiation through activation of the FGF-receptor-1. These data identify a central feed-back mechanism by which mature adipocytes control adipogenesis during the development of obesity and suggest Piezo1-mediated adipocyte mechano-signalling as a mechanism to modulate obesity and its metabolic consequences.
Project description:The recent discovery of functional brown adipocytes in adult humans illuminates the potential of these cells in the treatment of obesity and its associated diseases. In rodents, brown adipocyte-like cells are known to be recruited in white adipose tissue (WAT) by cold exposure or ?-adrenergic stimulation, but the molecular machinery underlying this phenomenon is not fully understood. Here, we show that inducible brown adipogenesis is mediated by the microRNA miR-196a. We found that miR-196a suppresses the expression of the white-fat gene Hoxc8 post-transcriptionally during the brown adipogenesis of white fat progenitor cells. In mice, miR-196a is induced in the WAT-progenitor cells after cold exposure or ?-adrenergic stimulation. The fat-specific forced expression of miR-196a in mice induces the recruitment of brown adipocyte-like cells in WAT. The miR-196a transgenic mice exhibit enhanced energy expenditure and resistance to obesity, indicating the induced brown adipocyte-like cells are metabolically functional. Mechanistically, Hoxc8 targets and represses C/EBP?, a master switch of brown-fat gene program, in cooperation with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) through the C/EBP? 3' regulatory sequence. Thus, miR-196a induces functional brown adipocytes in WAT through the suppression of Hoxc8, which functions as a gatekeeper of the inducible brown adipogenesis. The miR-196a-Hoxc8-C/EBP? signaling pathway may be a therapeutic target for inducing brown adipogenesis to combat obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Excessive accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is the defining characteristic of obesity. WAT mass is composed primarily of mature adipocytes, which are generated through the proliferation and differentiation of adipocyte precursors (APs). Although the production of new adipocytes contributes to WAT growth in obesity, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying adipogenesis in vivo. Here, we show that high-fat diet feeding in mice rapidly and transiently induces proliferation of APs within WAT to produce new adipocytes. Importantly, the activation of adipogenesis is specific to the perigonadal visceral depot in male mice, consistent with the patterns of obesogenic WAT growth observed in humans. Furthermore, we find that in multiple models of obesity, the activation of APs is dependent on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT2 pathway; however, the development of WAT does not require AKT2. These data indicate that developmental and obesogenic adipogenesis are regulated through distinct molecular mechanisms.
Project description:Ucp3 is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane with a role in lipid metabolism preventing deleterious effects of fatty acids in states of high lipid oxidation. Ucp3 is expressed in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and controlled by a transcription factor complex including PPARalpha, MyoD and the histone acetyltransferase p300. Several studies have demonstrated interaction of these factors with chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (Coup-TFII). This nuclear receptor is involved in organogenesis and other developmental processes including skeletal muscle development, but also co-regulates a number of metabolic genes. In this study we in silico analyzed the upstream region of Ucp3 of the Djungarian hamster Phodopus sungorus and identified several putative response elements for Coup-TFII. We therefore investigated whether Coup-TFII is a further player in the transcriptional control of the Ucp3 gene in rodents.By quantitative PCR we demonstrated a positive correlation of Coup-TFII and Ucp3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue in response to food deprivation and cold exposure, respectively. In reporter gene assays Coup-TFII enhanced transactivation of the Ucp3 promoter conveyed by MyoD, PPARalpha, RXRalpha and/or p300. Using deletions and mutated constructs, we identified a Coup-TFII enhancer element 816-840 bp upstream of the transcriptional start site. Binding of Coup-TFII to this upstream enhancer was confirmed in electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays.Transcriptional regulation of the Coup-TFII gene in response to starvation and cold exposure seems to be the regulatory mechanism of Ucp3 mRNA expression in brown adipose and skeletal muscle tissue determining the final appropriate rate of transcript synthesis. These findings add a crucial component to the complex transcriptional machinery controlling expression of Ucp3. Given the substantial evidence for a function of Ucp3 in lipid metabolism, Coup-TFII may not only be a negative regulator of glucose responsive genes but also transactivate genes involved in lipid metabolism.